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  • Vol. 4, No. 4 April 2013 ISSN 2079-8407

    Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences 2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.



    E-Government Based on Cloud Computing 1 Kostandina Veljanovska,

    2 Violeta Zdravevska

    1 Associate Professor in Information Systems and Networks, Artificial Intelligence and Systems and Data Processing at the Faculty of

    Administration and Information Systems Management, University St. Kliment Ohridski - Bitola, R. Macedonia. 2 Master student, Faculty of Administration and Information System Management,

    University St. Kliment Ohridski -Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

    ABSTRACT The concept of cloud computing becomes important for each government, facilitating its way of work, increasing its

    productivity and all that leading to cost savings. Different country chooses different strategy for adoption of cloud

    computing with a possibility to become better and more effective e-government. In this paper, the scope of our work is

    oriented toward description of cloud computing, e-government and description of the way in which Australia implemented

    cloud computing and where is Republic of Macedonia in these field. The analysis of the Australian cloud computing

    adoption strategy for e-government helps to understand the process of implementation of cloud computing that both

    Macedonian government and citizens will adopt it as soon as possible. Results show progress in Macedonian information

    society and a good start in cloud computing pilot projects.

    Keywords: cloud computing, e-government. Information and Communication Technology, pilot projects

    1. INTRODUCTION Information and Communication Technologies

    are the key factor for global society development.

    Innovations in information and communication technology

    are always there in order to increase productivity, to

    change the way we work, to grow business economy, to

    share global knowledge and to have automated business

    processes and communications. One important innovation

    in information and communication technology is cloud

    computing. Over the past few years cloud computing made

    revolution in the way of working in many areas.

    In this paper we will see what is cloud computing,

    the types of clouds, architecture of cloud computing and

    how e-government is realized over the cloud computing

    architecture. Also there is a description of the Australian

    government strategy of adoption of cloud computing

    concept and where is Republic of Macedonia in adoption

    of cloud computing. At the end we analyze the possibility

    of using the cloud computing for the e-government in

    Republic of Macedonia.

    2. CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing is a revolutionary concept for

    many businesses, governments and citizens. Definition for

    Cloud computing is that Cloud computing is a new way

    of delivering computing resources (network, services,

    servers, data storing), not a new technology [ENISA,

    European Network and Information Security Agency] [1].

    The users, like businesses, customers, governments or

    others, can use an application without installation at any

    computers and can access to the required data via Internet

    access. Another definition is that Cloud computing is a

    style of Computing where scalable and elastic IT

    capabilities are provided as a service to a multiple

    customers using Internet technologies, on a pay per use

    basis [Melbourne IT, Australias largest domain name

    registrar] [2]. According to Gather, by 2012, 20% of

    businesses will adopt cloud services and own no IT assets


    Cloud computing can be classified into 4 types

    based on the location where the cloud is hosted. These four

    types have common traits, but they also have different key


    The four types of clouds on the basis of their host

    location are listed below [4] [5].

    Public Cloud: Cloud provider dynamically allocates resources on a per-user basis through

    web application. This type, public cloud, allows

    unlimited access and unlimited data capacity for

    the consumers.

    Private Cloud: The private cloud is known as an internal cloud. The private cloud computing is the

    next generation of virtualization. This type allows

    increased data security and customized IT

    network control.

    Hybrid Cloud: Usage of both public and private cloud together.

    Community Cloud: Organizations of the same community share computing infrastructure. This

    cloud may be managed by the organization or by

    a third-party.

    Cloud computing offers significant advantages,

    some of them are [3] [5]:

    Users pay according to the model pay-as-you-use, avoiding capital investment

    Scalability access to the additional resources when they are needed

    Availability high available application, CPU, file system, network, storage space

    Cost reducing lower IT cost, energy cost and carbon emission. By 2020, U.S. companies that

  • Vol. 4, No. 4 April 2013 ISSN 2079-8407

    Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences 2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.



    use cloud computing will be able to achieve

    annual energy savings of $12.3 billion and annual

    carbon reduction equivalent to 200 million barrels

    of oil enough to power 5.7 million cars for one

    year (Based on Bureau of Transportation

    Statistics average miles per gallon, Federal

    Highway Administration average annual mileage

    and the Energy Information Agency gallons of

    gasoline per barrel of oil. Survey was made on

    2,653 U.S. global companies with annual

    revenues of more than $1 billion in the U.S.) [6].

    Cloud computing software facilitates the manipulation of large databases



    Service oriented software

    Advances security technology

    Businesses, governments and individuals benefit

    from using the services offered by cloud computing.

    3. ARCHITECTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING The concept of cloud computing would be clear

    by describing the cloud computing architecture. Cloud

    computing provides a set of services and can be

    represented as layered architecture. There are three

    architectural layers according to its provided services:

    SaaS, PaaS and IaaS.

    Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the providers

    application running on a cloud infrastructure. The

    applications are accessible from various client

    devices, such as a web browser. The consumer

    does not manage or control the underlying cloud

    infrastructure including network, servers,

    operating systems, storage, or even individual

    application capabilities, with the possible

    exception of limited user-specific application

    configuration settings [7]. According to a Gather

    Group estimate [8], SaaS sales in 2010 reached $

    $10 billion and were projected to increase to

    $12.2 in 2011. In the fourth quarter of 2011, only

    17 percent of organizations have replaced or plan

    to replace parts of their core business intelligence

    functions with clouds/SaaS offerings. Almost a

    third (27%) already uses or plans to use

    cloud/SaaS option to augment their business

    intelligence capabilities for specific lines of

    business or subject areas in the next 12 months


    Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the

    cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired

    applications, created using programming

    languages and tools supported by the provider.

    The consumer does not manage or control the

    underlying cloud infrastructure including

    network, servers, operating systems, or storage,

    but has control over the deployed applications and

    possibly application hosting environment

    configurations [7].

    Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provide

    processing, storage, networks, and other

    fundamental computing resources where the

    consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary

    software, which can include operating systems

    and applications. The consumer does not manage

    or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but

    has control over: operating systems, storage,

    deployed applications, and possibly limited

    control of selected networking components (e.g.

    host firewalls) [7].

    The technologies behind the Cloud are:

    virtualization, distributed computing, grid technology, free

    and open source platform, service oriented architecture,

    browser as a platform. Other technologies are: Service

    Level Agreement (SLA), autonomic system, web 2.0, web

    application framework and others [3].

    4. E-GOVERNANCE OVER THE CONCEPT OF CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud computing can be a choice of interest for a

    government with a view to become e-government and to

    be effective and proactive regarding to the change that

    happens in the area of Information technology. E-

    government is a process of reform in the way how

    governments work, share information, engage citizens and

    deliver services to external and internal clients while the

    government and clients that they serve benefit from this

    way of working.

    Many governments worked on projects to adopt

    the concept of cloud computing, for example: Australia,

    USA where administration started a project related to

    cloud computing for identifying services that can use cloud

    computing, United Kingdom where a project for adopting

    cloud computing was started with the objective to reduce

    its administrative costs, Canada, New Zealand, Japan

    which that work on project for various ministries to share

    platforms and infrastructure. In Europe, countries that are

    among the leaders in adopting cloud computing for e-

    governance working are France, Sweden and Spain [4].

    E-government realized through the concept of

    cloud computing offers an effective way of sharing

    information to the citizens and businesses, helps budget

    management and decision makers, reduces its efforts of

    providing services and effectively utilizes resources

    provided by its services. The governments ministries,

    interested in the environmental pollution and involved in

    the Go green projects, collaborate with each other

    through cloud computing, using a common infrastructure,

    platform and applications and delivering cost-effective

  • Vol. 4, No. 4 April 2013 ISSN 2079-8407

    Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences 2009-2013 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.



    services to the public. All of these efforts can drive the

    growth of the economy and government productivity.

    E-governments services provided over the

    concept of cloud computing need to be automated. E-

    governments services fall into the following categories


    Government to Government (G2G): Interaction between government organizations, departments

    and ministries with the intention to exchange

    information, to collaborate, to deliver services and

    so on. Typically, when some services from this

    category are provided, the level of message

    passing across government organizations,

    departments and ministries is really high.

    Government to Enterprise (G2E): Services that belong to this category are delivered to the

    enterprises. Enterprises need to react according to

    the policies implemented in those services and

    those services are controlled by the government.

    The high level of law enforcement is one of the

    main characteristics for the G2E services.

    Government to Business (G2B): Government provides services for the businesses over creating

    and managing contracts for business working.

    Government to Citizens (G2C): Government provides innumerable services from this category

    for the citizens. In this category, different

    governments departments offer various services

    for the citizens.

    With the e-government adoption of cloud

    computing, all governments services are virtualized.

    Because e-Government requires 24/7 hours infrastructure

    availability, with cloud computing this can be achieved.

    Also cloud computing application offers unlimited supply

    of data storage, CPU, memory and bandwidth.


    STRATEGY FOR E- GOVERNMENT The Australian Government has the US

    Governments National Institute of Standards and

    Technology (NIST) definition for cloud computing, and

    that is: Cloud computing is an ICT sourcing and delivery

    model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access

    to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.

    networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that

    can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal

    management effort or service provider interaction [10]


    The Australian governments businesses activities

    are dependent upon the Information and Communication

    technologies. With cloud computing, services are delivered

    to the end users devices on demand, but, when cloud

    computing concept is adopted for e-government working,

    there are different requirements concerning security and

    privacy required for the government transactions and

    services for the citizens [10].

    Since 2011, Australian governments agencies

    investigated opportunities for cloud solutions and

    implemented cloud solutions through a risk-managed

    approach taking into consideration cloud computing

    services for money, benefits, security requirements and

    service level requirements. Australian government had a

    vision to become governments ICT ecosystem and to

    satisfy the needs of businesses, citizens and enterprises by

    using cloud computing. Using the strategy for cloud

    computing, Australia tends to satisfy those needs in an

    optimal way related to cost, flexibility and security. This

    strategy is both, tactical and strategic and its based on a

    risk-based approach [10].


    GOVERNMENTS AGENCIES According to the Australian Government Cloud

    Computing Strategy, Australian governments agencies

    seek innovative ways to deliver government services and

    want to rationalize their ICT asset.

    Some agencies have already commenced small

    pilots and proofs of concepts to evaluate the potential of

    application, platforms and infrastructure cloud computing.

    The agencies are [10]:

    Agency Pilots / proof of concepts /

    implementation of cloud computing

    West Australian

    Department of

    Treasury and

    Finance (DTF)

    DTF implemented private cloud.

    This was announced in August


    West Australian

    Health (WA


    WA Health implemented private

    cloud. This was announced in

    August 2010 and anticipated

    competition for WA Health data

    centers were in April 2011 and June


    Department of

    Immigration and



    DIAC impleme...


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