economics m.a (previous) compulsory papers of land reforms, land reforms and economic development,...

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    ECONOMICS M.A (Previous)

    Compulsory Papers Paper I


    Equilibrium: Patial and F General Walrasian excess demand and input-output approaches to general equilibrium. Demand Analysis: Elasticities (price, cross, income) of demand Theoretical aspects and empirical estimation. Theories of Demand indifference curves (income, substitutions and price effects, Slutsky theorem, compensated demand curve) and their applications. Revealed preparence theory. Revision of Demand Theory by Hicks. Comsumers surplus-hicks approach, cobweb theorems. Theory of Production and cost : production function short and long period. Law of variable proportions and returns to scale; lsoquants least cost combination of inputs. Elasticity of substitution. Euler,s Theorem, Cobb-Douglas Production function and its properties. Derivation of cost functions from productions functions. Price and Output Determination: Price determinations under perfect competition- Monopoly discriminating monopoly. monopoly. oligopoly (Kinked demand curve, price Leadership, cartels and mergers), monopolistic competition. Distribution: Macro theories of distribution Ricardo, Kaldor. Determination of rent, wages, interest and profit (Knight and shakles Theories) Welfare Economics: Pareto optimal conditions. value judgment, social welfare function Theory of second best Arrows impossibility Theorem. Theories of Employment: Classical and Keynes, consumption functions income consumption relationship absolute income, relative income life cycle and permanent income hypothesis. Multiplier and accelerator. Investment Function : Marginal efficiency of capital, the accelerator and investment behaviour. Business cycles : Theories of Schumpeter, Kaldor and Hicks. Control of business cycles. National income Accounting Social accounting, input output accounting.

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    M.A. I Economics Paper II : PUBLIC ECONOMICS Introduction and scope of public economics : Role of government in the economy mixed economy public and private sector. Government as an agent for economics planning and development. Government as a tool for operationalisge the planning process, private goods, public goods and merit goods. Public Expenditure: Nature, objects and importance, Wagners Law of increasing state activities, Wiseman peacock hypothesis. Pure theory of public expenditure. structure and growth of public expenditure. erit criteria for public investment, social cost benefit analysis. Project evaluation, Estimation of cost discount rate. Effects of public expenditure. structure and classification of budget, Zero based budgeting. Taxation: Objective, principle, classification of taxes, Theory optional taxation. Taxable capacity. The problem of double taxation effects of taxation. Public Debt: Classical view of public debt, compensatory aspect of debt policy, Burden, source principles of debt management and repayment effects of public borrowing. Fiscal policy: Objective of fiscal policy, Full employment, anti-inflation, economic growth, redistribution of income and wealth, interdependence of fiscal and monetary policies, tools of fiscal policy, fiscal policy stabilization, balanced budget multiplier. Fiscal federalism: Theory of federal finance, Fiscal federation in India, vertical and horizontal imbalance assignment of function and source of revenue, Finance commission, resource transfer from union to state-criteria for transfer of resource central-state and local finance in India. Indian public finance: Indian tax system, revenue of the union state and local bodies, Major taxes in India, Resource in Indias taxation system, trends in public expenditure and public debt. Report of finance commission in India.

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    M.M 100 Mercantilism and Physiocracy. Classical Political Economists

    Adam smith, David Ricardo, Malthus, Say and J.S. Mill. The Socialist reaction The utopians Sismondi, St. Simon, Robert Own, Charles Furrier, Scientific u socialism- contribution of Karl Marx. Nationalist Critic list, The Historical school, Institutionalisms and marginalism a ( Von thunen, jevons, Menger, Walras, Wieser, Bohm-Bawerk, Gossen and J.B. Clark). Neo Classical Economists Marshall, Welfare Economist Pigou and Pareto, General Equilibrium- Walras. Mathematical School. Austrian School; New Economics J.M. Keynes, Economics thought in 20th Century (USA) Irving Fisher. J.A. Schumpeter, Ragner Nurkse, J.R. Hicks. Indian Economic Thought, Kautilya, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Mahadeo Govind Ranade, J.K. Mehata, Mahatma Gandhi.

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    ECONOMICS M.A. (Previous) Optional Papers


    M.M. 100 Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Madam and Mode, Measures of dispersion-Standard Deviation, shepherds correction for grouping errors. Moments- Moments about the mean, shepspards correction for grouping errors. Skewness- Measures of skewness. Limits of the measures of skewness, Bowleys Coefficient of skewness, Coefficient of skewness based on moments. Kurtosis Correlation and Regression Meaning assumptions and limitations of simple correlation and regression analysis. Karl Pearsons coefficient of linear correction, spearmans rank correlations partial and multiple correlation regression equation, coefficient of regression, Method of least squares and the lines of R. regressions standard error of Estimate. Association of Attributes Independence, Measurement of intensity of association Coefficient of association, partial associations, Association in contingency tables, Pearsons coefficients of mean square contingency, Tschuprows coefficient, complete independence in contingency tables. Index Number Concept, price relative, quantity relative value relative, laspeyers paaschs and fishers ideal index number family budget method, problems in the construction and limitations of index numbers. Tests for ideal index number. Time series Concept and components-Determination of regular, trend and seasonal indices. Tred determination by moving average method and method of least square. Simple curve fitting. Equations for fitting a straight line and parabola. Sampling technique Simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and multistage sampling. Theoretical Distribution Binomial, Passion and normal distribution, their properties and uses method of interpolation and extrapolation-Newtongs formula, Newtongs Gauss Formula, Binomial expansion and Lagrange Formula. Chi-square test for goodness of fit, students t-test, Z-test, F-test.

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    Paper V


    Agriculture and Economics Development

    Nature and scope of Agricultural and rural economics. Difference between agriculture economics and industrial economics. Tradition agriculture and its modernization, problem of agriculture in developing countries, role of agriculture in economic developing countries. Role of agriculture in economic development, interdependence between agriculture and industry- some empirical evidence; Models of interaction between agriculture and test of the sconomy levis models, Nelson Model, Leibenstein, ranis-fei Models, Cobweb Model. Diversification of rural Economic Activities- Livestock economics-Live stock resources and their productivity, problems of marketing white revolution, Fishery and Poultry Development Forestry, Problems in rural industrialization, Development of agro-based industrial. Economics of rural infrastructures- Use of land water and energy, rural transport, communication, banking, extension services, rural electrification, rural social infra structure-education, health and information dissemination. Agricultural Production and Productivity Agriculture production-Resource use and efficiency, Production function analysis in agriculture, Economics in developing countries. Land Reforms and land Policy Economics of land reforms, land reforms and economic development, Land reforms-measures and performance, Technological reforms Problems of marginal and small farmers. Rural labour Problem of rural labour, rural unemployment and under employment. Rural employment in India. Poverty eradication programmes in India. Rural Finance- Saving and capital formation in agriculture, characteristic and sources of rural credit-Institution and non institutional, Reorganization of rural credit-cooperatives. commercial Banks, Regional rural banks, role of NABARD.

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    Co-operation in India Agricultural Marketing in India, Objective of agricultural productivity and cropping pattern. strategy of agriculture Development and technological progress. Mechanization of India agriculture in India. Agriculture and External Sector International trade in agriculture commodities, Impact of world trade organization on Indian agriculture Globalization of Indian economy and problems and prospects of Indian agriculture. Food policy in india, state trading in food grains, New Agricultural strategy, Insurance in agriculture.

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    Paper- VI


    Framework and Problems of Industrial Economics Concept and organization of a firm ownership, control and objectives of the firm:

    Passive and active behavior of the firm. Market structure- Sellers concentration: Product differentiation: Entry conditions: economics of scale: Market structure and profitability: Market structure and innovation: Theories of industrial location Wober and sargent Florence: Factors affecting location. Market conduct Product pricing Theories and evidence: Investment expenditure Method of evaluating investment expenditure: Theories and empirical evide