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DESCRIPTIONHow Corporate Company Decide His Dividend For Share Holders. This Is Theory Of Dividend Policy.
DIVIDEND DECISIONPRESENTED BY :-VERACIOUS GROUPLeader:- vasant parakhiyaCOLORS OF RAINBOWSVASANT IntroductionDEEP Dividend TheoriesBHAVIKA Modigliani Miller Hypothesis & Assumptions of Walters modelMEET -Dividend PoliciesASHISH-Dividend Policy & Share ValuationISHWER -Corporate Dividend Practices in IndiaVASANT Summary & Conclusion
After studying Dividend Decision you should be able to:Understand the dividend retention versus distribution dilemma faced by the firm. Explain the Modigliani and Miller (M&M) argument that dividends are irrelevant. Explain the counterarguments to M&M - that dividends do matter. Identify and discuss the factors affecting a firm's dividend and retention of earnings policy. Define, compare, and justify cash dividends, stock dividends, stock splits, and reverse stock splits. Define stock repurchase and explain why (and how) a firm might repurchase stock.Summarize the standard cash dividend payment procedures and critical dates.Define and discuss dividend reinvestment plans (DRIPs).Dividend PolicyPassive Versus Active Dividend PoliciesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyDividend StabilityStock Dividends and Stock SplitsStock RepurchaseAdministrative ConsiderationsDividends as a Passive ResidualThe firm uses earnings plus the additional financing that the increased equity can support to finance any expected positive-NPV projects.Any unused earnings are paid out in the form of dividends. This describes a passive dividend policy.Can the payment of cash dividends affect shareholder wealth?If so, what dividend-payout ratio will maximize shareholder wealth?Irrelevance of DividendsM&M contend that the effect of dividend payments on shareholder wealth is exactly offset by other means of financing.
The dividend plus the new stock price after dilution exactly equals the stock price prior to the dividend distribution.A. Current dividends versus retention of earningsIrrelevance of DividendsM&M and the total-value principle ensures that the sum of market value plus current dividends of two firms identical in all respects other than dividend-payout ratios will be the same.Investors can create any dividend policy they desire by selling shares when the dividend payout is too low or buying shares when the dividend payout is excessive.B. Conservation of valueRelevance of DividendsUncertainty surrounding future company profitability leads certain investors to prefer the certainty of current dividends.Investors prefer large dividends.Investors do not like to manufacture homemade dividends, but prefer the company to distribute them directly.A. Preference for dividendsRelevance of DividendsCapital gains taxes are deferred until the actual sale of stock. This creates a timing option.Capital gains are preferred to dividends, everything else equal. Thus, high dividend-yielding stocks should sell at a discount to generate a higher before-tax rate of return.Certain institutional investors pay no tax.B. Taxes on the investorRelevance of DividendsCorporations can typically exclude 70% of dividend income from taxation. Thus, corporations generally prefer to receive dividends rather than capital gains.The result is clienteles of investors with different dividend preferences. In equilibrium, there will be the proper distribution of firms with differing dividend policies to exactly meet the needs of investors.Thus, dividend-payout decisions are irrelevant.B. Taxes on the investor (continued)Walters ModelAssumptionsValuationOptimum Payout RatioCriticismAssumptionsInternal FinancingConstant Return and Cost of Capital100% Payout or RetentionConstant EPS and DIVInfinite TimeMarket price per share is the sum of the present value of the infinite stream of constant dividends and present value of the infinite stream of capital gains.Valuation
Optimum Payout RatioGrowth Firms Retain all earningsNormal Firms Distribute all earningsDeclining Firms No effectCriticismNo external FinancingConstant Rate of ReturnConstant opportunity cost of capitalOther Dividend IssuesFlotation costsTransaction costs and divisibility of securitiesInstitutional restrictionsFinancial signalingEmpirical Testing of Dividend PolicyTax EffectDividends are taxed more heavily (in PV terms) than capital gains, so before-tax returns should be higher for high-dividend-paying firms.Empirical results are mixed -- recently the evidence is largely consistent with dividend neutrality.Financial SignalingExpect that increases (decreases) in dividends lead to positive (negative) excess stock returns.Empirical results are consistent with these expectations.Implications for Corporate PolicyEstablish a policy that will maximize shareholder wealth.Distribute excess funds to shareholders and stabilize the absolute amount of dividends if necessary (passive).Payouts greater than excess funds should occur only in an environment that has a net preference for dividends.Implications for Corporate PolicyThere is a positive value associated with a modest dividend. Could be due to institutional restrictions or signaling effects.
Dividends in excess of the passive policy does not appear to lead to share price improvement because of taxes and flotation costs.Factors Influencing Dividend PolicyCapital Impairment Rule -- many states prohibit the payment of dividends if these dividends impair capital (usually either par value of common stock or par plus additional paid-in capital).Incorporation in some states (notably Delaware) allows a firm to use the fair value, rather than book value, of its assets when judging whether a dividend impairs capital.Legal RulesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyInsolvency Rule -- some states prohibit the payment of cash dividends if the company is insolvent under either a fair market valuation or equitable sense.Undue Retention of Earnings Rule -- prohibits the undue retention of earnings in excess of the present and future investment needs of the firm.Legal RulesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyFunding Needs of the FirmLiquidityAbility to BorrowRestrictions in Debt Contracts (protective covenants)ControlOther Issues to ConsiderDividend StabilityStability -- maintaining the position of the firms dividend payments in relation to a trend line.Dollars Per Share3421Earnings per shareDividendsper shareTime50% of earningspaid out as dividendsDividend StabilityDividends begin at 50% of earnings, but are stable and increase only when supported by growth in earnings.Dollars Per Share3421Earnings per shareDividends per shareTime50% dividend-payoutrate with stabilityValuation of Dividend StabilityInformation content -- management may be able to affect the expectations of investors through the informational content of dividends. A stable dividend suggests that the company expects stable or growing dividends in the future.Current income desires -- some investors who desire a specific periodic income will prefer a company with stable dividends to one with unstable dividends.Institutional considerations -- a stable dividend may permit certain institutional investors to buy the common stock as they meet the requirements to be placed on the organizations approved list.Types of DividendsExtra dividendA nonrecurring dividend paid to shareholders in addition to the regular dividend. It is brought about by special circumstances.Regular DividendThe dividend that is normally expected to be paid by the firm.Stock Dividends and Stock SplitsSmall-percentage stock dividendsTypically less than 25% of previously outstanding common stock.Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock outstanding pays a 5% stock dividend. The pre-dividend market value is $40. How does this impact the shareholders equity accounts?Stock Dividend -- A payment of additional shares of stock to shareholders. Often used in place of or in addition to a cash dividend.B/S Changes for the Small-Percentage Stock Dividend$800,000 ($5 x 20,000 new shares) transferred (on paper) out of retained earnings.$100,000 transferred into common stock account.$700,000 ($800,000 - $100,000) transferred into additional paid-in-capital.Total shareholders equity remains unchanged at $10 million.Small-Percentage Stock DividendsBefore 5% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares)$ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders equity$10,000,000After 5% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 420,000 shares)$ 2,100,000Additional paid-in capital 1,700,000Retained earnings 6,200,000 Total shareholders equity$10,000,000Stock Dividends, EPS, and Total EarningsAssume that investor SP owns 10,000 shares and the firm earned $2.50 per share.Total earnings = $2.50 x 10,000 = $25,000.After the 5% dividend, investor SP owns 10,500 shares and the same proportionate earnings of $25,000.EPS is then reduced to $2.38 per share because of the stock dividend ($25,000 / 10,500 shares = $2.38 EPS).After a small-percentage stock dividend, what happens to EPS and total earnings of individual investors?Stock Dividends and Stock SplitsTypically 25% or greater of previously outstanding common stock.The material effect on the market price per share causes the transaction to be accounted for differently. Reclassification is limited to the par value of additional shares rather than pre-stock-dividend value of additional shares.Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock outstanding pays a 100% stock dividend. The pre-stock-dividend market value per share is $40. How does this impact the shareholders equity accounts?Large-percentage stock dividendsB/S Changes for the Large-Percentage Stock Dividend$2 million ($5 x 400,000 new shares) transferred (on paper) out of retained earnings.$2 million transferred into common stock account.Large-Percentage Stock DividendsBefore 100% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares)$