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  • DRE Program Update

    Kyle Clark

    National Project Manager, IACP DEC Program

  • Kyle ClarkIACPDrugEvaluationClassificationProgram

    DEC Program Update

    1

  • National and International DRE Totals

    ü U.S. credentialed DREs: Over 8,500 (February 2019)

    ü International credentialed DREs: Nearly 1,000 (Canada, UK)

    ü Approximately 3,600 U.S. L.E. agencies with DREs

  • 2017 DRE Evaluations

    30,989 Enforcement Evaluations

    • California – 6,836• New York – 2,344• New Jersey – 2,001• Oregon – 1,781• Pennsylvania – 1,673

  • ARIDETraining(AdvancedRoadsideImpairedDrivingEnforcement)

    • Training conducted by DRE instructors

    • 2017: 967 ARIDE Schools

    • Approximately 16,300 officers trained in 2017

    • Over 87,300 trained since the program’s inception in 2009

  • DRETraining

    • All 50 states participating

    • 92 Schools in 2017

    • 85 Schools scheduled 2018

    • Over 1,500 officers trained in 2017

  • DREEnforcementEvaluations

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    35000

    40000

    2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    28,78830,176

    26,101

    22,986

    30,717 33,375

    23,983

    28,565 28,21429,823

    Source:NHTSANationalSobrietyTestingResourceCenter(NSTRC)andDREAnnualReports

  • Drug Categories Predicted by DREs (2015 – 2017 Evaluations)

    DREDrugCategory

    2015 2016 2017

    Cannabis 12,718 14,178 13,435

    CNSStimulants 10,081 11,032 10,879

    CNSDepressants 10,463 11,014 9,656

    NarcoticAnalgesics

    10,059 10,607 9,641

    Poly-category 13,040 13,822 11,953

  • of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program

    2018 International Standards

    8

  • • Eligibility• Classroom requirements

    • Preliminary School• 7-Day Final = 80%+• No missed sessions

    • Certification Requirements• DRE instructor supervised

    evaluations of suspected drug-impaired subjects

    • 90 Days• Two recommending DRE

    instructors required

    Section 1

    9

  • CertificationKnowledgeExam

    • Prerequisiteofminimumsixevaluations(3asexaminer)• NolongeraCKERemedialExam• Requirestwoinstructorstoreviewtheexamandsign-off• Nota“Take-Home”exam

  • DREFieldCertifications• Evaluations onsuspecteddrug-impairmentsubjects• DRE instructorscannotoverride/replacetoxicologylabresults• DREinstructormust observeandsupervisetheentireevaluationinordertosign-offontheevaluation

  • • Complete DRE IDC• DRE Instructor supervised:

    • Supervise 4 DRE evaluations• Instruct for two hours

    • Recertify as DRE and teach minimum required by state coordinator

    DRE Instructor Standards

    12

  • DRERecertificationüMinimumoffourevaluationsrequiredüAllfourmustbereviewedbyDREinstructorüOnemustbeobserved andapproved byDREinstructorü8hoursofDRErelatedtrainingrequiredüUpdatedC.V.andRollingLogrequiredüStatescanrequireadditionalstandards

  • • DRE Expired Less than One Year

    • DRE Expired Less than Five Years

    • DRE Expired Over Five Years

    DRE Reinstatement

    14

  • DRE Data Entryhttps://dredata.nhtsa.gov

    Takesyoutothemainpage

    Clickon“Evaluation”

    “Data!Data!Data!Wecan’tmakebrickswithoutclay!”(ArthurConanDoyle)

  • ImpairedDrivingCurriculumUpdates&Revisions

    - February2018Curriculum- SFSTandDREIDCcurriculumupdatedin2017- Contactor:TransportationSafetyInstitute(OKC)

  • NHTSA

    IACP Technical Advisory Panel

    Curriculum Subcommittee

    Prosecutors, Toxicologists,

    others

    Curricula Sent to Selected Sites for

    Final Review

    Feedback from Course

    Managers and Instructors

    IACP

    Cooperative Agreement

    Subject Matter Experts

    Pilot-Tested

    Curriculum Updates and Revisions

  • DRECurriculum

  • DRE Facesheet

    • Added Oral Fluid• Added Resting Nystagmus• Revised “Internal Clock” to “Time

    Estimation• OLS Checkboxes• Subject Refusals (Removed Precinct)

  • Revised Added

    Glossary of Terms

    • Polydrug• Pulse

    • Bipolar Disorder• Diabetes• Impairment• Multiple Sclerosis• Polycategory• Standardized• Systematic

  • New Studies Added

    • MRB • Time estimation• +/- 5 seconds

    • Rebound Dilation• LOC • Coating on the tongue• Elevated pulse

  • Preliminary School

    • Inserted model schedule in Administrator Guide

    • Added Overdose “Alcohol Poisoning” (Session 8)

    • Added Curriculum Vitae worksheet (Session 9)

    • Inserted new language regarding toxicology collection

  • HGN

    • Equal Tracking “…may be checked more than once”

    • All references to marbles and sandpaper removed

  • BlindEyeTestingforHGN

    NewwordingaddedtoallowforHGNtestingofsubjectwithablind/artificialeye• Allowsofficertoproceedwithtest• Ifabnormalfindings,notrequiredtocontinue• Remindedthatthisdoesnotfollowthestandardizedprotocolandshouldbeacknowledgedinreport

    Source:“EyeTestsonaSuspectwithaBlindEye”,K.Citek,Sept.2014

  • LackofConvergence

    LOC Testing -

    Added instructions to ”stop moving the stimulus in a circular manner with the stimulus above eye level” before moving towards bridge of the nose, and “to check for LOC at least twice”

    Consistent with clinical studies on LOC testing

  • Walk&Turn–ClarifiedImproperTurnScoring

    AddedwordingtohelpclarifyhowtoproperlyscoreanimproperturnduringtheWalkandTurnTestifthesubjectbeingtestedturnsontherightfootinsteadoftheleftfoot(2015)

  • SFST:OneLegStandClarification

    Wordingaddedtohelpclarifyhowtheraisedfootistobeheldduringthebalanceandcountingstage

    “Raiseeitherlegwiththefootapproximatelysixinchesofftheground,keepingyourfootparalleltotheground.”

    Not“footpointedout”

  • SFSTProficiencyNew requirement –

    All SFST steps and instructions are required for proficiency and sign-off by an instructor

  • Procedural Modifications• DRE Average or “Expected” Ranges/Values• MRB Instructions• Direct light pen light positioning• LOC

    • Inserted language for DRE to pause before moving stimulus toward nose

    • Recommend checking twice

  • OtherRevisions

    • Reducedverbiageonslides• Allnarrativesreplacedwithmorecompleteexamples• Revisedeyeexaminationworksheet• PDRSessionre-namedto“DREReferenceSources”(Slidesaddedtopracticedrugidentification)

  • DREEquipmentAddedclarificationregardingequipmentused:- Oralthermometer- Stethoscope- Sphygmomanometer- Penlight

    AllothersmustreceiveTAPapproval

  • DRE12-StepProcess

    Allows for collecting blood sample out of thenormal order in the 12-Step DRE process.

  • PhysiologyandDrugsAdditional information added:

    - Drugs effects on the body- Opinion vs. Diagnosis- Medical conditions- Medical Impairment- Downside Effect

  • Physiology

    - UpdatedNeurongraphic

    - RemovedCholinergic,Adrenergic,Anti-cholinergicslides

    - “MedicalRule-out”now“MedicalImpairment”

  • Ultra-VioletLightforNTDDidnotreplaceNTDwithpenlight

  • • Removed street names (DEA Drug Slang Code Words added as handout)

    • New exemplar video

    CNS Depressants

    36

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 9 – Central Nervous System Depressants

    9-36

    CNS Depressants

  • • Changed ADD to ADHD• Information concerning Energy

    Drinks and OTC stimulants added

    • New exemplar video

    CNS Stimulants

    37

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 10 – Central Nervous System Stimulants

    CNS Stimulants

    10-31

  • • Removed “Entactogen” from 2CB-1

    • Identified Hallucinogen examples categorized as psychedelic amphetamines

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 14 - Hallucinogens

    2CB

    •  White powder usually found in pressed tablets or gel caps

    •  Sometimes referred to as “Venus”; “Nexus”; and “Bromo-Mescaline”

    14-18

    Hallucinogens

    38

  • • Replaced Ketaset, Ketavet, and Vetamine with Ketaject

    • Confused changed to Confusion

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 16 – Dissociative Anesthetics

    Session 16 Dissociative Anesthetics

    1 Hour, 40 Minutes

    16-2

    Dissociative Anesthetics

    39

  • • More information on Fentanyl added

    • Information on Kratom added

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 17 – Narcotic Analgesics

    •  Kratom

    17-15

    Other Narcotic Analgesics

    Narcotic Analgesics

    40

  • • Removed reference of nitrites relieving angina pectoris

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 19 - Inhalants

    •  Amyl Nitrite •  Butyl Nitrite (Isobutyl Nitrite)

    19-11

    Anesthetic Gases

    Inhalants

    41

  • • Added information on Sativa, Indica, and Hybrid marijuana

    • Additional information on Synthetic Cannabinoids added

    • Added transdermal ointment as method of ingestion

    • Reddening of the Conjunctivae replaced with Bloodshot Eyes

    • Information on Hydroxy THC and Carboxy THC added

    • Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome added as possible long term effect

    • New exemplar video

    Cannabis

    42

  • CannabisImpairmentIndicators

    Additionalimpairmentindicatorsadded:- Altered perceptionoftime/distance- Alterationsinthoughtformation- Drowsiness- Impairedmemory

    - Lackofconcentration

  • DocumentingCannabisImpairment

    44

    Suggested observations to look for and describe:

    üEyelid and body tremorsüSlow, relaxed, lethargic actionsüRebound dilation (record smallest to largest size)üResponses to instructions (memory issues)üCounting errors (concentration issues)üOdor of marijuana on breath and personüUsage (Recreational, Daily, Weekly, Chronic)üDocument blood collection time

  • • Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) information added to this Session

    • Polycategory definition added and Polydrug definition revised

    Drug Recognition Expert Course

    Session 24- Drug Combinations

    Novel Psychoactive Substances

    24-38

    Synthetic Cathinones

    Novel Tryptamine Derivates

    Novel Stimulants

    Synthetic Opioids

    Drug Combinations

    45

  • CNS Depressants CNS Stimulants

    Symptomatology Chart

    • Disorientation (Replaced Disoriented)

    • Unsteady walk (Replaced Gait Ataxia)

    • Removed Hallucinations from General Indicators (Remains as overdose sign)

    46

  • Hallucinogens Dissociative Anesthetics

    Symptomatology Chart

    • Removed Disorientation• Removed Injection as MOI

    • Confused now Confusion• Added (PCP) to Chemical Odor• Removed Muscle Rigidity from

    General Indicators• Added (PCP) to Perspiring• Added Slowed Responses• Added (PCP) to many MOI

    47

  • Narcotic Analgesics Inhalants

    Symptomatology Chart

    • Removed Constricted Pupils from General Indicators

    • Removed Inability to Concentrate

    • Added Slow Deliberate Movements

    • Added Transdermal as MOI

    • No changes

    48

  • DREOpinion

    49

    “It is my opinion as a Drug Recognition Expert that the suspect was under the influence of drugs and could not operate a motor vehicle safely.” (Actual report opinion)

    “It is my opinion as a Drug Recognition Expert that the suspect (or suspect’s name) is under the influence of (drug category) and is unable to operate a vehicle safely.”

  • ReportWritingAreasofConcernüNot recording Angle of Onset for HGN on FacesheetüListing odd numbers for pulse and B/PüHGN clues recorded with no D.I.D. drug category mentionedüUse of the word “normal” or “normal ranges”üNo reason for traffic stop listed in narrativeüNo details or explanation for reported medical issuesüNothing listed for vital signs of concern (B/P 60/48)üExplaining when step(s) taken out of orderüExplaining why UV Light used for NTDüIncorrectly listing “IACP certified” instead of state certified

  • • Three sets of numbers: YY - ### - TOTAL #

    • 2-digit year• 3-digit # evals current year• 4-digit # total # evals in career

    Rolling Log Numbering

    51

    Example: 18-001-000118-002-0002

    18-021-0021 (End of 2018)

    19-001-0022 (Begin 2019)19-002-0023

  • Recent Developments• Definition of Training Institution• AAA DEC Program Protocol Review• NTLC DECP Monograph• NHTSA Drugged Driving Initiative

    52

  • If You Feel Different…

    53

  • Items Under Development• Dry Lab Videos

    54

  • IACP DEC Program Website www.decp.org

    LocateDREStateCoordinatorsandNationalTrainingCalendar

  • IACP DRE Section Website

    www.theiacp.org/Drug-Recognition-Expert-Section- Annual DAID Conference information- State DRE websites- DEC Program International Standards- DEC Program Annual Report- Membership information

  • 25thAnnualIACPTrainingConferenceonDrugs,AlcoholandImpairedDriving

    Registration: www.theIACP.org/DAIDconference

    AUGUST 10-12

  • Contact Information –

    Kyle ClarkInternational Association of Chiefs of PoliceDEC Program Project [email protected]

    IACP DEC Program Website:www.decp.org