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!,, ' DT L FILE COPY I NSWC MP 80-151 AD-A225 273 HEAT TRANSFER TESTING IN THE NSWC HYPERVELOCITY WIND TUNNEL UTILIZING I CO-AXIAL SURFACE THERMOCOUPLES I BY E. R. HEDLUND, J. A. F. HILL, W. C. RAGSDALE, and R. L. P. VOISINET STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT 19 MARCH 1980 I * ,DTIC f ELECTE * t4SW NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER , F-4 Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 * Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 I I TAR1-- s-rAzTM N A I ~Appro .l fo~r public relomw -:ptr"b"t°boo Vo l7 m lo

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Page 1: DT FILE L COPY - DTIC

!,, ' DT L FILE COPY

I NSWC MP 80-151

AD-A225 273

HEAT TRANSFER TESTING IN THE NSWC

HYPERVELOCITY WIND TUNNEL UTILIZING

I CO-AXIAL SURFACE THERMOCOUPLES

IBY E. R. HEDLUND, J. A. F. HILL, W. C. RAGSDALE, and R. L. P. VOISINET

STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT

19 MARCH 1980

I* ,DTIC

f ELECTE

* t4SW

NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER, F-4 Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 * Silver Spring, Maryland 20910I

ITAR1-- s-rAzTM N A

I ~Appro .l fo~r public relomw-:ptr"b"t°boo Vo l7 m lo

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II

U FOREWORD

IThis publication is a documentation of a wind tunnel test that took place

in the Naval Surface Weapons Center's Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel #9 in December

1979. The experimental program was a heat transfer test made at Mach 14 on asphere-cone body instrumented with co-axial surface thermocouples. This test

was the "trial run" for the use of these gages in the hypervelocity wind tunnel.

This publication describes the thermocouples used, together with a description

of how heat transfer rates are calculated from the surface temperature measurements.

It explains the details of the test set-up, the model configuration, and the datareduction technique. It also gives the final results of this test and statesthe accuracy and advantages of this method.

Special acknowledgements are extended to the Arnold Engineering Development

Center for their assistance in sending reports that described their experiences

with the use of co-axial thermocouples in their wind tunnels. The reports helped

us to avoid unnecesary problems with the implementation of the technique.

C. A. FISHER WNIMBy direction

I -Accession ForNTIS GRA&I

DTIC TAB 0Unannounced 0JustifiOatio

STAT2EMNT "A" per Robert Voisinet Di-_riutn/

Naval Surface Weapons Center/Code K24 Avutlability Codes

Dahlgren, VA 22448 VGvaij and/or

TELECON 8/13/90 VG IDIst Specia1

1/2

I

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I

I CONTENTS

3 Page

INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 5

I WIND TUNNEL FACILITY ........................................................ 5

DESCRIPTION OF CO-AXIAL SURFACE THERMOCOUPLE....................... .... ....... 6

ITHEORY BEHIND CALCULATING HEAT FLUX FROM SURFACE THERMOCOUPLES ................. 6

PARAMETERS FOR CREATING A HOMOGENEOUS, SEMI-INFINITE SOLID .................. 7

MODEL CONFIGURATION ......................................................... 7

INSTRUMENTATION ............................................................. 8

TEST SCHEDULE...................................................................... 8

IDATA REDUCTION ................................................................ 8

RESULTS. ....................................................................... 10

ACCURACY. ....................................................................... 11

*CONCLUSIONS.................................................................... 12

i3

I

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ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

1 TIME SEQUENCE OF EVENTS FOR TUNNEL 9 .................................. 132 (a) A TYPICAL TCS MODEL THERMOCOUPLE ............................... 14

(b) CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW OF A THERMOCOUPLE ......................... 14

(c) THERMOCOUPLE PROBE MOUNTED IN WALL ............................. 14

3 ERROR IN HEAT TRANSFER BY ASSUMING SEMI-INFINITE SOLID

BEHAVIOR FOR A FINITE SLAB OF LENGTH L ............................ 1514 MODEL CONFIGURATIONS ................................................... 165 NOSETIP INSTRUMENTATION ................................................ 17

6 CONICAL SECTION INSTRUMENTATION ....................................... 18

7 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (TI) .............. 198 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (T2) .............. 20

9 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (T3) .............. 21

10 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (T4) .............. 22

11 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (T5) .............. 23

12 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (GI) .............. 2413 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (G2) .............. 2514 STANTON NUMBER VS. ANGLE OF ATTACK FOR ALL 4 RUNS (G3) .............. 26

TABLES

Table Page

1 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CHROMEL AND CONSTANTAN ........................ 272 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A CHROMEL-CONSTANTAN THERMOCOUPLE ............. 283 TEST SCHEDULE AND RUN CONDITIONS ...................................... 284 DATA LISTING ........................................................... 29

5 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUN 496 VS. RUN 498(UPSWEEP VS. DOWNSWEEP) .............................................. 76

6 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUA 496 AND RUN 498 VS. RUN 497

("THICK WALL" VS. "THIN WALL") ....................................... 767 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUN 496 AND RUN 499

("THICK WALL" VS. "THIN WALL") ....................................... 778 ACCURACIES FOR AGREEMENT OF RUNS 496, 497, AND 499 VS. THE

G.E. 3-D VISCOUS CODE ................................................ 77

4

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III

INTRODUCTION

7' In the Naval Surface Weapons Center's Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel #9, heattransfer measurements were generally made using Gardon gages (Reference 1).However, the use of co-axial thermocouples to measure heat transfer offers some

important advantages:

1. Calibration stability

* 2. Sturdy design

3. Quick response time

4. Ability to be contoured to model surface

Since these surface thermocouples had never been used in Tunnel 9, ashakedown test plan was established to Oiron out' any problems associated withthe use of these gages. This publication is a documentation of that shakedown

test and its results.......

WIND TUNNEL FACILITY

The shakedown test was conducted in the Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel #9 from

10-12 December 1979. Tunnel 9 has a five foot diameter test cell that usesnitrogen as the working fluid. For the shakedown test the Mach 14 nozzle was usedto expand the nitrogen. The average run time for Tunnel 9 is 1.3 seconds, withuniform flow occurring during the last 0.7 seconds of the run (Fig. 1). Duringthis uniform flow, the model can be pitched through a range of angles of attack.More information about Tunnel 9 can be found in Reference 2.

IGardon, Robert, "An Instrument for the Direct MeasurempnL of Intense ThermalRadiation," The Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 1953.

2Hill, J. A. F., Wardlaw, A. B., Jr., Pronchick, S. W., and Holmes, J. E.,'"Verification Tests in the Mach 14 Nozzle of the Hypervelocity Tunnel at NSWC

(White Oak)," AIAA Paper 77-150, Jan 1977.

II

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DESCRIPTION OF CO-AXIAL SURFACE THERMOCOUPLE

The model number TCS-101-E thermocouples used in the shakedown test are

manufactured by Medtherm Corporation in Huntsville, Alabama. Figure 2(a) showsa picture of a typical thermocouple, and Figure 2(b) shows a cross-sectional

view of the sensing probe of the thermocouple. The sensing probe consists oftwo metals, chromel and constant-n; chromel being the outer tube (first thermo-

couple element) and constantan being the center wire (second thermocouple element).The two elements are insulated except for a vacuum deposited metallic coatingwhich is placed on the end of the probe to form a thermal junction between thechromel and the constantan. Therefore, temperature readings are measured only at

the very tip of the sensing probe. Just below the sensing probe is a mountingthread so that the thermal junction can be positioned relative to the surface of thewall (Fig. 2(c)).

Surfaces of models tested in the wind tunnel are often curved. Since

any surface discrepancies could cause disturbances in the boundary layer, thethermocouples are contoured to the surface by sanding down the tip of the thermo-

couple using 180 grit sandpaper. Although this sanding process takes away theplating, a thermal junction is still created by the blending of the two metals.

The average time response for a thermocouple with the vacuum deposited coating

is one microsecond. For the "blended metal" thermal junction the average timeresponse is about ten microseconds.

Thermal properties for chromel and constantan are given in Table 1, and

thermal properties for the chromel-constantan thermocouple are given in Table 2.

THEORY BEHIND CALCULATING HEAT FLUX FROM SURFACE THERMOCOUPLES

For a one-dimensional heat flux ir.to a homogeneous, semi-infinite solid,the heat flux, 4(t) can be calculated from the change in surface temperature, T(t),from t = 0 by the following equation (References 3 and 4):

4(t) = K(tk)- L tT ( t ) + I ft T(t) - T(T) dT([tl o (t- T)3/

where T is the dummy time variable of integration. Since a linear relationshipis assumed to exist between the actual thermocouple output voltage, E(t), and

temperature, (AE = 6AT), Equation (1) can be rewritten as:

3Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C., Conduction of Heat in Solids, Second Edition,

Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.

4 Vidal, R. J., "Model Instrumentation Techniques for Heat Transfer and Force

Measurements in a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel," CAL Report No. AD-917-A-I, Feb 1956,

WADC TN 56-315, AD 97238.

6

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I4(t) K(Trk) - - [E(t) 1 t - E () 1

t o (t -T)1 1

Since the integral in Equation (2) is very difficult to evaluate, a methodwill be illustrated later in this report (See DATA REDUCTION) for the calculationof 4(t).

PARAMETERS FOR CREATING A HOMOGENEOUS, SEMI-INFINITE SOLID

Since Equations (1) and (2) are based on the fact that the heat is flowinginto a homogeneous, semi-infinite solid, there are three parameters to considerin making a wind tunnel model wall with a thermocouple mounted into it behaveas a homogeneous, semi-infinite wall.

The first parameter to consider is the lumped thermal property, 'irA, ofthe chromel, constantan, and the model wall. If this property is relatively thesame for all three materials, then the concept of homoge~eity is valid. SinceIIi7K for chromel and ccnstantan is approximately 2.45 ft -sec -°F/BTU, then thethermocouple itself is essentially homogeneous. To prevent any radial heatconduction the material that the thermocouple is mounted in (model wall) shouldalso have a Jk/K value approximately equal to 2.45.

The second and third parameters are the duration of the actual wind tunnelrun and the effective length of the thermocouple sensing probe. If the wind tunnelrun is of short duration and the sensing probe is long enough, then the semi-infinite assumption is valid (Reference 5). Since the duration of an averageTunnel 9 run is 1.3 seconds, an appropriate sensing probe length, L, can beselected using the graph shown in Figure 3. Therefore,

L(kt) - = 2.6 for 0% error. (3)

For k = 8.84 X 10 in /sec (constantan)t = 1.3 seconds

then L > .28 inches.

The appropriate sensing probe length and wall thickness for a model in Tunnel 9should be greater than .28 inches.

MODEL CONFIGURATION

The model configuration that was tested was a sphere-cone type body. The

nosetip had a 1.8" radius and the cone half-angle was 7° . The model was Fadeout of 17-4PH Stainless steel. The /ik/K for this material is 2.44 ft2sec'I-OF/BTU,*which is very close to the Ik/K of the chronel-constantan thermocouple.

5Brown, H. K., "The Theoretical Response of Heat Transfer Gages Employed in ShockTubes," AVCO Research Laboratory, Research Note 58, Feb 1958.

Obtained from Materials Selector 75, Vol. 80, No. 4.

7I

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There were two interchangeable conical sections used in the test. The first

conical section was referred to as the "thick wall body" because its wall was3/8" thick (which is thicker than the critical 0.28 inches), and the second conicalsection was referred to as the "thin wall body" because its wall thickness wasonly 0.125" thick. Figure 4 shows a sketch of the two configurations.

INSTRUMENTATION

In the nosetip of the model, two co-axial thermocouples were mounted as shownin Figure 5. Thermocouple "I" was mounted directly in the wall; the wall atthat point being thicker than 0.28 inches. However, co-axial thermocouple "2" wasmounted in the wall inside a 17-4PH stainless steel 0.5" diameter plug that wasrequired to make the wall thicker than 0.28 inches.

In the "thick wall" conical section, three co-axial thermocouples and three

Gardon gages were mounted as shown in Figure 6. The three thermocouples weremounted 5.83 inches downstream from the nosetip; one thermocouple on the leewardmeridian, one on the 900 meridian, and one on the windward meridian. Each Gardongage was mounted one inch downstream from the thermocouples; one on each of themeridians.

In the "thin wall" conical section, three co-axial thermocouples and threeGardon gages were also mounted in the same positions as the "thick wall" body,as shown in Figure 6. However, since the wall was only 0.125" thick, the thermo-couples were mounted in the wall with plugs that would make the wall 0.375". Theplugs had varying diameters to determine a minimum permissible plug diameter.

The Gardon gages used in both the "thick" and "thin" wall bodies weremanufactured by Thermogage and had been used in previous wind tunnel tests.Each gage's heat flux sensitivity, C, was calculated using a calibrated lamp asa known heat source. Each gage's time delay constant, T G, used in the datareduction equations (see DATA REDUCTION) was then calculated by observing the timeit took for each gage to respond to 63.2% of its fullscale output for a step heatinput. The Gardon gages were used in this shakedown test as a check to the co-axial thermocouples.

TEST SCHEDULE

The test matrix and run conditions are given in Table 3. The pitch sweepswere set up to compare upsweep (Run 496) with downsweep (Run 498) data, to comparea static angle of attack (Run 497) with the upsweep and downsweep data, and tocompare thick and thin wall configurations (Runs 496 and 499).

DATA REDUCTION

As was stated previously, Equation (2) is very difficult to evaluate. Forreduction of the raw surface thermocouple output, E(t), into heat flux data, theDixon Method (Reference 6) was used. The Dixon Method is a two-step procedure

6Kendall, D. N. and Dixon W. P., "Heat Transfer Measurements in a Hot Shot WindTunnel," presented at the IEEE Aerospace Systems Conference, Seattle, Washington,11-15 Jul 1966.

8

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i NSWC MP 80-151

that does not require any initial smoothing of the raw thermocouple output. First,

the total heat transfer to the surface is calculated using the following equation:

in E(t i_ + E(t i )

Q(t) = K(k)- 6-l E [t : At (4)i=l L (tn ti- + (tn

where n = 0, 1, 2 ... (t /At + 1) and where At is an equal time increment.

Then, the heat transfer rate is computed by differentiating Q(t):

4(t) - dQ(t) (5)

* dt

The expression for differentiating Q(t) is described in Reference 7 and is:

-(t 1dQ(tn) l 2Q(tn8) - Q(t4) + Q(t 4 ) + 2Q(t 8 ) (6)

A sample voltage was recorded just prior to the wind tunnel run. Thissample voltage was then subtracted from all subsequent voltage readings. Therefore,at to = 0, E(t ) = 0 which imples that q(t0 )

= 0.

For the reduction of the Gardon gage output, E(t), the raw data was firstsmoothed, reversed, and smoothed again using a sixth order Butterworth digitalfilter set at a cutoff frequency of 5Hz. Heat transfer rates were than calculatedusing the following standard Tunnel 9 equation:

4(t) = C Et) + TG dE(t) (7)

where c = calibrated gage sensitivity (EA )

TG = calibrated time delay constant

The term dE(t) is calculated by the method given in Reference 7.

dE(tn _ 1 2E(t E(t + E(t 4 ) + 2E(t (8)dt (40)(At) I n-8 + + n+8

where n = 0, 1, 2 .. .(t/At + 1)

7Ehrich, Fredric F., "Differentation of Experimental Data Using Least SquaresFitting," Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 1955.

I 9I

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Equation (7) is only valid if at t = 0, 4(to ) = 0. Therefore, a sample ofdata was recorded just prior to each wind tunnel run, and this sample voltagewas then subtracted from all subsequent voltages so that at t = 0, E(t ) 0implying that 4(t ) = 0. 0 0

From the heat transfer rates calculated from the co-axial thermocouple andGardon gage readings, Stanton numbers were calculated by the following equation:

ST = [P U.CCp (T0 1 - Tw)] - 1 (9)

where 4 calculated heat transfer rate (BTU/ft 2-sec)

3Po= free stream density (Ibm/ft )

U= free stream velocity (ft/sec)

C = heat capacity for nitrogen = 0.2481 BTU/Ibm - OFp

T01= equivalent ideal gas supply temperature (0F)(calculated from T and tables in Reference 8)0

T = measured wall temperature (0F)*

The free stream properties are calculated from a pitot tube measurement inthe flow and a supply pressure, P0 measurement.

RESULTS

Table 4 is a listing of the data obtained from the shakedown test. It shouldbe noted that T5 went bad on Run 499, and G3 went bad on Run 498. The listingonly shows data during the "uniform flow" portion of each run. Figures 7 through14 show plotted data of Stanton number vs. angle of attack for all four runs.Heat transfer calculations made by the G.E. 3-D Viscous Code (Reference 9) arealso shown on these figures.

8Cullotta, S. and Richards, B. E., "Methods for Determining Conditions in RealNitrogen Expanding Flows," VKI-TN-58, Feb 1970.

For Gardon gage data the nearest co-axial thermocouple temperature reading wasused as the t value.

w

9Hecht, A. M., Nestler, D. E., and Richbourg, D. H., "Application of a Three-Dimensional Viscous Computer Code to Reentry Vehicle Design," AIAA Paper 79-0306,Jan 1979.

10

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I ACCURACY

- Comparisons will be made with respect to the repeatability of the upsweep(Run 496) and downsweep (Run 498) data; the repeatability of the upsweep (Run 496),downsweep (Run 498), and static angle (Run 497) data; and the repeatability ofthe "thick wall" configuration (Run 496) and the "thin wall" configuration (Run499) data. A comparison will also be made between the calculations of the G.E.3-D Viscous Code (Reference 9) and the data for Runs 496, 498, and 499. It shouldbe noted that the following tunnel properties have the following previously

observed accuracies:

Supply pressure, P - +.4%

Supply temperature, T0 - -1.7% to +.5%

Pitot measurement - +.3%

Free stream Mach number, M7 -.

Free stream pressure, P. - +2.8%

Free stream unit Reynolds number, Rej/ft - -1.4% to +2.8%

The angle of attack measurements are accurate to within 0.10 for Run 496and to within 0.30 for Runs 497 through 499.

The Dixon method calculates heat transfer rates to within an accuracy ofless than 1%. As for the Gardon gages, the gage sensitivities and the time delayconstants are accurate to +5%.

Comparison of Upsweep vs. Downsweep Data. Table 5 lists the accuracies forthe repeatability of the Stanton number data for Run 496 (upsweep) vs. Run 498(downsweep) for each gage at 5 angles of attack. The repeatability for the tworuns shows an average percentage difference of about 7.8%.

Comparison of Upsweep-Downsweep vs. Static Angle Data. Table 6 lists theaccuracies for the repeatability of the Stanton number data for Run 496 (upsweep)vs. Run 497 (static angle) and Run 498 (downsweep) vs. Run 497 (static angle)for each gage at an angle of attack of 10 . The repeatability between the dynamicand static data has an average difference of about 4.1%.

Comparison of "Thick Wall" vs. "Thin Wall" Data. Table 7 lists the accuraciesfor the repeatability of the Stanton number data for Run 496 (thick wall) vs. Run499 (thin wall) for each gage at five angles of attack. G2 is not listed becauseit was slightly recessed in the model wall and was, therefore, measuring lowerheating rates. T3, T4, and T5 were mounted in plugs of 3/4", 1/2", and 1/4"diameters, respectively. Each plug made the wall thickness 3/8". Since T3 wentbad, the results are inconclusive as to the minimum diameter plug that can beused so that the wall will be semi-infinite in the radial direction. A plug mayI9 See footnote 9 on page 10.

!11

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not be needed as long as the sensor length is greater than 0.28 inch. However,T2 was mounted in a 1/2" diameter plug and its repeatability difference throughoutthe test was about 6.5%. Therefore, a configuration of a 1/2" diameter plug andthermocouple is a possible working configuration.

Comparison of Runs 496, 498, and 499 vs. the G.E. 3-D Viscous Code. Table 8lists the accuracies for agreement of the Stanton number data between Runs 496,4g8, and 499, and the GE 3-D Viscous Code (Reference 9) for each gage at 0 and5 angle of attack. The average difference in agreement with the code is about8.8%, with the code's calculation of the leeward heating contributing to most ofthe error.

CONCLUSIONS

In comparing the surface thermocouple method of measuring heat transfer to theuse of Gardon gages in Tunnel 9, the thermocouples have distinct advantages:

1. Gardon gages require a calibration, whereas the thermocouples have an

inherent bi-metallic calibration.

2. Gardon gages have a slow response time (on the order of 50 msec) that

must be rectified in the data reduction procedure to acquire accurate timewisedata, whereas the thermocouples have an almost "instantaneous" response time(about 10 psec).

3. Gardon gages have a delicate, thin skin that can be broken by the flow

(e.g., G3 on Run 498), whereas thermocouples are a solid piece of metal thatcannot be disturbed by the flow.

4. Gardon gages cannot be contoured to the model surface, e.g., G2 was

slightly recessed in the model wall causing it to measure a lower heating rate,whereas the thermocouples can be contoured exactly to the model surface.

An estimate of the accuracy of heat transfer rates by the thermocouplesis +6%. This is slightly better than the 7% accuracy that has been observed for

Gardon gages in Tunnel 9. In light of this accuracy along with the advantagesover the Gardon gages, the co-axial thermocouples proved to be a -iable methodfor measuring aerodynamic heating during pitch sweeps in Tunnel 9.

9See footnote 9 on page 10.

1

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FIGURE 2(a) A TYPICAL TCS MODEL THERMOCOUPLE

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FIGURE 2(b) CROSS- SECTIONAL VIEW OF FIGURE 2(c) THERMOCOUPLETHERMOCOUPLE. (PLATING PROBE MOUNTEDAND INSULATION EXAGGERATED IN MODEL WALLIN SIZE)

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.375",

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FIGURE 4 MODEL CONFIGURATIONS

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TABLE 1 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CHROMEL AND CONSTANTAN*

IThermal Property Chromel Constantan

1. Thermal ConductivityK (BTU/in-sec- 0F) @ 75'F .242 X 10- .267 X 10O-

2. Specific Heat0C p(BTu/lb- F @ 68'F .107 .094

3. Density 305 (lb/in ).315 .322

4. Thermal 2Diffusivt - 3k(n/sec) 7.18 X 10 8.4X1

5. Melting Point( 0F) 2600 2210

Properties given by the Hoskins Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Michigan 48208

Properties given by the Thermo-Electric Company, Inc., Saddle Brook,New Jersey 07662

* 27

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TABLE 2 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CHROMEL-CONSTANTAN THERMOCOUPLE

Thermal Property Value

1. Lumped Thermal Property

i7K (ft -sec -°F/BTU) 2.45

2. Thermoelectric Sensitivity

6 (pv/0F) 34.5

3. Heat Flux Sensitivity

mv/sec .096E( t/4/ (BTU/ft 2 _- sec)

Theoretical values

9*

Value obtained from National Bureau of Standards Circular #561 for a chromel-constantan thermocouple

TABLE 3 TEST SCHEDULE AND RUN CONDITIONS

Angle of Attack

Model Average Average Average Average Pitch Sweep dur-

Run No. Configuration Mach No. P0 (psia) To(OF) Re,,/ft ing Uniform Flow

496 "Thick Wall" 14.01 19604 2913 3.44 X 106 00 for .4sec then

Body a pitch from 00

to 180

497 "Thick Wall" 13.82 19538 2867 3.73 X 106 I0° constantBody

498 "Thick Wall" 13.85 19782 2802 3.92 X 106 Pitch from 190 to

Body 220 to 00

499 "Thin Wall" 13.97 20741 2872 3.85 X 106 Same as 496Body

28

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4174

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III

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I 75

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TABLE 5 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUN 496 VS. RUN 498(UPSWEEP VS. DOWNSWEEP)

ALPHA TI T2 T3 T4 T5 Gi G2 G3

00 2.3% 7.7% 6.9% 9.8% 20.1% 7.6% 12.7% -

30 .3% 2.1% 2.9% 9.1% 17.8% 4.9% 13.1% -

5 .3% 4.6% 5.6% 6.2% 18.3% 8.7% 9.5% -

100 .6% 11.6% 1.2% 8.6% 14.9% 21.8% 8.8% -

160 1.0% 17.4% 7.7% 5.2% 12.2% 4.9% 4.5% -

(Note: Values in % difference in agreement)

TABLE 6 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUN 496 AND RUN 498 VS. RUN 497(DYNAMIC SWEEP VS. STATIC)

RUN ALPHA T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Gi G2 G3

496 vs. 100 0% 6.9% 2.7% 7.4% 3.8% 19.3% 5.5% 15.1%497

498 vs. 100 .7% 5.1% 1.5% 1.3% 11.5% 3.0% 3.5% -

497

(Note: Values in % difference in agreement)

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ITABLE 7 ACCURACIES FOR REPEATABILITY OF RUN 496 AND RUN 499

("THICK WALL" VS. "THIN WALL")

g *ALPHA TI T2 T3 T4 T5 Gi G2 G3

0 1.4% 6.6% - 16.1% 10.2% 17.0% - 8.0%

30 .4% 2.6% - 16.1% 9.0% 14.0% - 13.6%

5 0 1.2% 2.6% - 13.8% 3.1% 13.6% - 14.8%

100 .7% 2.3% - 16.7% 12.1% 16.5% - 17.8%

160 2.7% 5.9% - 16.4% 11.4% 26.2% - 17.7%

*G2 was recessed in model wall on Run 499. No comparison of this gage was made.

(Note: Values in % differer-ce in agreement)I

i TABLE 8 ACCURACIES FOR AGREEMENT OF RUNS 496, 497, AND 499 vs.THE G.E. 3-D VISCOUS CODEi

RUN ALPHA Ti T2 T3 T4 T5 Gl G2 G3

Run 496 00 10.0% 0.0% .5% 5.9% 1.2% .6% 4.6% 10.7%vs. Code 50 2.8% 25.1% 12.6% 6.0% .1% 5.8% 3.5% 6.6%

I Run 498 00 5.4% 3.5% 1.9% .4% 15.4% 2.7% 12.9% -

vs. Code 50 8.0% 31.7% 17.4% 5.4% 13.1% 8.2% 7.3% -

Run 499 00 6.2% 2.3% - 6.6% 15.3% 13.0% - 13.0%

vs. Code 50 7.1% 25.7% - 3.0% 13.2% 14.9% - 14.9%

(Note: Values in % difference in agreement)

I 7708

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1 BIBLIOGRAPHY

IBrown, H. K., "The Theoretical Response of Heat Transfer Gages Employed in ShockTubes," AVCO Research Laboratory, Research Note 58, Feb 1958.

Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C., Conduction of Heat in Solids, Second Edition,Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.

Culotta, S. and Richards, B. E., "Methods for Determining Conditions in RealNitrogen Expanding Flows," VKI-TN-58, Feb 1970.

I Ehrich, Fredric F., "Differentiation of Experimental Data Using Least SquaresFitting," Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 1955.

Gardon, Robert, "An Instrument for the Direct Measurement of Intense ThermalRadiation," The Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 1953.

Hecht, A. M., Nestler, D. E., and Richbourg, D. H., "Application of a Three-

Dimensional Viscous Computer Code to Reentry Vehicle Design," AIAA Paper 79-0306,

Jan 1979.

Hill, J. A. F., Wardlaw, A. B., Jr., Pronchick, S. W., and Holmes, J. E.,"Verification Tests in the Mach 14 Nozzle of the Hypervelocity Tunnel at NSWC

(White Oak)," AIAA Paper 77-150, Jan 1977.

Kendall, D. N. and Dixon, W. P., "Heat Transfer Measurements in a Hot Shot WindTunnel," Presented at the IEEE Aerospace Systems Conference, Seattle, Washington,11-15 Jul 1966.

Vidal, R. .. , "Model Instrumentation Techniques for Heat Transfer and ForceMeasurements in a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel," CAL Report No. AD-917-A-1, Feb 1956

WADC TN 56-315, AD 97238.

7!I

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i TERMS

IALPHA angle of attack (0)

I C calibrated Gardon gage sensitivity (.)

C specific heat

E output voltage

k thermal diffusivity

K thermal conductivity

iL minimum effective sensing probe length

M free stream Mach number

i MACH free stream Mach number

P supply pressure (psia)

PINF free stream pressure (psia)

PO supply pressure (psia)

4heat transfer rate (BTU/ft -sec)

Q cumulative heat transfer to a surface (BTU/ft2

QDOT heat transfer rate (BTU/ft 2-sec)

REI/ft free stream Reynolds number

REINF free stream Reynolds number

RHOINF free stream density (lbm/ft 3)

ST Stanton number

t time

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TERMS (Cont.)

T temperature

T supply temperature (0 F)o

T 01 equivalent ideal gas supply temperature (0F)

T measured wall temperature (OF)w

TINF free stream temperature (OF)

TO supply temperature (OF)

TO equivalent ideal gas supply temperature (OF)

TW measured wall temperature (OF)

UC free stream velocity (ft/sec)

UINF free stream velocity (ft/sec)

U angle of attack

6 thermoelectric sensitivity (1v/oF)

p density

PC. free stream density ( bm/ft3)

T dummy variable of integration

T G calibrated Gardon gage time delay constant

82