diet and cancer: antioxidant rich foods

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Diet and Cancer: Antioxidant Rich Foods. What are antioxidants?. An antioxidant can be a vitamin, mineral, or phytochemical Antioxidants neutralize damage to the body’s cells and are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, beans and nuts. Why do our bodies need antioxidants?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Diet and Cancer:Antioxidant Rich Foods

  • What are antioxidants?An antioxidant can be a vitamin, mineral, or phytochemicalAntioxidants neutralize damage to the bodys cells and are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, beans and nuts.

  • Why do our bodies need antioxidants? Antioxidants defend the bodys cells against molecules called free radicalsTo achieve stability, a free radical scavenges electrons from other molecules, which disrupts their stability in turnThis process can start a chemical chain reaction that produces even more free radicals that inflict damage on healthy cells

  • How do antioxidants work?Antioxidants can help offset damage caused by free radicalsLimit free radical formationDestroy free radicalsStimulate antioxidant enzyme activity

  • The ControversyIt is not fully understood at this time if large doses of antioxidants:Protect cancer cells from the intended effects of chemo or radiation therapyAct to enhance the effects of chemo or radiation therapyAct as pro-oxidants causing more damage than protection of our healthy cells

  • The Evidence So FarA number of studies point to an association between antioxidants and a reduced cancer risk:Vitamin C may help reduce the risk of stomach cancerVitamin E may help lower the incidence of prostate and colon cancersSelenium may reduce risk for prostate and lung cancers

  • General conclusion People who eat a mostly plant-based diet that contains plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans and moderate amounts of nuts have lower cancer risk.

  • Rely on whole foodsA diet rich in fruits and vegetables should provide all the antioxidants we need for good health and lower cancer riskChoose brightly colored vegetables and fruits, along with whole grains and beansEating a large variety everyday may lower cancer risk by at least 20 percent

  • Foods that Fight CancerBeans Berries Cruciferous Vegetables Dark Green Leafy Vegetables Flaxseed Garlic Grapes and Grape Juice Green Tea Soy Tomatoes Whole Grains

  • BerriesGood source of Vitamin C: protect against cancer of the esophagus Fiber: decrease risk of colorectal cancer

    Ellagic acid all berries, particularly strawberries and raspberriesPrevent cancers of the skin, bladder, lung, esophagus and breast

    BlueberriesAnthocyanosides - believed are among the most potent antioxidants yet discovered

  • Dark Green Leafy VegetablesSpinach, kale, romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, mustard greens, collard greens, chicory and Swiss chard Excellent sources of fiber, folate and a wide range of carotenoids

    CarotenoidsProbably protect against cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx Can inhibit the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells, skin cancer cells, lung and stomach cancer

    FolateProbable evidence for decrease risk of pancreatic cancer

    Dietary fiberProbably reduce ones chances of developing colorectal cancer

  • Grapes and Grape JuiceRich sources of resveratrol, a specific type of natural plant chemical Skin of the grape contains the most

    Red and purple grapes contain significantly more resveratrol than green grapes

    Ability to slow the growth of cancer cells and inhibit the formation of tumors in lymph, liver, stomach and breast cells

    Blocked the development of skin, breast and leukemia cancers at all three stages of the disease

  • Final thought No single food or food substances can protect you against cancer. But scientists believe that the right combination of foods in a predominantly plant-based diet caneating vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans will lower your risk of developing the disease.

    There is growing evidence that antioxidants may protect the bodys cells from cell damage that can lead to cancer. An antioxidant can be a vitamin, mineral, or phytochemical. Antioxidants neutralize damage to the bodys cells and are naturally found in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, beans and nuts. Over the past two decades, scientists have studied antioxidants like vitamins C and E. Beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, resveratrol, and selenium are other antioxidants that are also being investigated (1).Antioxidants defend the bodys cells against molecules called free radicals. Cellular activities that keep us alive also produce destructive oxygen molecules in the highly reactive, unstable form of free radicals. Free radicals possess an unpaired, or free electron. Pairing this lone electron with another gives the molecule stability. To achieve stability, a free radical scavenges electrons from other molecules, which disrupts their stability in turn. Too many free radicals can inflict damage on healthy cells and research now implicates excess free radicals in a number of diseases, including cancer (1).Antioxidants can help offset damage caused by free radicals and function in a variety of ways. They can limit free radical formation, destroy free radicals, and stimulate antioxidant enzyme activity. Many scientists believe that a plentiful supply of antioxidants, carrying out different protective roles, may help defend against the cell changes that can lead to cancer (1).There is currently much controversy surrounding the pros and cons of taking anti-oxidants. It is not fully understood at this time if large doses of antioxidants may protect cancer cells from the intended effects from chemo or radiation therapy, act to enhance the effects, or act as pro-oxidants causing more damage than protection of our healthy cells. It is highly likely to be very individualistic (2).A number of studies point to an association between antioxidants and reduced cancer risk. However, researchers are becoming more convinced that cancer protection does not come from any single antioxidant. It will take more studies to draw firm conclusions about specific antioxidants (1). Research suggests Vitamin C may help reduce the risk of stomach cancer, Vitamin E may help lower the incidence of prostate and colon cancers and selenium may reduce the risk for prostate and lung cancers.Evidence has shown a general conclusion that is quite clear: People who eat a mostly plant-based diet that contains plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans and moderate amounts of nuts have lower cancer risk (1).

    Experts at the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) believe that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables such as citrus, tomatoes, peppers, berries, grapes, broccoli, cabbage, and greens, like spinach and kale, should provide all the antioxidants we need for good health and lower cancer risk. The simplest advice is to eat a diet that is mostly brightly colored vegetables and fruit, along with whole grains and beans. There are so many health protectors naturally found in these foods that scientists estimate eating a large variety everyday may lower cancer risk by at least 20 percent (1).*Here you see a list of foods that are thought to fight cancer. These foods are beans, berries, cruciferous vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, garlic, grapes and grape juice, green tea, soy, tomatoes, and whole grains.*Berries are good sources of vitamin C and fiber. According to the AICR, foods high in vitamin C probably protect against cancer of the esophagus, while foods containing dietary fiber can probably decrease ones risk of developing colorectal cancer.

    All berries, but particularly strawberries and raspberries, are rich in a substance called ellagic acid. In laboratory studies, this phytochemical has shown the ability to prevent cancers of the skin, bladder, lung, esophagus and breast. Research suggests that ellagic acid seems to utilize several different cancer-fighting methods at once: it acts as an antioxidant, it helps the body deactivate specific carcinogens and it helps slow the reproduction of cancer cells.

    Blueberries contain a family of phenolic compounds called anthocyanosides, which many scientists believe are among the most potent antioxidants yet discovered (2).*Spinach, kale, romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, mustard greens, collard greens, chicory and Swiss chard are excellent sources of fiber, folate and a wide range of carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthin, along with saponins and flavonoids.

    According to the AICR, foods containing carotenoids probably protect against cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Researchers believe that carotenoids seem to prevent cancer by acting as antioxidants that is, scouring potentially dangerous free radicals from the body before they can do harm. Some laboratory research has found that the carotenoids in dark green leafy vegetables can inhibit the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells, skin cancer cells, lung cancer and stomach cancer.

    The AICRs Second Expert Report also noted probable evidence that foods containing folate decrease risk of pancreatic cancer and that foods containing dietary fiber probably reduce ones chances of developing colorectal cancer (2).*Both grapes and grape juice are rich sources of resveratrol, a specific type of natural plant chemical that belongs to a much larger group of plant chemicals called polyphenols. The skin of the grape contains the most resveratrol, and red and purple grapes contain significantly more resveratrol than green grapes. Wine also contains resveratrol. However, with AICRs second expert report noting convincing evidence that alcohol is associated with increased risk for cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx, esophagus, breast (pre- and postmenopausal) and colon and rectum (in men), wine is not a recommended source of resveratrol.

    Scientists believe that polyphenols in general and resveratrol, in particular, possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Resveratrol also has the ability to slow the growth of cancer cells and

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