egyptian emphatic consonants

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Egyptian voiced stops became contintuants very early; were preserved in marginal idioms. later interaction between idioms led to reinterpretation of voiced stops as emphatic.

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  • 1. Egyptian Emphatic Consonants Do they exist, and how might they have been articulated? Helmut Satzinger http://www.univie.ac.at/egyptology/ 5000 Jahre Semitohamitische Sprachen in Asien und Afrika 5000 Years Semitohamitic Languages in Asia and Africa Berlin, 22.-24. Juli 2010

2. All branches except Egyptianexhibit a special set of consonants, besides voiced and voiceless pairs,the 'emphatic' series , realised as pharyngealised (velarised) in Arabic and Berber, glottalised (ejective, explosive) in South Arabian, Ethiopian and Cushitic and glottalised (explosive or implosive) in Chadic;Egyptian, incidentally, also lacked voiced consonants ( dstands for /t/,tfor /th/, in the standard transliteration) ... ( Comrie Major Languages548.) 3. 1The earliest Egyptian inherited the triple contrastvoiceless aspirated ~ voiced ~ glottalizedfrom Proto-Afrasian. (Allan R.Bomhard . A Sketch of Proto-Afrasian Phonology.In G. Takcs (ed.), Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A. B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr, Berlin 2008, 7992, notably p. 81.) 4. 1The earliest Egyptian inherited the triple contrastvoiceless aspirated ~ voiced ~ glottalizedfrom Proto-Afrasian. 2.First,the voiced consonants became devoiced . The resulting system had the contrast voiceless aspirated ~ voiceless unaspirated ~ glottalized. (Allan R.Bomhard . A Sketch of Proto-Afrasian Phonology.In G. Takcs (ed.), Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A. B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr, Berlin 2008, 7992, notably p. 81.) 5. 1The earliest Egyptian inherited the triple contrastvoiceless aspirated ~ voiced ~ glottalizedfrom Proto-Afrasian. 2.First,the voiced consonants became devoiced . The resulting system had thecontrast voiceless aspirated ~ voiceless unaspirated ~ glottalized . 3.Next, theemphaticsother than * k became deglottalizedand merged with thevoiceless unaspiratedstops. It is not difficult to understand why * kwould have remained longer than the other emphatics since back articulation is the unmarked point of articulation for ejectives. (Allan R.Bomhard . A Sketch of Proto-Afrasian Phonology.In G. Takcs (ed.), Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A. B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr, Berlin 2008, 7992, notably p. 81.) 6. 1The earliest Egyptian inherited the triple contrast voiceless aspirated ~ voiced ~ glottalized from Proto-Afrasian. 2.First,the voiced consonants became devoiced . The resulting system had the contrast voiceless aspirated ~ voiceless unaspirated ~ glottalized. 3.Next,the emphaticsother than * kbecame deglottalized and merged with the voiceless unaspirated stops . It is not difficult to understand why * kwould have remained longer than the other emphatics since back articulation is the unmarked point of articulation for ejectives. 4.Finally, * kbecameq . (We may note that a similar development is found in several East Cushitic languages, Somali being one example.) (Allan R.Bomhard . A Sketch of Proto-Afrasian Phonology.In G. Takcs (ed.), Semito-Hamitic Festschrift for A. B. Dolgopolsky and H. Jungraithmayr, Berlin 2008, 7992, notably p. 81.) 7. The earliest Egyptian inherited the triple contrastvoiceless aspirated ~ voiced ~ glottalizedfrom Proto_Afrasian. Plausible . 8. First,the voiced consonants became devoiced Against all evidence. Proto-Egn. *b, *d, *g did not become p, t, k. p, t, kgo back to Proto-Egn. *p, *t, *k. What is true is thatMain Stream Egyptian doesnt have any voiced stops.But not because they had become devoiced stops,but rather,because they had become voiced continuants. 9. 10. First, the voiced consonants became devoiced.The resulting system had thecontrast voiceless aspirated ~ voiceless unaspirated ~ glottalized. (Bomhard.) In fact:the resulting system had the contrast 11. Next,the emphaticsother than * k became deglottalized... >>> Not before the Coptic period (if at all!) ... andmerged with the voiceless unaspirated stops . >>> There is something in this;yet the background is much more complicated. 12. Did Main Stream Egyptian (MSE) have any devoiced unaspirated stops? It probably hadvoiceless aspirated and glottalizedstops. 13. There was mutual lexical influence between the two idioms. But their phonetic systems were not congruent. How did Southerners pronounce the voiced stops of Northern words? How could the writing system of the South (the Egn. Hieroglyphs) render the voiced stops? 14. 15. The conservativeNorthhad voiced stops, but the progressive Southhadnt.When Northern words passed into the standardlanguage how did Southerners pronounce them?And howdid the Egyptian script which had no graphemes at hand render them ? The default solution was obviously to pronounce the voiced stops like the glottalized.And to use the same graphemes for them. 16. 17. 18. 19. How did the Egyptians pronounce the emphatic stops? Semitic emphatics were rendered inconsistently (as also the voiced stops): Egyptian transcriptions of Semitic sounds, 2nd millennium B.C. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. ...in several other Neo-Aramaic dialects (such as, for example, T u r-Abd i n), the emphatics are realized asunaspirated voiceless stops here, the non-emphatic voiceless stops are distinguished from the emphatics by the presence of the feature of aspiration. (Bomhardop.cit.p. 80.)