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  • 1. How To Avoid Web Application Vulnerabilities In Drupal BasedWeb Applications?Web Applications arevulnerable to attackscausing harms that mayrange from nothing, allthe way through puttingyou out of business.Businesses have toevaluate the riskinvolved and beprepared for mitigatingthe risks. To determinethe risk to yourorganization, you can evaluate the likelihood associated with each threat agent, attack vector, andsecurity weakness and combine it with an estimate of the technical and business impact to yourorganization. Together, these factors determine the overall risk.Research studies across different applications have identified the most common vulnerabilities. Thename of these vulnerabilities or risks stem from the type of attack, the type of weakness, or the typeof impact they cause. The top six such vulnerabilities are listed below:The ways to be prepared for the prevention of these vulnerabilities differ with respect to the contextof the web application. Various application frameworks and platforms available in the market provideguidelines and patterns to be used while developing the application on the specific platforms. Thispaper discusses about the solution provided by DRUPAL framework in guarding against the listed webapplication vulnerabilities.A1-Injection Drupal provides a database API with builit-in SQL injection attack prevention. Properly used, itis not possible to inject arbitrary SQL. Drupal 7s new database API makes writing insecure database code even more difficult. Drupal provides a set of functions to process URLs and SQL arguments, making security an easychoice for developersA2-Broken Authentication and Session Management Authentication cookies are not modifiable by site users. This prevents users from masqueradingas more powerful users. User sessions (and related cookies) are completely destroyed and recreated on log-in and log-out. User name, ID and Password are only managed on the server side, not in the users cookie.Passwords are never emailed. Session cookies are named uniquely for each Drupal installationA3-Insecure Direct Object References Drupals menu and form API encourage validating and sanitizing data submitted from users.

2. When object references are passed through the form API, Drupal core protects the values fromtampering by site users Drupal and PHP provide file and session APIs that allow convenient and secure object referencepassing.A4-Cross-site Request Forgery If a site allows users to load any content off external servers, the site can be used to originateattacks. This is configurable either way in Drupal. Drupal filters out scripting variations of this attack, leaving only simpler (GET-type) ones. The simpler CSRF attacks fail when attacking Drupal because the form API isolates state-changing operations behind POST requests.A5-Cross Site Scripting Drupal has a system of input filters that remove potential XSS exploits from user input. The Form API verifies that a user loaded a form before submitting it. This verification makeseffective XSS against Drupal sites considerably more difficult.A6-Insecure Cryptographic Storage Passwords are stored using a one-way hash. Even if someone downloads the site database,recovering usable passwords is difficult. Drupal provides a randomly generated private key for every installation. Modules can use thiskey to use reversible encryption of sensitive data like credit-card numbers. Commerce modules for Drupal minimize any retention of sensitive data.For more information about the Drupal Web Development Services, drupal 7 module development,please visit: http://www.optisolbusiness.com/index.php/drupal-development