early cinematography

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  • Presented By: Sourav Kr.BhoumikMS Fellow,7th batch,2014National Council of Science Museums

  • INTRODUCTIONThecinema, orcinematography, depends on the principle of the persistence of vision.

    It is a phenomenon mentioned by Lucretius about 65 B.C., by which we often attribute to an object which moves very rapidly before our eyes, a size and a shape it does not possess.

    Or the object may be seen in more than one place at once, if it moves fast enough.

  • PIONEER OF EARLY CINEMA: THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931)Thomas Edison was one of the most prolific inventors of the nineteenth century, with over a thousand patents in his name.

    He developed the phonograph (1877), the first practical incandescent lamp (1879) and the world's first central electrical power station (1879).

    In 1894, the Edison Manufacturing Company was set up to make films for the Kinetoscope and to exploit it commercially.


    A more elaborate application of the principle was the phenakistoscope of the Belgian scientist Joseph Plateau, and the stroboscope of Simon Stampfer of Vienna, independently invented by them in 1832.

    Fig: ThaumatropeFig: PhenakistoscopeThe first was the thaumatrope, invented by Dr Fitton about 1826,though generally attributed to Dr Parris, who made it for sale.


    The first person to project animated effects on a screen, by painting figures round a glass disc and illuminating them by a magic lantern, was Franz von Uchatius, an Austrian officer, about 1850.

    Fig: Zoetrope

    Another instrument for the production of animated pictures was devised by the mathematician W. G. Horner in 1833(and named zoetrope in 1867).

  • WAY TO THE MOVING PICTURE The concept of creating continuous live action did not occur until 1872 when British photographer Eadweard Muybridge was hired by California governor Leland Stanford to win a bet that all four hooves of a race horse left the ground when it ran.

  • WAY TO THE MOVING PICTURE Thomas Edison is often credited with inventing the first motion picture camera in 1891 with the Kinetoscope.

    In 1891 the Edison Company in the USA successfully demonstrated a prototype of the Kinetoscope, which enabled one person at a time to view moving pictures.

    April 1894, the first Kinetoscope Parlors were opened in New York City (Burns).

    Fig: Kinetoscope

  • EARLY DEVELOPMENTSAll to adjust to the demands of the audiences for this new entertainment


    In later 1903, projectionist Edwin S. Porter released The Great Train Robbery which is considered the worlds first blockbuster film.

    In 1908, an actor-screenwriter named David Wark Griffith began making one-reel films for Biography.

    The success of the French film Les Amours de la Reine Elisabeth (Queen Elizabeth) and the Italian three-hour epic Cabiria inspired a new generation of filmmakers to attempt movies that were several reels in length.

  • EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGYMORDERN AGE CINEMATraditionally the term "cinematography" referred to working with motion-picture film emulsion, but it is now largely synonymous withvideography and digital video due to the popularity of digital cinematography.

    Modern digitalimage processing has also made it possible to radically modify pictures from how they were originally captured.

    This has allowed new disciplines to encroach on some of the choices that were once the cinematographer's exclusive domain.


  • 100 YEARS OF INDIAN CINEMADadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian Cinema, released his worldwide feature film Raja Harishchandra on 3rd May on 1913 .The silent era came to an end when Ardeshir Irani,the father of the talkie, produced his first talkie, 'Alam Ara' in 1931.By the late 1940s, films were being made in various Indian languages with religion being the dominant theme. 1940s to late 1950s was also the golden era of music.50s and 60s were considered as the Golden Age of Indian cinema. To celebrate 100 years of cinema in India, the Government of India, in cooperation with the film industry, has proposed to line up a host of activities between May 3, 2012 and May 3, 2013.

  • CONCLUSIONCinematography is the illusion of movement by the recording and subsequent rapid projection of many still photographic pictures on a screen.

    The history of film cannot be credited to one individual as an over simplification of any history often tries to do.

    Each inventor added to the progress of other inventors, culminating in progress for the entire art and industry.

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