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    3. what canyou do?megacities on the move

  • 8/8/2019 Do Toolkit Section3


    Fossil fuels dominant

    Alternative energy dominant

    Top down Bottom up

    Forum for the Future is the UKs leading

    sustainable development NGO. We workinternationally with government, businessand public service providers, helping themto develop strategies to achieve successthrough sustainability, to deliver productsand services which enhance peoples livesand are better for the environment, and tolead the way to a better world.

    Forum for the FutureOverseas House1923 Ironmonger RowLondon, EC1V 3QNUK

    Registered Charity No. 1040519 Company limited by guarantee inUK and Wales, No. 2959712

    VAT Reg. No. 6777475 70

    Scenario animations:Bringing the future to life

    We have brought the scenarios to life infour short, vivid and compelling animations.They follow a day in the life of an ordinarywoman, examining the mobility challengesand solutions in each world.

    megacities on the move

    The toolkit contains four sections and a setof scenario animations.

    1. Overview

    You can use this section to introduce yourcolleagues, business partners and clientsto the issues. It explains why it is importantto start planning for the future and reviewsthe major factors which will shape the worldin the next 30 years, exploring how they willaffect urban mobility.

    2. Whats your destination? Fourscenarios for urban mobility in 2040

    Want to explore what the future may holdand test your strategy? Our scenarios Planned-opolis, Sprawl-ville, Renew-abadand Communi-city present four possiblevisions of urban mobility in the world of 2040.They are a tool to help explore what thefuture may hold for your organisation, and

    to plan ahead more effectively.

    3. What can you do? Six solutionsfor sustainable urban mobility

    If you want to bring innovation into yourstrategic planning, here are actions you cantake now to help create sustainable urbanmobility systems. This section includespractical examples of how these solutionsare already being put into practice aroundthe world.

    4. Plan the future now: How to runa workshop using the scenarios

    This section gives specic guidance on howto plan a workshop on the future of urbanmobility. They show how to use the fourscenarios to explore issues relevant to youand develop more sustainabile products,services and strategies.

    How will people travel in the cities of the future? Howwill billions of city-dwellers access what they needwithout putting intolerable strains on the planet?

    Megacities on the Move , a collaboration betweenForum for the Future, EMBARQ, the FIAFoundation and Vodafone, can help you nd

    answers to these questions. It is a toolkit designedto help governments, companies and civil societyorganisations understand the challenges of thefuture, apply them to their own needs, anddevelop strategies which will enable people to liveand travel more sustainably in the major cities of the 21st century.

    You can download the full toolkit, itsindividual sections and the scenarioanimations from our megacities-on-the-move

    For more information or to organise aworkshop please email Ivana Gazibara at:megacit[email protected], or call +44 (0)20 7324 3673.
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    1. integrate,integrate, integrateTransport, urban planning, business, public services,energy and food supply can no longer be consideredin isolation. We need to create truly integrated systems

    where people have choice, exibility and seamlessconnectivity. When people travel, they should be ableto connect much more smoothly and quickly betweendifferent modes of transport. Increasingly, therewill also be a need to supplement this physicalconnectivity with online connectivity: the ability tocheck information before, and during, travel willallow people to optimise their journeys, and perhapseven substitute a degree of physical movement withvirtual access to lifestyle needs.

    1.1 MIT CityCar System

    A stackable, electric two-seater car designedto be used as part of a mobility on-demandsystem similar to a bike-hire schemesuch as Vlib, where stacks of vehicles areavailable for instant short-term hire at keytransport hubs such as train stations andmultiple other points around the city. Threeor four CityCars can t in a standard parkingspace. Future iterations could be integratedwith the urban energy supply system stacksof parked cars act as batteries that couldsmooth electricity demand in a city withlots of microgeneration such as solar roofsor small-scale wind turbines. (Go to Mobilitysection, then select CityCar).

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    MIT CityCar System, William Lark, Jr. Smart Cities, MIT

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    1.2 Straddling Bus

    An electric Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systemwithout the need for additional road space.The bus has two levels, the lower of whichis open and straddles the road, actinglike a tunnel that cars can drive through.Passengers board the upper deck to amaximium capacity of 300. The bus caneither run on rails either side of the car lane,or it can follow white lines using an auto-pilot system. The bus is powered by relaycharging and also charges at its stops. Therst system is due to be built in Beijing in2011. straddling-bus-a-cheaper-greener-and-faster-alternative-to-commute/

    1.3 London Garden

    An award-winning concept for car-freemobility in central London that integratesbicycle, scooter and bus modes. A speciallydesigned semi-electric bicycle is available forhire and can be ridden as either a bicycle oran electric scooter. When ridden in bicyclemode it generates and stores energy for thescooter mode. It can also be folded up andused as a bus seat in this case the energyyou generated and stored in your bike iscredited to you and used as a currency tosubsidise the cost of your journey. When notin use the bikes are stored on overhead racksat bus stops where they generate furtherenergy via solar cells in their solid, hub lesswheels.

    1.4 Shweeb pedal-powered monorail

    Shweeb uses pedal-powered, highlyaerodynamic capsules that reduce drag andrequire less energy to propel at 20km/h thanyou need to walk at 5km/h. The capsulestravel along guiderails 6m above the groundthat can be suspended above existing roadsand walkways. A successful system wouldpotentially have positive effects on a cityshealth system by increasing general activitylevels. There is also scope for some energygeneration. Shweeb has just received US$1million in funding from Googles Project10100 to build its rst transit system for publicuse.

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    London Garden, Shweeb pedal-powered monorail, Shweeb

    Straddling Bus, Press Association

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    2. make the poor a priorityMobility systems must work for rich and poor alike,to ensure no-one is shut off from goods, servicesand employment opportunities. There are currently4 billion people around the globe on low incomes. 6 Cities in particular have many low-income

    communities this trend will increase as muchof the worlds future population growth will beoccurring in Asian and African cities.

    Everyone in the mobility sector will have to designtailored mobility solutions that meet these peoplesneeds.

    2.1 ChopN Drop Worldbike

    Worldbike is an international networkof professionals in the bicycle industry,who work on creating af fordable biketransportation and income-generatingopportunities for the poor. The ChopNDrop bike is an open-source design, whichis shipped to small-scale manufacturingfacilities or skilled individuals in thedeveloping world, who then construct thebike locally.

    2.2 Medellin Metrocable

    Metrocable is an urban electric cable carsystem in Medellin, Colombia, that wasinstalled as a complementary transit systemto the Metro. It links poor hillside barriosdirectly to the city and the metro system,vastly improving access as conventionalpublic transport could not negotiate thesteep hillsides. It has eased the commutesof most of the inhabitants of the barrios andhas also revitalised some of the areas thatit passes through. and http://

    2.3 Naandi Container

    The design rm IDEO collaborated with Acumen Fund, a non-prot global venturefund, and the Naandi Foundation to designthe Naandi container. The 20-liter watervessel has smooth contours and handlesto be carried on the hip and includes anoptional wheel kit that allows it to be pulledon the ground. With the at side of the vesseldown and the opening facing up users caneasily ll it with water. This design is moreaccessible for women, and encourages easywater handling and transport.

    6 WRI, The Next Four Billion: Low-income is denedas earning less than $ 3,000 in local purchasing power.

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    Urban cable car

    Chop N Drop bike, Worldbike

    Ripple Effect, Naandi Container, courtesy of IDEO

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    3. go beyond the carThe current growth rates of personal vehicle ownershipare simply unsustainable in the future: there arealready 1 billion cars in the world, a gure which isexpected to grow to 2 billion within a few decades. 7 To avoid cities becoming further congested and car-

    dependent, it is critical that we design now for people,not cars.

    Architects and urban planners need to create mixed-use urban neighbourhoods with the infrastructureto serve local communities, dense developments incities that prevent further sprawl, and a high degreeof accessibility and walkability. These changes to theurban form would almost certainly alter the dailycommute for many residents, encouraging less reliance

    on cars. Cities should further encourage a shift awayfrom cars by promoting alternative modes of transportand creating alternativesto car ownership likeexible car renting. 3.1 Vancouvers downtown travelplan: integrated travel planning

    and walkability

    This is an example of a broad approachto accessibility and mobility, recognisingthat most journeys involve multiple modesof transport. The system was treated as awhole and multiple design improvementsincluded simple but systemically effectiveactions such as: the widening of pedestriancrossings, new cycle lanes on major roadsand the provision of cycle racks on buses, aswell as the implementation of technologicalimprovements such as the Sky Train (anautomated light mass rapid transit system). urban-mobility/integrated-planning.php

    7 Daniel Sperling and Deborah Gordon,Two Billion Cars , Oxford University Press,New York, 2009.

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility


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    8/143. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    3.2 The city as an organism

    A recent concept popularised by WilliamMcDonough that is starting to inuenceurban design, particularly in new cities suchas Masdar . According to this concept,cities have metabolisms analogous tothose of complex organisms in terms ofnutrient and waste ows, and they shouldtherefore mimic the dynamics of ecosystemsif they are to be truly sustainable. Keyprinciples include: total reuse of waste viaupcycling, recycling, composting and energygeneration; maximisation of solar and windenergy collection via passive design andmicrogeneration; multiplicity of landscapetypes which increase resilience andliveability, such as mixed use developments,walkable neighbourhoods, green roofs, innercity parks and farms for biodiversity.

    3.3 So Bi Social Bicycle

    This is an example of a system usinggeolocation and wireless networks forseamless travel and access rather thanownership. It uses ICT to enable a exible,lower cost and distributed version of a bike-share scheme: SoBi will be the rst publicbike share system with the authorisation,tracking, and security systems attached tothe bicycle itself. SoBi uses GPS, mobilecommunications, and a secure lock thatcan attach to almost any bicycle and lock toany regular bike rack. The system does notrequire separate infrastructure and can bedeployed at approximately one-third the costof existing systems. Administrators will begiven powerful tools to manage demand andmap patterns of use. Users will enjoy door-to-door transportation and an interactivecycling experience that can track milestravelled, calories burned, CO2 emissionsoffset, and connections to other SocialCyclists.

    Masdar City, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Sobi, Socal Bicycles

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    4. switch on to IT networksThere are two key ways that IT networks need to beused to improve mobility systems: by substituting

    physical movement with ICT-based solutions, and by better connecting and integrating transport systems.People are becoming increasingly comfortable accessing

    services, information and social networks online.Mobility providers will need to introduce ITconnectivity throughout urban mobility systems anddevelop sophisticated, user-centred online platformsso urban dwellers can access everything they needto maintain and improve their daily quality of life.

    In addition, transport systems will need to usetechnology to lessen trafc congestion and accident

    risks, for example interstate highways that featurelanes for cars and truckscontrolled by computers.Cars will change too:leading companies areincorporating ICT intovehicles, and over thenext thirty years thistrend is likely to becomemuch more mainstream.

    4.1 Nissan Eporo Robot Car

    Nissan has designed a collision-free, zerocarbon robot concept car. The design isbiomimetic the Eporo travels in a groupof like-vehicles, mimicking the behaviouralpatterns of a school of sh in avoidingobstacles without colliding with each other.The technologies developed for Eporo arenot just useful for collision avoidance butalso aim to improve the migration efciencyof a group of vehicles and contribute toan environmentally friendly and trafc

    jam-free driving environment. and nissan-to-show-eporo-robot-cars-collisionfree-driving-by-mimicking-sh-behavior.html

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    Nissan Eporo, Nissan

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    Intellidrive, U.S. Departmentof Transportation

    Media Pole on the U-street in Gangnam, Seoul.Source: Inews24 (South Korea)

    DVE Immersion Room 3D Room,

    4.2 Intellidrive

    Intellidrive is a US initiative to developtransport connectivity. It aims to enablenetworked wireless real-time commun-ications between vehicles, infrastructure,and drivers and passengers personaldevices. At the individual level this improvessafety via crash prevention and providesrich real-time information about routes,trafc and optimum drive speeds. Atthe system level, real-time informationfrom thousands of vehicles will enabletransportation managers to optimisethe system for efciency by adjustingsignalling, lane availability, etc.

    4.3 U-City Seoul

    Seouls city-management is piloting aproject called Ubiquitous Seoul, or U-CitySeoul which offers real-time, location basedservices from multiple sensors around thecity. Residents can use smart-phones tocheck air quality, get trafc information orreserve sports pitches at local parks. Peoplewith asthma can get pollution alerts. Formobility, there is a personal travel assistantapp available that gives real-time transportinformation (such as when the next bus/trainwill arrive), and also provides a travel planner,carbon calculator, and real-time router toenable seamless travel.,8599,1916302-1,00.html

    4.4 Telepresence

    High-end telepresence systems such asthe DVE Immersion Room are now goodenough for people to feel like they are inthe same room, thanks to 3D high-denition live video. 3D presentationscan simultaneously be given, blurring theboundaries further between the real andthe virtual.

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    Better Place, www.betterplace.com5. refuel our vehiclesWe need to shift the way we power our vehicles from

    petrol to renewable, low-carbon fuel sources. Oil isone of the most threatened, and increasingly difcultto access, resources in the world.

    Even though we cannot say with certainty that wewill run out in the next thirty years, extracting anddelivering the remaining oil to market is becomingincreasingly difcult. 8 Moreover, shortages anddisruptions could occur for a number of other reasons,from policy to terrorism, warfare and natural disasters.

    The uncertainty over future energy supplies is, of course, compounded by rising awareness of climatechange and the increasing possibility or regulation

    that will shift the way we power the global economy.As oil becomes more scarce, expensive and a securityrisk, we need implement greater energy efciencymeasures, and shift the way we power our vehiclesfrom petrol to renewable, low carbon fuel sources.

    Most vehicle technology experts agree that the potentialto improve fuel efciency with advanced technologiesis enormous. At the same time, the market for low-carbon energy could treble to US $2.2 trillion by 2020. 9 We need signicant investment in battery and fueltechnology to take alternative energy-powered vehiclesto scale over the next few decades.

    5.1 Better Place battery subscriptionBetter Place has been set up to counterthe two main obstacles to mass adoptionof electric vehicles (i.e. cars that solely usebatteries, as opposed to hybrids). BetterPlace stations allow you to switch a usedbattery in your car for a fully charged one ina few minutes, avoiding the need for hoursof recharging during a long journey. BetterPlace also allows you to subscribe to abattery service. This means that drivers donthave to pay to own the battery which isusually the most expensive component ofa fully electric vehicle. Better Place is dueto launch commercially in 2011 in Denmarkand Israel, in partnership with Renault whichhas designed a switchable-battery electricvehicle. 8 Richard Heinberg, The Partys Over, Peak Everything .

    9 James Murray, HSBC predicts l ow-carbonenergy market will treble to $2.2. tn by 2020,, 6 Sept 2010, .

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    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    5.2 MIT Roboscooter concept

    This is a folding electric scooter designed forcities where scooters are a popular form oftransport (such as many developing worldcities). RoboScooters serve as approximatefunctional equivalents of 50cc gasoline-powered scooters. They are, however, clean,silent, and occupy less parking space.They are also much simpler consisting ofabout 150 parts, compared to the 1,000 to1,500 of an equivalent gasoline-poweredscooter which simplies supply chains andassembly processes, reduces vehicle costs,and simplies maintenance. (Go to Mobilitysection, then select Roboscooter).

    5.3 Biofuels from waste

    First-generation biofuels from food cropsare unsustainable and are unlikely to havea signicant long-term future. However,second-generation biofuels from waste are indevelopment, such as cellulosic ethanol. Thiscan be distilled from plant waste headed forlandll such as corn stalks, timber chippings,even low-grade paper. It is estimated thatcellulosic ethanol from these sources couldprovide a third of the USAs transport fuelrequirements; there is also potential foreffective deployment in the developing world,where most plant waste is currently burned.

    Wood Chips storage lot Used for BiofuelRoboScooter, Michael Chia-Liang Lin, MIT Media Lab, Smart Cities group

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    6. change peoples behaviourAlthough planning and technology can do a lot toimprove mobility, many of our future challenges areshaped by peoples values, behaviour and preferences.As well as switching from cars to more low-carbonvehicles, cities need to think about ways in which

    mass behaviour and social norms can be inuencedto get people to think beyond their current patternsof travel and ways of living.

    In fact, because of increasing urbanisation, citiesneed to be the key players in promoting low-carbon,healthier lifestyles. The most effective governmentsand businesses will engage in early planning toinuence lifestyles rather than simply relying onadditional road infrastructure and modes of transport.

    6.1 Singapore congestion pricing

    Singapore was an early and successfulpioneer of user charges to prevent urbancongestion. It began with a simple feesystem in 1975 that was upgraded in 1998to a high tech system that charges motoristsat variable rates depending on the timeat which they drive within the city. Stronginvestment in public transport provides analternative means for residents to moveabout. The Singapore congestion pricingsystem has inspired similar systems inLondon, Oslo, Stockholm and Milan. http:// density-without-tears-singapores-transportation-secrets/

    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    Electronic road pricing signage

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    3. what can you do? > solutions for sustainable urban mobility

    6.2 No-driving days in Seoul

    No-driving days are used in many citiesaround the world to check congestion. Thesystem in Seoul is particularly notable asit is voluntary and popular: residents areincentivised to sign up to it by benets suchas insurance discounts, reducedpriceparking and tax-breaks. Participants agreenot to drive on one business day per week,and compliance is monitored via RFID tagsattached to windscreens. The city benetsfrom having approximately 10,000 fewervehicles on the road every day.,8599,1916302-1,00.html

    6.3 Whip car peer-to-peer car rental

    Whip car is the worlds rst peer-to-peercar rental service. Car owners can rentout their own cars when they arent usingthem. Users can search for and hire cars intheir neighbourhoods. This is a distributedand exible system that uses existing cars,mediated by a trusted website with a ratingssystem, and requires no additional physicalinfrastructure.

    Cyclists in Seoul Whipcar website, Whipcar Ltd

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