editorial for special issue on intelligent virtual agents
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Auton Agent Multi-Agent Syst (2013) 27:197199DOI 10.1007/s10458-013-9226-0
Editorial for special issue on intelligent virtual agents
Hannes Hgni Vilhjlmsson Stefan Kopp Stacy Marsella
Published online: 21 April 2013 The Author(s) 2013
Intelligent virtual agents are interactive characters that exhibit human-like qualities and com-municate with humans or with each other using natural human modalities such as speech andgesture. They are capable of realtime perception, cognition and action that allows them to par-ticipate in dynamic social environments. This field has been steadily growing as applicationsin areas like education, simulation and gaming become more common-place, and new appli-cations such as in health-intervention and elderly care emerge. Since 2006, the InternationalConference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA), has served as the central annual venue for thefield, but since 2008, the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiagentSystems (AAMAS), has also dedicated a special track to virtual agents, acknowledging thesignificant ties between the communities. This special issue of JAAMAS on intelligent virtualagents is meant to further contribute to the interaction between virtual agent researchers andautonomous agent researchers in general.
The papers in this volume are extended versions of full papers presented at IVA 2011in Reykjavk, Iceland. That year, the conference received 69 full paper submissions andadmitted 18 based on a stringent reviewing process. After the conference, admitted full paperauthors were invited to submit extended versions to this special issue, where again they weresubject to thorough reviewing and feedback. Finally six papers have been selected that webelieve represent some of the best virtual agent work today, representing the richness of thefield by bringing together a multitude of disciplines and application areas.
H. H. Vilhjlmsson (B)Reykjavk University, Reykjavik, Icelande-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
S. KoppBielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld, Germanye-mail: email@example.com
S. MarsellaUniversity of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781, USAe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
198 Auton Agent Multi-Agent Syst (2013) 27:197199
The first paper by Tsai et al. Empirical Evaluation of Computational Fear ContagionModels in Crowd Dispersions underlines the importance of modeling non-physical contactin any society of agents and humans. The authors explore mechanisms of how peoplesemotions, such as fear and anxiety, are affected by the emotions of those around them. Thepredictive power of different contagion models implemented in virtual agents are evaluatedusing real world footage from two emotional crowd scenes.
The second paper by Wang et al. Multi-party, Multi-role Comprehensive ListeningBehavior focuses on the behavior of agents that are listening to someone else speaking.Getting this behavior right can improve believability of a simulation, but may also providecrucial feedback for a human speaker. The authors present a model that generates listen-ing behavior based on the speakers behavior, including an unfolding comprehension of thecontent of the speakers utterance. Leveraging the work of sociologist Erving Goffman, theapproach also makes the listening behavior conditional on the listeners participation roles andgoals.
The third paper by Poppe et al. Perceptual Evaluation of Backchannel Strategies forArtificial Listeners also addresses the design of listening agents. The work presents twoempirical studies that explore the factors that influence the perception of agent listeningbehavior. The studies systematically evaluate the impact of listening strategies using amethodology where human subjects are shown videos of a speaker and a listening agentthat employs a range of rule based listening strategies.
The fourth paper by Bickmore et al. TinkerA Relational Agent Museum Guideplaces a virtual museum guide named Tinker into the Museum of Science in Bostonwhere over 175,000 visitors have interacted with her face-to-face. Apart from being agreat example of a real-world virtual agent, Tinker is also a valuable laboratory wherethe effects of turning certain behaviors on or off can be observed on a great num-ber of visitors. This paper shows how so called relational behaviors improve visitorengagement.
The fifth paper by Endrass et al. Investigating Culture-related Aspects of Behaviorfor Virtual Characters provides an in-depth review and model of communicative verbaland non-verbal behaviors specific to either German or Japanese culture. By showing sub-jects, either Japanese or German, virtual agents performing these culture-specific behav-iors, the authors demonstrate clearly how choice of behavior impacts subjects impres-sion of the agents. In particular, people seem to respond positively to behavior specificto their own culture, which has clear implications for virtual agents crossing culturalboundaries.
The sixth paper by van Welbergen et al. Multimodal Plan Representation for AdaptableBML Scheduling brings attention to the computational challenge of producing and coordi-nating in real-time a range of communicative behaviors such as gaze, gesture, posture andfacial expression. The authors build on the efforts of an international working group thatat IVA 2011 published version 1.0 of the Behavior Markup Language (BML)1, a virtualagent language for specifying nonverbal behavior at an observational level rather than at theanimation engine level. The paper describes an approach to schedule synchronized multi-modal behaviors using an intermediate motor plan representation that makes it easier to adaptbehavior plans to an evolving situation.
It should be clear from this selection of papers that intelligent virtual agents challengeus to understand our own behavior, but that they also give us an incredible tool to do so.
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The work in the field, from observational studies or behavioral models to successful appli-cations, has substantially matured over the past decade. With every new application, we arenow getting closer to not only constructing a more intelligent machine but also to knowingwhat it means to be human.
Editorial for special issue on intelligent virtual agents