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Economic Interference. April 1770- Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts, but kept Tea Tax Colonists boycotted British tea and smuggled it in from Holland British tea companies lost money and their tea rotted in ports Tea Act of 1773 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Economic InterferenceApril 1770- Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts, but kept Tea TaxColonists boycotted British tea and smuggled it in from HollandBritish tea companies lost money and their tea rotted in portsTea Act of 1773East India Company could sell to the colonies and no one elseColonists were enraged

  • Colonial Unity ExpandsSamuel Adams Committees of Correspondence to communicate with neighboring townsGroups exchanged numerous secret lettersOther colonies followed the same ideaNew YorkSouth CarolinaRhode Island

  • The Boston Tea PartyProtests against the Tea Act began to take placeIn Charleston, SC colonists unloaded tea and let it rot on the docksIn New York City and Philadelphia, colonists blocked the tea ships from landingIn Boston, Sons of the Liberty organized the Boston Tea Party

  • The Boston Tea PartyEvening on December 16, 1773Men disguised as Native Americans boarded tea shipsWe then were ordered by our commander to open the hatches and take out all the chests of tea and throw them overboard In about 3 hours from the time we went on board, we had thus broken and thrown overboard every tea chest to be found in the ship; while those in other ships were disposing of the tea in the same way, at the same time. George Hewes342 chests of tea were destroyedColonial leaders offered to pay for the tea if Britain repealed the Tea Act- Britain refused.

  • The Boston Tea Party

  • The Boston Tea Party

  • The Intolerable ActsParliament was furious with the Boston Tea PartyWe must master them or totally leave them to themselves and treat them as aliens. King George III

  • Attack on Rights and Liberties1774- Parliament passed laws to punish the Massachusetts colonyBritain: Coercive ActsColonies: Intolerable ActsClosed port of Boston until tea was paid forBanned town meetingsReplaced elected council with appointed oneIncreased governors powerProtected British officials accused of crimesAllowed British officers to house troops in colonists homes

  • The First Continental Congress MeetsOther colonies sent food and money to support MassachusettsSeptember 1774: delegates from all colonies except Georgia met in PhiladelphiaCalled the First Continental CongressDecided to ban all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealedEach colony began to train troopsGeorgia still participated even though it did not send delegatesThis was a key step in historyMost colonists were not ready to call for independence, but they wanted to keep their rights

  • British Control Begins to SlipColonists hoped another boycott would lead to repealing the Intolerable Acts, like the Stamp, Sugar, and Townshend ActsHowever, Britain stood firm and even increased restrictions and sent more troopsBy the end of 1774, many colonists were preparing to fightColonists believed that a fight against Britain would be short, because Britain would change its policies

  • Patrick HenryGentlemen may cry peace, peace but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? I know not course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death.

  • The Revolution BeginsBoth the colonists and the British were spying on one anotherThe British knew that the Massachusetts militia was storing arms and ammunition in ConcordJohn Hancock and Sam Adams were Patriot leaders and were in LexingtonApril 18, 1775: Gage ordered his troops to arrest Hancock and Adams and destroy the supplies in Concord

  • The Midnight RideThe Sons of Liberty were preparedPaul Revere and William Dawes were sent to spread the news about British troop movementsOne if by land, two if by sea

  • Lexington and ConcordApril 19, 1775: more than 700 British troops reached LexingtonCaptain John Parker and 70 militiamen were waitingBritish ordered colonists to drop muskets, colonists refusedShot heard around the world8 militiamen lay dead

  • Lexington and ConcordBritish marched to Concord where they destroyed suppliesA battle broke out forcing British to retreatNearly 4000 Minutemen and militiamen arrivedIt seemed as if men came down from the clouds1000 British soldiers arrived a prevented a total destructionAmericans had to choose sidesLoyalistsPatriots

  • The Conflict SpreadsMost colonists still wanted peace, but blamed Parliament for the terrible eventsThe Olive Branch PetitionDocument sent to the king from the colonistsAsking for harmonyKing rejected itAnnounced new ways to punish the coloniesUse British army to block American ships from leaving portsHired thousands of German soldiers to fight in AmericaWhen once these rebels have felt a smart blow, they will submit. King George III

  • Colonial SoldiersDecided not to back down from Britains punishmentsWere arrogant and thought they were equal to British troopsGeorge Washington knew otherwiseBritish soldiers were professionalsColonial troops had little training and were poorly equippedDifference between militia and minutemen

  • Washington ArrivesWashington arrived at militia camp in Boston in summer of 1775Began to gather supplies and train soldiersDecided to invade British forces in QuebecAmericans failed in their attack

  • Rebellion becomes RevolutionAmericans had a decision to makeThomas Paines Common Sense helped to make this decisionBelieved all men should have the right to voteCriticized the belief that kings were chosen by GodSold more than 100,000 copies in 3 monthsEmphasized a fight for independence

  • A Time for DecisionContinental Congress was still undecidedMay 1776- each colony was to develop its own governmentJune 7- Known as free and independent statesBenjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and others were appointed to draft the Declaration of IndependenceChose Jefferson to composeJuly 4, 1776Congress adopted the documentJohn Hancock (president of congress) was the first to signThere, I guess King George will be able to read that

  • The Declaration is AdoptedBased on idea of natural rightsWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.If government doesnt protect these rights, it loses the right to governThis action was treason to BritainNow, they needed to win their freedom on the battlefield.

  • What is a civil war?Americans were divided based along social, religious, and ethnic linesMost Southern states did not allow African Americans to fightBritish offered freedom to those who joined the British armyThe North had about 5,000 African Americans serving in the Continental army.Native Americans became involved40%

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  • June 1775, George Washington became commander of the Continental ArmyMany problemsUntrained and undisciplined soldiersPart-time soldiersNeeded a large and well-trained army to last through a warLacked basic supplies like blankets, shoes, food, and guns and ammunitionMany women had to help

  • Britain thought Americans would be easy to defeatBritish were experienced and professionalHad troubles of their ownDifficulty recruiting soldiersEnlisted for life: so not many made that commitmentHad to hire mercenaries from Germany

  • December 25, 1776Washingtons troops went to Trenton, New JerseySurprise attack on German soldiers who were sleeping after their Christmas celebrationsCaptured and killed 900 German soldiers and suppliesAnother victory in New Jersey just 8 days laterProved the American general was better than many had thoughtArmy began to attract more recruits

  • Burgoynes army continued southAmerican troops led by Horatio Gates blocked their wayBurgoyne attacked the AmericansAmericans fought backBurgoyne was forced to retreat!British moved slowly through the rain to Saratoga, were exhaustedAmericans surrounded British and fired on them night and dayBurgoyne surrenderedPrevented British from isolating New EnglandShowed Europeans that Americans might winSome European countries joined the Americans

  • French were still bitter with Britain about French and Indian WarBecame an American ally after the Battle of SaratogaSent funds, supplies, and troopsPersuaded Spain to be an ally as wellSpain attacked British troops from the SouthBritish troops were spread thinBoth Spain and France wanted to increase their own territory

  • Winter 1777-1778Washingtons army (12,000) camped at Valley Forge in Southeast PennsylvaniaLacked supplies: only blankets and many did not have shoes, not enough food1/4 died from malnutrition, exposure, or diseases (small pox or typhoid fever)New Years Day 1778- Women stepped in to helpDrove 10 teams of oxen in bring supplies2,000 shirts and other itemsOxen were killed to provide food

  • In FebruaryAlmost 5,000 soldiers were too sick to fightAnother 3,700 lacked either shoes or clothesShipments for troops were often stolen by government employeesMany local farmers were Loyalists and refused to sell food to the army2,000 soldiers desertedMany soldiers had amputations and then died from future infections

  • Americans showed much enduranceMost would desert typicallySome did desert, but the army stayed together because of the Love of our Country Colonel John BrooksWashington inspired the troops to keep fighting

  • German officer, the Baron von Steuben, trained the armyFocused on sanitationWithin 1 month the t

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