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- 1. MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY JANUARY 2016 SEMESTER WEB 20302 PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 2 RESEARCH PROPOSAL: THE IMPACT OF EBOLA OUTBREAK CLASS: L02
- 2. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Ebola, previously known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus species. The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in what is now, Nzara, South Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The current outbreak in West Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveler) to Nigeria and USA (1 traveler), and by land to Senegal (1 traveler) and Mali (2 travelers). The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have very weak health systems, lack human and infrastructural resources, and have only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability. On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared the West Africa outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the International Health Regulations (2005).
- 3. 2 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebola virus. There are five species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Ta Forest. The first three, Bundibugyo Ebola virus, Zaire Ebola virus, and Sudan Ebola virus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa. The virus causing the 2014 West African outbreak belongs to the Zaire species. The Ebola virus can only be passed on by direct contact with bodily fluids of an affected person or animal (such as urine, sweat or blood); therefore simply raising awareness can stop an Ebola outbreak. This is why raising community awareness about the disease among malaysians, so that people understand how the virus is transmitted, recognize the symptoms of those who are infected and are empowered to take action to prevent the spread. We know that by raising awareness of the symptoms of Ebola, we can both reduce the spread of this disease and better care for those suffering from it.
- 4. 3 1.2 Statement of The Problem Creating awareness for Malaysian citizens about the deadly disease(Ebola) The outbreak of Ebola began in December 2013 in the rural Gueckedou district of Guinea. It was hoped that the virus could be confined to Guinea, as even by April 2014, very few cases were identified in the neighbouring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. In addition, a drop in the number of confirmed cases in Guinea inspired hope that the epidemic was beginning to subside. However, by May 2014, the number of reported cases increased sharply in the three aforementioned countries, and by August 16th, the disease had spread to so many countries with 2, 240 total cases and 1, 229 deaths in the three countries. 1.3 Purpose of the study Although the Ebola epidemic is receiving widespread news coverage and has been declared as an international risk by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Ebola Virus awareness level among Malaysians is still very low. In the response to this possible nation concern, a special research committee was set up recently to investigate the issue further. The purpose of the study described in this research report was to assess the current public knowledge on the public awareness of the impacts of Ebola outbreak.
- 5. 4 1.4 Research Objectives To identify the causes of the E- bola outbreak. To investigate the effects of the E- bola outbreak. To create the awareness among the public of E- bola outbreak. 1.5 Research Questions What are the causes of the E- bola outbreak? What are the effects of the E- bola outbreak? What are the solutions to create awareness among the public of E-bola outbreak? 1.6 Significance of the study Malaysian people will be fully aware of this deadly disease (Ebola), By getting all Malaysians aware on the Impact of Ebola, every individual will take precautions so as not to fall victims of the Ebola disease Malaysians will still be safe and secured even when the Ebola virus becomes a big issue or worse. By getting the Malaysian citizens educated about this deadly disease, they can easy take precautions even when the disease becomes worse amongst people in other region or country, because they are fully educated on the causes of the disease and the precautions to be taken to avoid the spread of the disease.
- 6. 5 1.7 Scope of the Study This study focuses on the public awareness of the impacts of e bola outbreak among Malaysian. The respondents, who were UNIKL students and staffs, were randomly selected by our research team themselves. The number of respondents to conducted this research is 30 peoples. The data collected via questionnaires were distributed from 11 to 15 April this year by distributed questionnaires paper among UNIKL students and staffs. Other that we also interview an expert (doctors) to collected more data about our research.
- 7. 6 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Ebola is an infectious disease marked by fever and several internal bleeding, spread through contact with infected body fluids, direct contact with a person who sick with Ebola, or with object that have been contaminated with the virus. Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (to block splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices. Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patients blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures). Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
- 8. 7 2.2 History of Ebola outbreak Ebola virus disease (commonly known as "Ebola") was first described in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks in South Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo. The current outbreak is the first Ebola outbreak to occur in the West African subcontinent, and is also the first Ebola outbreak to reach epidemic proportions; past outbreaks were brought under control within a few weeks. Extreme poverty, a dysfunctional healthcare system, a distrust of government officials after years of armed conflict, and the delay in responding to the outbreak for several months all contributed to the failure to control the epidemic. Other factors included local burial customs of washing the body after death and the unprecedented spread of Ebola to densely populated cities. As the outbreak spread, many hospitals, short on both staff and supplies, became overwhelmed and closed, leading some health experts to state that the inability to treat other medical needs may have been causing "an additional death toll [that is] likely to exceed that of the outbreak itself".Hospital workers, who worked closely with the highly contagious body fluids of the diseased, were especially vulnerable to catching the disease. In August 2014, the WHO reported that ten percent of the dead had been healthcare workers.In September 2014, it was estimated that the countries' capacity for treating Ebola patients was insufficient by the equivalent of 2,122 beds; by December there were a sufficient number of beds to treat and isolate
- 9. 8 all reported Ebola cases, although the uneven distribution of cases was resulting in serious shortfalls in some areas. On 28 January 2015, the WHO reported that for the first time since the week ending 29 June 2014, there had been fewer than 100 new confirmed cases reported in a week in the three most-affected countries. The response to the epidemic then moved to a second phase, as the focus shifted from slowing transmission to ending the epidemic.On 8 April 2015, the WHO reported a total of only 30 confirmed cases, and the weekly update for 29 July reported only seven new cases.On 7 October 2015, all three of the most seriously affected countries recorded their first joint week without any new cases,however, as of late 2015, while the large-scale epidemic had ended, sporadic new cases were still continuing to emerge, frustrating hopes that the epidemic could be declared over.
- 10. 9 2.3 Research in the public awareness of the impacts of Ebola outbreak This research conducted to survey about the impact of e bola outbreak and the public awareness about Ebola outbreak. This research conduct to create awareness among our Malaysian people about Ebola outbreak even though we are not affected by this disease. Malaysia still safe from deadly Ebola outbreak Experts at the Malaysian Medical Authority have stated that Malaysia is still safe from the recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in Western Africa, which has killed 729 people. Dr H. Krishna Kumar, President of the MMA, stated that the fastest way for the disease to spread was through international flights.
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