Developmental Disabilities

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<ul><li> 1. Definition of Developmental Disabilities by The Federal Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill or Rights Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-402) A Developmental Disability is a severe, chronic disability that:is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or combination of mental and physical impairments; is manifested before the person attains age 22; is likely to continue indefinitely; results in the substantial functional limitations in 3 or more of the following areas of major life activity: self-care receptive and expressive language learning mobility self-direction capacity for independent living economic self-sufficiency reflects the individuals need for a combination and sequence of special interdisciplinary or generic services, individualized support, and other forms of assistance that are lifelong or of extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated.</li></ul><p> 2. Definition of Developmental Disabilities by New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities(1999) Developmental disabilities are a variety of conditions that become apparent during childhood and cause mental or physical limitation.These conditions include pervasive developmental disorders such asautism,cerebral palsy,epilepsy,mental retardation,andother neurological impairmentsThere are many causes of developmental disabilities that can occur before, during or after birth.Those occurring before birth include genetic problems, poor prenatal care, or exposure of the fetus to toxins including drugs and alcohol.Difficulties during birth, such as restricted oxygen supply to the infant, or accidents after birth can also cause traumatic brain injury resulting in developmental disabilities.Longer-term postnatal causes include malnutrition and social deprivation. 3. DSM IV: Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence Mental Retardation (Coded on Axis II) Learning Disorders Motor Skills Disorder Communication Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorders Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood Tic Disorders Elimination Disorders 4. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Retardation (Coded on Axis II) A. Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning: an IQ of approximately 70 or below on an individually administered IQ test (for infants, a clinical judgment of significantly subaverage intellectual functioning). B. Concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning (i.e., theperson's effectiveness in meeting the standards expected for his or her age by his or her cultural group) in at least two of the following areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety. C. The onset is before age 18 years. Codebased on degree of severity reflecting level of intellectual impairment: 317 Mild Mental Retardation:IQ level 50-55 to approximately 70 318.0 Moderate Mental Retardation:IQ level 35-40 to 50-55 318.1 Severe Mental Retardation:IQ level 20-25 to 35-40 318.2 Profound Mental Retardation:IQ level below 20 or 25 319 Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified: when there is strong presumption of Mental Retardation but the person's intelligence is untestable by standard tests 5. </p> <ul><li>DSM IV Diagnostic criteria for Learning Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals demonstrate abilities below the level that would be expected given their age and grade level in school based upon an arbitrary gap, they may be diagnosed with this mental disorder which should be further specified according to the particular academic function affected:</li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder of Written Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disorder NOS </li></ul><p> 6. DSM IV Diagnostic criteria for Learning Disorder Mathematics Disorder: A. Mathematical ability, as measured by individually administered standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the person's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. B. The disturbance in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require mathematical ability. C. If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in mathematical ability are in excess of those usually associated with it. Coding note: If a general medical (e.g., neurological) condition or sensory deficit is present, code the condition onAxis III . 7. DSM IV: Motor Skills DisorderDevelopmental Coordination Disorder When a child's motor coordination falls substantially below that which would be expected, and this cannot be accounted for by a known physical illness or injury, this mental disorder may be diagnosed. A. Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination is substantially below that expected given the person's chronological age and measured intelligence. This may be manifested by marked delays in achieving motor milestones (e.g., walking, crawling, sitting), dropping things, "clumsiness," poor performance in sports, or poor handwriting. B. The disturbance in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living. C. The disturbance is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, or muscular dystrophy) and does not meet criteria for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder. D. If Mental Retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it. Coding note: If a general medical (e.g., neurological) condition or sensory deficit is present, code the condition onAxis III . 8. </p> <ul><li>DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Communication Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>These mental disorders of childhood affect listening, language and speech. </li></ul><ul><li>These include the following specific disorders: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Expressive Language Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Phonological Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Stuttering </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Communication Disorder NOS </li></ul></li></ul><p> 9. </p> <ul><li>DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Communication Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive Language Disorder: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>The scores obtained from standardized individually administered measures of expressive language development are substantially below those obtained from standardized measures of both nonverbal intellectual capacity and receptive language development. The disturbance may be manifest clinically by symptoms that include having a markedly limited vocabulary, making errors in tense, or having difficulty recalling words or producing sentences with developmentally appropriate length or complexity. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>B. The difficulties with expressive language interfere with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>C. Criteria are not met forMixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorderor aPervasive Developmental Disorders . </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>D. IfMental Retardation , a speech-motor or sensory deficit, or environmental deprivation is present, the language difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with these problems. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Coding note: If a speech-motor or sensory deficit or a neurological condition is present, code the condition onAxis III . </li></ul></li></ul><p> 10. </p> <ul><li>DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Severe impairment pervades broad areas of social and psychological development in children with these mental disorders . </li></ul><ul><li>These include the following specific disorders: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Autistic Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Aspergers Disorder</li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Childhood Disintegrative Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Retts Disorder </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS </li></ul></li></ul><p> 11. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autistic Disorder : In children with thisPervasive Developmental Disorderthere is substantial delay in communication and social interaction associated with development of "restricted, repetitive and stereotyped" behavior, interests, and activities.A. A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2), and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3): (1) qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (a) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction (b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level (c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity 12. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autistic Disorder : (2) qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) (b) in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others (c) stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language (d) lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level 13. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autistic Disorder : (3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus (b) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals (c) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) (d) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects B. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:(1) social interaction,(2) language as used in social communication, or(3) symbolic or imaginative play. C. The disturbance is not better accounted for byRett'sDisorderorChildhood Disintegrative Disorder . 14. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Aspergers Disorder : In children with this pervasive developmental disorder language, curiosity, and cognitive development proceed normally while there is substantial delay in social interaction and "development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities."A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (1) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction (2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level (3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people) (4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity 15. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Aspergers Disorder : B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following: (1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus (2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals (3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) (4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects 16. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Aspergers Disorder : C. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years). E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood. F. Criteria are not met for another specificPervasive Developmental DisorderorSchizophrenia 17. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined type Predominantly Inattentive Type Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder Disruptive Behavior Disorder 18. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders A. Either (1) or (2): (1)inattention:six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: (a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities (b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school work, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) (e) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) (g) often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools) (h) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli (i) is often forgetful in daily activities 19. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (2)hyperactivity-impulsivity:six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Hyperactivity (a) often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat (b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected (c) often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) (d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly (e) is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" (f) often talks excessively 20. DSM IV Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Impulsivity (g) often blurts out answers before questions have been completed (h) often has difficulty awaiting turn (i) often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games) B. Some hyperactive-im...</p>

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