early childhood and elementary preservice teachers’ beliefs
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Journal of Early Childhood TeacherEducationPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujec20
Early childhood and elementarypreservice teachers beliefsHueyLing Lin a , Nedra Hazareesingh b , Janet Taylor c , JeffreyGorrell c & Helen L. Carlson ba Alabama State University , Montgomery, AL 361010271, USAb University of Minnesota , Duluth, MN, USAc Auburn UniversityPublished online: 03 Aug 2006.
To cite this article: HueyLing Lin , Nedra Hazareesingh , Janet Taylor , Jeffrey Gorrell & HelenL. Carlson (2001) Early childhood and elementary preservice teachers beliefs, Journal of EarlyChildhood Teacher Education, 22:3, 135-150, DOI: 10.1080/1090102010220302
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1090102010220302
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Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education 22 (2001) 135-150
Journal of J?arly
Early childhood and elementary preservice teachers'beliefs
Huey-Ling Lina,*, Nedra Hazareesinghb, Janet Taylorc, Jeffrey Gorrellc,Helen L. Carlsonb
aAlabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36101-0271, USAbUniversity of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, USA
Received 19 June 2000; accepted 17 September 2000
In this study we examined 382 preservice teachers' perceived efficacy, their beliefs regarding teaching andlearning, and the relationship between these two variables by analyzing quantitative and qualitative data using amodified version of the Gibson and Dembo Teacher Efficacy Scale and six open-ended questions. A general linearmodel analysis revealed that several factors differ across certain preparation programs. Preservice teachers'efficacy beliefs increased at the end of these two different teacher education programs. Qualitative analyzesrevealed variance in preservice teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning between the two majors and in thetwo locations which they were studying. Most ending-level preservice teachers had adopted the views of the wayteachers are supposed to teach promoted by the particular teacher education program. The internal programcoherence, program structural contexts, program's goals, and learning experiences in the program may act asimportant factors on preservice teachers' beliefs. 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
Preservice teachers enter teacher preparation pro-grams with well established beliefs about teachingand learning which may be subject to change (Clark,1988; Clark & Peterson, 1986; Florio-Ruane & Lens-mire, 1990; Hollingsworth, 1989; Lottie, 1975; Nes-por, 1987; Weinstein, 1989; Wilson, Konopak &Readence, 1994) but those beliefs often are resistantto change (Kagan, 1992; McLaughlin, 1991; Tschan-nen-Moran, Woolfolk & Hoy, 1998; Weinstein,1989, 1990). Several studies provide evidence thatteacher education programs have little impact onteachers' beliefs (Finlayson & Cohen, 1967; Gibson,
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E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (H.-L. Lin).
1972; Lacey, 1977; Lortie, 1975; McDiarmid, 1990;Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1981). Zeichner & Tabach-nich (1981) reported that the beliefs preservice teach-ers bring with them tend to be maintained whenstudent teachers learn the curriculum and pedagogi-cal methods from their cooperating classroom teach-ers. Formal training in pedagogy at the university isseen as having little impact in comparison with theinfluence of prior experiences (Zeichner & Grant,1981).
Although there is no conclusive evidence con-cerning the degree to which teacher education pro-grams have an impact on preservice teachers' beliefs,evidence exists to support the idea that under certainconditions preservice teachers' conceptions aboutteaching and learning may change during teacherpreparation programs (Feiman-Nemser, McDiarmid,Melnick, & Parker, 1989; Florio-Ruane & Lensmire,1990; Gibson, 1972; Hollingsworth, 1988; Skipper &
0163-6388/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.PII: S0190-1027(01)00117-9
136 H.-L. Lin et al. /Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education 22 (2001) 135-150
Quantz, 1987; Tamir, 1991). Feiman-Nemser et al.(1989) conducted an exploratory study of conceptualchange with 91 preservice teachers in an introductorycourse. They found the entry preservice teachers per-ceived teaching simply as telling and the ending-levelpreservice teachers perceived teaching as being amore complex set of activities and relationships suchas facilitating and guiding. Hollingsworth (1989)stated that students enter teacher education programswith definite ideas about teaching and learning. Shedescribed how those beliefs and ideas may change asa result of the experiences provided in the preserviceprogram. Tamir (1991) concluded that teacher prep-aration and experiences of prospective teachers sig-nificantly affect their expressed views and beliefsabout learning and teaching. Florio-Ruane and Lens-mire (1990), Hollingsworth, (1988, 1989) Skipperand Quantz, (1987) and Tamir (1991) indicated thatteacher preparation programs seem to enhance theattitudes and beliefs of preservice teachers.
By using interviews, observation and question-naires, Tatto (1998) classified teacher training pro-grams into several categories based on their theoret-ical views of learning to teach. Her examination ofthe views of student teachers at different points oftheir teacher education programs showed there weresimilarities and differences across programs with re-gard to beliefs about teaching diverse students, andabout sources of school success and failure. She sug-gests that programs that build a highly coherent cur-riculum have faculty who share common perspec-tives which, in turn, influence graduates' to changetheir views to be more consistent with program em-phases.
Gibson (1972) conducted a study of studentteacher perceptions concerning teacher-role expecta-tions during a three-year period of teacher prepara-tion programs. He found that the early part of theteacher education program seemed to have significanteffects in changing students' attitudes. Also collegecourse work and student teaching experiences mayhave some influences on teachers' sense of efficacy(Ashton & Webb, 1986; Enochs, Scharmann &Riggs, 1995; Watters & Ginns, 1995). The level ofself-efficacy would affect preservice teachers' con-cept change during teacher education (Imants & Tel-lema, 1995).
Teacher's sense of efficacy has been linked tovarious personal and professional factors: (a) teachercharacteristics (e.g., willingness to try a variety ofmaterials and approaches, willingness to work withdifficult students, the desire to find better ways ofteaching, and implementation of progressive and in-novative methods) (Allinder, 1995); (b) preserviceteachers' level of professional commitment (Cola-darci, 1992; Evans & Tribble, 1986); (c) external
factors (e.g., students' family background, parent in-volvement) (Bandura, 1997; Hoover-Dempsey,Bassler & Brissie, 1987); (d) involvement in aca-demic activities (Guskey, 1987); (e) teachers' percep-tions of children and control (Woolfolk & Hoy,1990); (f) classroom management and discipline(Emmer & Hickman, 1991; Soodak & Podell, 1994);and (g) attitudes toward teaching (Tschannen-Moran,et al., 1998).
Ashton, Webb, and Doda (1982) categorizedsome teacher characteristics which differentiated ahigh sense of efficacy from a low sense of efficacy.For example, teachers with a high sense of efficacyhad positive expectations for student behavior andachievement; took personal responsibility for studentlearning; used different strategies for achieving ob-jectives; and had a sense of cont