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  • 1 2

    1- Cosmopolites sordidus 2- toppling over of weevil infested plants

  • Processus itératif dans la conception des systèmes

    1) Conventionel

    2) Systèmes simples banane + plantes de couverture

    3) Jachères ou rotations améliorantes + plantes de

    couvertures

    4) = 3 + gestion organique

    Augmentation de la biodiversité

    P e

    rf o

    rm an

    ce s

    d e

    s sy

    st è

    m e

    s (R

    d t,

    M ar

    ge N

    et te

    … )

  • Fallow to clean nematodes from soil

    Direct plantation under mulch to avoid soil tillage

    (crédit : R. Achard)

    (crédit : JM Risède)

  • Stylosanthes + bananiers à T+2,5m (Petit Canal, Guadeloupe)

  • Centrosema pascuorum , zones sur pente (Capesterre, Guadeloupe)

  • Bacterivore

    Fongivore

    Omnivores

    Carnivores

    -1

    -0,75

    -0,5

    -0,25

    0

    0,25

    0,5

    0,75

    1

    -1 -0,75 -0,5 -0,25 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1

    F 2 ( 3 1 ,6

    5 %

    )

    F1 (67,37 %)

    F1 and F2 (99,02 %)

    Trophic group

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250 number Ind. 100 g-1 dry soil

    Bare soil

    Neonotonia

    Paspalum

    Pueraria

    Stylosanthes

    Spontaneous

    AFD analysis based on abundance of trophic group

    Root-hair-feeding

    PFN

     Cover crops were favorable to all trophic group (except PFN)  Higher abundance of Ca and Om respectively with legumes and Paspalum cover.

  • Carnivores & omnivores

    BS SC PN NW PP SG

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    Bare Spontaneous Paspalum eonotonia Pueraria Stylosanthes soil

    Nématodes phytoparasites

    Sol nu SC PN NW PP SG

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    A b o

    n d

    a n

    c e

    (n

    . p o

    u r

    1 0 0

    g d

    e r

    a c in

    e s )

    Regulation?

    Abundance Nb. / 100g soil

    Abundance Nb. / 100g soil

    Bare Spontaneous Paspalum eonotonia Pueraria Stylosanthes soil

  • 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20 Kg of active ingredient/ ha / year

    In Martinique, we have reduced as 70% of pesticides between 1996 and 2010

  • Nematodes Weevils Leaf spot

    Diseases Weeds

    Decision

    making

    tool

    Biotest Biotest (trapping) Forecasting

    strategy

    Cultural

    practices

    - fallow

    - rotation

    - vitroplantlet

    set of

    practices

    « Cover » and

    associated crops

    Biological

    Pheromone

    trapping

    Enthomopathogen

    nematodes

    biopesticide

    mixture

    « lixiviado»

    Varietal

    - Clonal

    selection

    -New hybrids

    New hybrids

    Management

    Target

    How to manage complexity ?

  • 1972

    1990

    1995

    1979

    1977

    1980

    1979 1981

    2004

    1998

    1996

    1999

    1981

    2004

    1991

    1998

    2003

    2010

    2005

    2009

    2008

    1975

    1990

    1986

    2012

  • Transfer of the method of Management using forecasting system developed in Guadeloupe and Martinique

     Use of the largest range of fungicides, to be used in rotation  chosen from resistance of SD strain evaluation

     + mineral oil + new products

     Excellence of preparation/realization of treatments

    Control of the disease with an optimized number of applications, with strictly selected products, applied in optimal conditions

  • Biological forecasting

  • Leaves cutting and optimal management of the plant growth

    -Diminution of the inoculum by suppression of foliar necroses - Optimal management of the banana plantation(fertilization, irrigation) to maintain a high Rythme of Foliar Emission to compensate for the loss of foliar surface - Leaf cutting: destruction of the necrosed parts, including after flowering to limit impacts on the green life duration

     Impact on leaf surface  Impact on yield  Impact on green life duration

    Alternative to the chemical control of BLSD

  • Perspectives:

    • Evaluation of 4 hybrids CIRAD 916, 918, 920 et 924,

    • 918 more sweety (local market ?), 920 more acid (regional market ?), 916 most proach than Cavendish

    916

    920

    918 924 920

  • Estimated total pesticide quantities used in dessert bananas in some countries, including European Community areas (2006-2007)

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    K g

    a .i

    ./ H

    a /y

    e a

    r

    Herbicides

    Insect/nematicides

    Others fungicides (mainly systemic)

    Fungicides contact

    Average annual rainfall

    3400 mm

    3300 mm

    3000 mm

    2800 mm

    2600 mm

    1300 mm

    1500 mm

    250 mm

    2500 mm

    1100 mm

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD) no

    Sigatoka disease

    BLSD yellow Sigatoka disease

    Resistance to systemic fongicides No major resistance to systemic fongicides

  • LCA -> contribution to climat change equivalent g CO2 par kg de banane

    Average Total: 730 g CO2/kg

    10 1%

    40 6%

    200 27%

    100 14%

    280 38%

    100 14%

    Matériel végétal (VP)

    Administration

    Culture

    Conditionnement + port de départ

    Transport Europe

    Murisserie + Distribution

    Main causes: Nitrogen fertilizers and Energie

  • Thank you for your attention

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