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  • Slide 1
  • Digital Trust: Goals and Obstacles Rafal Lukawiecki Strategic Consultant, Project Botticelli Ltd Copyright 2005 Microsoft Corp & Project Botticelli Ltd. E&OE. For informational purposes only. No warranties of any kind are made and you have to verify all information before relying on it. You can re-use this presentation as long as you read, agree, and follow the guidelines described in the Comments field in File/Properties.
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  • 2Objectives Introduce the concepts Discuss the difficulties and major issues Overview available technology Explain why governments and larger public organisations play a special role in this field
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  • 3 Session Agenda Digital Trust Concepts Prerequisites Issues with PKI Trusted Time Stamps Privacy and DRM Conclusions
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  • 4 Digital Trust Concepts
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  • 5 Defense in Depth Policies, Procedures, & Awareness Physical Security Perimeter Internal Network Host Application Data
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  • 6Why? Unlike in the paper-based world, concluding transactions on-line cannot rely on handwritten signatures and human instincts of trust Traditional signatures are easy to repudiate Its difficult to judge trustworthiness by looking at a web site Privacy need is often ignored Authentication is nearly impossible
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  • 7 What is Digital Trust? Informally: characteristic of a computerised environment that has benefits of trust equivalent to that of paper-based world Brutally: In paper we trust, computers we dont Formally: too early to define
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  • 8 Impact of (the Lack of) Digital Trust Today, in practice, we still cannot: Make legal dependence on email or other digital documents Have a reliable and auditable electronic voting system Trust online presence of unknown companies Negotiate contracts online Properly protect against malware and viruses
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  • 9 Example: Failure of PKI Although many organisations have built PKI they still fail to be using digital signatures on more than experimental basis Economically, security and lack of trust is costing a lot, so, has PKI failed? No. PKI is fine, but not enough. We need to build a foundation of digital trust.
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  • 10 Building Digital Trust Digital trust requires a combination of: Identity authentication by multiple means Privacy protection Federated trust between organisations Digital signatures In addition to technology, we require governmental, judicial and police support
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  • 11Prerequisites
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  • 12 Legal Requirements The basic legislative support includes needs for: Legal recognition of digital signatures Protection of data privacy Framework for recognition of digital notary services (e-notaries) Framework for mixed-trust situation where paper and digital trust are intermixed Existence of one or more accepted identity means (IDs)
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  • 13 Todays Problem Even if you have legally recognised digital signatures (all EU countries do) the following are still a problem: Someone creates a digitally signed document, which is then passed through a chain to someone who only uses paper-based signatures Not everyone can (or wants to) provide digital signatures Some transactions involve a mixture of paper and digital signatures Solution? E-Notary Services (see later)
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  • 14 Crossing Contexts Digital Trust really must be trust across digital and traditional environs Perhaps we should call it Universal Trust? Your software verifies a digital signature You trust it good! You print the report nice! You give the report to someone. Should it be trusted? NO! Unless you stamp it, sign it and, perhaps have a witness and a notary
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  • 15 Technical Requirements At overall organisational (or governmental) level, the following should be created or officially recognised: Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Identity credentials format and management Trusted time-stamping service for digital signatures This can be delegated to an e-notary service provider
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  • 16 Issues with PKI & Identity
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  • 17PKI Your PKI should be technically integrated into the widely used internet browsers (Internet Explorer etc.) Otherwise, security can (and has been) exploited leading to loss of trust by the public This is a difficult process World-wide inclusion () Subordinate of know CA (politics) Own CA (distribution problem)
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  • 18 Internal PKI If you are only concerned with the trust within your organisation, the task of building PKI is easy Even easier if you integrate PKI with Active Directory Auto-enrolment for initial provisioning Certificate Services for ongoing management Especially easy using Windows Server 2003
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  • 19 PKI with Partners Sharing recognition of your PKI with selected other organisations is easy Mutually cross-sign your root or OU certificates, or, Install on all clients your partners root certificates Recognising your PKI outside of those groups is far more difficult
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  • 20 Identity Credentials Format It is a pre-defined textual, X.500 and binary representation of identity data Name, date of birth etc. It should be consistently used: Across governmental and organisational PKI Inside electronic IDs based on smartcards Optionally, subject to any privacy debates, it may contain a unique ID of the entity (employee, citizen, company etc.) This is not necessary for digital trust, but it allows for tighter verification across governmental departments Inevitably, it can lead to erosion of privacy
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  • 21 Trusted Time Stamps
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  • 22 The Time Problem Scenario: Document is signed on 1 Jan 2005 Signatory loses the signing key on 1 Feb 2006 Is the signature valid or invalid? Additional problem: Anyone can wind back the clock on their computer Solution?
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  • 23 Trusted Time-Stamping Service As certificates are revoked due to their loss, or eventually expire, digital signatures cannot be allowed to suddenly become invalid A Trusted Time-Stamping Service can provide a digital signature containing date and time Certifying that a certain a document has been signed while the signatorys certificate was valid Otherwise, it is easy to repudiate signatures in the future, cancelling validity of contracts etc.
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