dolgopolsky - emphatic consonants in semitic

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    CHAllT 1. TYPOLOGICAL EXPECI ATIONS

    thoempbaticsare:1 uvuJarized CODSOJWlts, Yes2a weak or medium-force N o

    Yes N o

    ejcctiftl (i.e. COJlSOJW1ts with -(the emphatic coDSOJWlts May be Yesweak or medium-force ejectivc are only voiceJess)glottalization),

    2b very stroD cjectiftl NoCOJlSOJW1ts with strong (the emphatic coDSOJWlts Maybe Maybecjcctm glottali7.ation), are only voic:eless)

    3 non-aspira1ed voicelessCODSODBnts (opposed to No No Yesupirated voic:eless),

    CH RT 2.ls lt possible to suppose that:

    No Yes

    Yes Yes

    Yes Yes

    Yes No

    o fO emphatization - uvularization? emphatization - weak cmphatization - strong cmphatics vs. non-or medium-force) ejective cjective slottalization? emphatics=non-aspl-glottalization? rated vs. aspirated?

    there is opposition between voiceless Yes No No Yesemphatics and voiced cmphatics,

    there is neutralizationorvoice in the No Yes Yes Yesemphatic CODSODanU. or: I t was not so in some earlierstaae or the same language)

    adjac:cot vowels undergo m:ession Yes Yes Yes No(uvuJarization, vclarization, etc.), It may occur) It may occur)opcnina and/or labialization,

    adjaceot vowcJs are not inftucnc:ed No Yes Yes Yesby the cmphatics (csp. do not

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    Emphatic Consonont1 in Semitic21 t is confirmed by modern Ethiosemitic laDsuaJCI which have preaerved strons J ot-talization or ail empbatica. This fact caDDOt be explained by a Cushitic substratum u somescholan believe), because that particular Jansuap (Agaw) which wu the substratum orEthiopian Semitic did not possess t (Proto-Cushitic t > Agaw d, cr A. Dolsopol'skij,Sravnitefno-Utorllallja fonetlka kulltskb& jazykov Moskva, 1973, pp. 54-59 248-252,323, 330).22 cr. W. von sodcD GrllllllrUs der akkadhchen Grtu111TUltlk, Roma, 1952: ... a vor r

    nach ... e m p b ~ h e m Laut wurde ass. off enbar oft a1s off enes o psprochcn: vsJ. gcschriebcnes qurbum statt qarbum (sprich qorbum) schon aA altassyrisch] und scschriebcnesatatt a in manchcn Verbalformcn wio... 1-NJ-IUT 'er wacht' neben 1-na-IQI u a.m ... Wic awurde auch unter ihnlichcn BodinJunpn anscheinend oft als off enes psprochcn: 10weist mA mitiolassyriach}lll-lar 'schreibe' auf Ill/or (p. 12).

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