DSLR Cameras

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<p>DSLRs</p> <p>Knowing Your Camera4Digital Cameras can be seem like a complex piece of equipment. Knowing some of the basics of your camera will help you choose the right camera and produce quality photos.What is a Digital Camera A camera that takes video or still photographs (or both) digitally by recording images on a light-sensitive sensor.Ultra Compact Digital CameraTypically a small and inexpensive camera.Can easily be carried in a pocket or purse. Usually have fewer features than the higher end cameras.8</p> <p>Oh the Technology!D-SLR (single-lens reflex), Megapixels, Image Stabilization (IS &amp; VR), Dust Reduction, Live View, Sensors, facial recognition..........</p> <p>What does it all mean? (and why does it matter to me?)Introduction to Digital CamerasDSLR CameraTop of the line camera; primarily used by professionals.Include high quality lenses, and often interchangeable.Often accepts other accessories such as filters.Produce very high resolution photos.55Digital Photos OverviewDigital Photos are made up of pixels (picture elements).DPI vs PPIDPI - Dots Per Inch (How a printer prints the image)PPI Pixels Per Inch (How a monitor displays an image)The resolution of a digital photo is its pixel dimensions.Digital Cameras use megapixels to specify the pixel dimensions of its photos.</p> <p>6Types of Digital CamerasUltra Compact Digital CamerasCompact Digital CamerasAdvanced Digital CamerasDigital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) Cameras7</p> <p>2006-06-01Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&amp;S)- Commonly referred to as consumer digital cameras.</p> <p>- Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market</p> <p>- Typically small, compact and lightweight</p> <p>- Targeted at broad majority</p> <p>- Typically very User-Friendly</p> <p>- Image Quality has improved drastically</p> <p>Compact Digital CamerasThe typical digital camera used for taking most pictures by consumers. Includes most of the features the average person would need. </p> <p>10</p> <p>2006-06-01Prosumer Digital Cameras-Not technically its own specification</p> <p>- Common term used to describe advanced models of P&amp;S(now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's)- Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's- Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X Optical Equiv)</p> <p>- Typically combine user friendly P&amp;S features with more advanced manual features.</p> <p>Advanced Digital CameraDesigned for the more skilled or hobbyist photographer.Usually has higher quality lens and zoom. </p> <p>12</p> <p>2006-06-01Digital SLR (DSLR)SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex</p> <p>- Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality</p> <p>- Tend to favor manual control, lacking many automatic settings found on P&amp;S</p> <p>- Much larger and heavier</p> <p>- Ability to interchange system lenses</p> <p>2006-06-01So What is the REAL difference between a digital SLR and a point and shoot camera?</p> <p>2006-06-01The short answer is.....Image QualityBut Why?</p> <p>How can a 6 megapixel DSLR take a better picture than a 24 megapixel point and shoot?</p> <p>Because Size Matters!</p> <p>2006-06-01How the digital sensor works- Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels.</p> <p>- Essentially, an image is recorded by tiny microlenses (pixels) which make up the cameras sensor </p> <p>-</p> <p>2006-06-01All Pixels are not created equal!</p> <p>-A digital sensor is essentially made up of millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels)</p> <p>- Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data</p> <p>- Larger Sensors contain larger pixels, which are much better and collecting this data</p> <p>Digital Sensors Compared</p> <p>Full-Frame versus APS-C Sized Sensors</p> <p>2006-06-01Digital Camera Features and Technologies Megapixels Determine the total size (Dimensions) of the image recorded by camera</p> <p>- More MP does not always mean a better picture</p> <p>- Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions</p> <p>- For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camera will produce a digital image measuring approximately 9X14 inches but printing standards say that you should not print to Photo Quality any larger than 8X10 </p> <p>Megapixels Vs. Print Size</p> <p>MegapixelsMegapixelsPixel DimensionMax Quality Print Size2.01600 x 12004 x 63.02100 x 15005 x 74.02400 x 18008 x 105.02500 x 19009 x 12 6.03000 x 200011 x 148.04000 x 200012 x 1622The following guide will help you know what size of high-quality print you can expect from each megapixel rating. </p> <p>Multiplying the pixel dimension will give you the exact megapixel rating. The rating stated by the manufacturer is usually rounded.</p> <p>MegapixelsA higher megapixel rating does not always mean higher quality photos.A cameras megapixel rating will help you determine the largest size of prints you can expect to make without sacrificing the quality of the image.23Megapixels24</p> <p>4 megapixel8 megapixel</p> <p>2400 x 18004000 x 2000</p> <p>8 x 10 printThe 8 megapixel will not produce a better quality 8 x 10 print than the 4 megapixel. </p> <p>MegaPixel and Image Size </p> <p>1,000 megapixels or 1 GigaPixel</p> <p>Canon 1200d</p> <p>Rs.24,560Nikon D3300</p> <p>Rs 27,999Sony alpha 58</p> <p>Rs.30,990</p> <p>Make it cinematic</p> <p>Anatomy of a Camera </p> <p>Anatomy of a Camera </p> <p>Anatomy of a Camera </p> <p>Anatomy of a Camera </p> <p>Accessories </p> <p>Electronic ViewfinderAn electronic viewfinder, or EVF, is a viewfinder in which the image captured by the lens is projected electronically onto a miniature display. The viewfinder shows exactly what the lens sees.46</p> <p>46Optical ViewfinderA window on the back of the camera you look through to position the shot.The primary drawback to the optical viewfinder is the parallax, displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight.47</p> <p>Viewfinder</p> <p>Unlike with compact cameras, where you compose your shots by looking at the back of the camera (LCD screen), on the DSLR, youll usually look through the eyepiece of the viewfinder for composing, focusing, and viewing certain information provided by the camera. Some DSLRs will allow you to use their LCD monitors the same way you would with a compact camera, but you wont usually take photos this way.LCD Monitor</p> <p>One of the biggest advantages of your DSLR is its ability to preview an image immediately after you take a picture. The LCD monitor is located on the back of the camera and may have a swivel capability so that you can orient the screen for easier view from different camera positions. As you take each shot, a preview of the image will appear for a short time on the LCD. This monitor also gives you access to image data and the cameras menu system.LCD/OSD</p> <p>An on-screen display (OSD) is information about the cameras settings displayed on the LCD screen.</p> <p>Live ViewRefers to the ability to use the lcd screen on the camera the same way you would use the viewfinderShots can be composed even while holding the camera away from your faceOriginally only a feature in P&amp;S, DSLRs now use Live View also</p> <p>Facial RecognitionCamera detects faces in your frame based on color, contrast change, etc.Focus is automatically adjusted so detail in faces is highColor and contrast are automatically adjusted to create pleasing skin tones</p> <p>Camera BagPurchasing a cool, sophisticated, cutting-edge camera is one thing. Getting a camera bag to support, hold and protect your camera is another. Welcome to Flipkart's mind-boggling array of camera bags that will not only satiate your requirements, but will also effectively give you the benefit of heading out with confidence on your outdoor ventures with the camera of your choice, securely by your side.Camera bags are the perfect accessories for photography enthusiasts and professionals who require one bag that carries all of their camera-based essentials. Before investing in a camera bag, ensure that the bag is able to accommodate your camera model and make sure that the bag is waterproof with plenty of internal pockets to store extra additions safely and securely. Additions such as batteries, backup lenses, charger units, SD cards, pocket tripods and many such accessories should be accommodated without a fuss.Camera bags are divided into multiple types such as holster, the belt pack, shoulder bag with one strap, backpacks, slings and so on. Choose a type or a model that is most convenient to you</p> <p>Why Batteries?Batteries are the soul of photographic equipment</p> <p>Types of Light Sunlight Moonlight Good Light Bad Light Soft Light Harsh Light Storm Light Flash Light Incandescent U.V. Light Black Light Fluorescent Indirect/Bounce Highlights</p> <p>Movement CompensationRefers to the cameras ability to correct small movements by the user while taking a picture, in order to reduce the blur caused by camera shake.</p> <p>Very Useful in low-light or telephoto situations</p> <p>Movement Compensation</p> <p>Represented differently by different companies:</p> <p>Nikon VR Vibration ReductionCanon IS Image StabilizationSony SSS Super Steady-Shot</p> <p>Dust ReductionDust is more of a problem in DSLR's due to changing lensesOnce dust gets on your sensor, it can be difficult to removeDust reduction is essentially a mechanism which shakes the cameras sensor to free any clinging dust particlesSpecial anti-static coatings or filters may also be used</p> <p>File FormatRefers to the way the computer stores the dataMore common formats include:JPEGEXIFTIFFRAWJPEGStands for Joint Photography Experts GroupMost widely used formatBiggest advantage - can compress image dataDo not edit JPEG images in photo-editing programs to minimize data lossEXIFStands for Exchange Image File FormatUsed by many digicamsIs a variation of the JPEG formatStores extra data as metadata with the image fileMetadata stores shutter speed, aperture, and other capture settings72If the original file is opened and resaved inside a photo editing program, the metadata may be stripped from the file.Always work on a copy of the original image file.TIFFStands for Tagged Image File FormatIs the choice for bringing images into publishing programsDoes not compress as much as JPEGChoose when picture quality is more important than file size73Can be opened in both Mac and PC environmentsRAWSimply means rawUsed by high-resolution digicamsDoes not include any in-camera processing featuresProvides a truer version of the scene in front of the cameraLarge file sizeBack74File size is smaller than TIFF.Many photo editing programs can not open RAW files without plug-ins.Many programs can not import the RAW file format.Each manufacturers version of RAW is differentDSLR Camera Image File Formats</p> <p>JPEG (.jpg, .jpeg)require little, if any, color and exposure correction.undergo less scrutiny.need to be delivered, printed, or distributed quickly (often straight from the camera or memory card).take up less media storage.</p> <p>Raw (e.g. RAW, CR2, NEF)</p> <p>Provide you with plenty of image detail and data to make reasonable adjustments without compromising image quality.Offer the maximum available image data, thus provide the potential for generating the highest quality images your sensor can record.Take up to several times the media storage than do JPEG files.Must go through a Raw file conversion process which adds an extra step before distributing, displaying, or printing images using the normal JPEG format.Do not have camera color balance, exposure, or other settings baked-in, so you are free to apply these adjustments (within the boundaries of the available data) after image capture.</p> <p>Getting a Good shotWhile there are hundreds of factors which can make a photo good, it is still a relative term, and good to one person may not be good to someone else.</p> <p>For our purposes we will refer to good in the sense of a correct exposure.</p> <p>ExposureA correct or good exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail as possible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts (shadows) of an image. How much of a range in which you can capture detail from light to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range. As you are about to see, there can be many correct or good exposures</p> <p>There are three factors which influence the exposure of your image:</p> <p>Shutter SpeedApertureISO</p> <p>Exposure </p> <p>Exposure </p> <p>87CAMERA BASICSThese basicsare commonto ALLcameras:F-StopShutter SpeedFilm Speed</p> <p>88CAMERA BASICSF-Stop (how much light is seen, how much the aperture is open)Shutter Speed (how long the light is seen in the aperture)FILM SPEED (how fast the film itself responds to this light)89F-STOPHOW MUCH LIGHT IS SEENSometimes known as apertureRanges from about 1.8 to 32A higher number (i.e. 32) means less light is seen.A lower number (i.e. 1.8) means more light is seen.90F-STOPHIGHER F-stop (i.e. 32)ADVANTAGESIncreased depth of field, i.e. image background is not blurryDISADVANTAGESNeeds more light, i.e. slower shutter speed.</p> <p>91F-STOPLOWER F-STOP (i.e. F1.8)ADVANTAGESLets plenty of light in! Better to use in darker settings.Less blurry since faster shutter speed may be needed to compensate for more light.DISADVANTAGESNo depth of field, i.e. background of image likely out of focus.</p> <p>92F-STOP IMPACTLow F-stopHigh F-stop</p> <p>93SHUTTER SPEEDMEASURES HOW LONG LIGHT IS LET INTO THE FILM/CAMERACommon values include sec, 1/8 second, 1/1000 second etcShorter time means less time for light to get into the cameraShorter time reduces blurriness94SHUTTER SPEEDFASTER SPEEDADVANTAGESReduces blurriness as image is seen only briefly great for sports events.DISADVANTAGESLess time for light to enter cameraRequires bright conditions</p> <p>95SHUTTER SPEEDSLOWER SPEEDADVANTAGESGreat for darker conditions (more time for light to enter the camera)DISADVANTAGESIncreased chance of blurrinessOften requires a tripod be used for steadiness.96Shutter Speed=1/15 of a Second</p> <p>97Shutter Speed=1/150 of a second</p> <p>98FILM SPEEDTraditional cameras use film of different sensitivities. It is measured by its ISO number, i.e. 64, 100 400Slower speed (i.e. 64) is good for enlarging but requires bright light and/or slow shutter speed and/or lower F-stop.Faster Film (i.e. 400) is poor for enlarging but needs less light and thus good for indoor photography.Digital Cameras do not use film per se. They use a technology called CCD (Charge Coupled Device) which senses images.</p> <p>The only difference between these two pictures is that one was shot with automatic exposure, and the other was shot using creative exposure.Which photo do you prefer? Probably the picture on the right! By choosing a creatively dark exposure, the rich colors in the sunset were allowed to shine through.However, technically, the photo on the left is correct, and the photo on the right is incorrect. The camera saw through the lens and tried to expose the bird so that it wouldnt become a shadow. To me, the photo was not about exposing the bird properly, but exposing the sunset properly. The bird was just a nice shape to include in the foreground. This is exactly why you must learn exposurebecause sometimes the scientifically correct exposure is not the best exposure to make the photo look...</p>