electrical engineer's reference book

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  • 1. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims Electrical Engineer's Reference Book

2. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims Important notice Many practical techniques described in this book involve potentially dangerous applications of electricity and engineering equipment. The authors, editors and publishers cannot take responsibility for any personal, professional or financial risk involved in carrying out these techniques, or any resulting injury, accident or loss. The techniques described in this book should only be implemented by professional and fully qualified electrical engineers using their own professional judgement and due regard to health and safety issues. 3. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims Electrical Engineer's Reference Book Sixteenth edition M. A. Laughton CEng., FIEE D. J. Warne CEng., FIEE OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON NEW YORK LONDON PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO 4. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims Newnes An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published in 1945 by George Newnes Ltd Fifteenth edition 1993 Sixteenth edition 2003 Copyright # Elsevier Science, 2003. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7506 46373 For information on all Newnes publications visit our website at www.newnespress.com Typeset in India by Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry 605 005, India. www.integra-india.com Printed and bound in Great Britain 5. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims ContentsPreface Section A General Principles 1 Units, Mathematics and Physical Quantities International unit system . Mathematics . Physical quantities . Physical properties . Electricity 2 Electrotechnology Nomenclature . Thermal effects . Electrochemical effects . Magnetic field effects . Electric field effects . Electromagnetic field effects . Electrical discharges 3 Network Analysis Introduction . Basic network analysis . Power-system network analysis Section B Materials & Processes 4 Fundamental Properties of Materials Introduction . Mechanical properties . Thermal properties .Electrically conducting materials . Magnetic materials .Dielectric materials . Optical materials . The plasmastate5 Conductors and Superconductors Conducting materials . Superconductors 6 Semiconductors, Thick and Thin-Film Microcircuits Silicon, silicon dioxide, thick- and thin-film technology . Thick- and thin-film microcircuits 7 Insulation Insulating materials . Properties and testing . Gaseous dielectrics . Liquid dielectrics . Semi-fluid and fusible materials . Varnishes, enamels, paints and lacquers . Solid dielectrics . Composite solid/liquid dielectrics . Irradiation effects . Fundamentals of dielectric theory . Polymeric insulation for high voltage outdoor applications 8 Magnetic Materials Ferromagnetics . Electrical steels including silicon steels . Soft irons and relay steels . Ferrites . Nickeliron alloys . Ironcobalt alloys . Permanent magnet materials 9 Electroheat and Materials Processing Introduction . Direct resistance heating . Indirect resistance heating . Electric ovens and furnaces . Induction heating . Metal melting . Dielectric heating . Ultraviolet processes . Plasma torches . Semiconductor plasma processing . Lasers 10 Welding and Soldering Arc welding . Resistance welding . Fuses . Contacts . Special alloys . Solders . Rare and precious metals . Temperature- sensitive bimetals . Nuclear-reactor materials . Amorphous materials Section C Control 11 Electrical Measurement Introduction . Terminology . The role of measurement traceability in product quality . National and international measurement standards . Direct-acting analogue measuring instruments . Integrating (energy) metering . Electronic instrumentation . Oscilloscopes . Potentiometers and bridges . Measuring and protection transformers . Magnetic measurements . Transducers . Data recording 12 Industrial Instrumentation Introduction . Temperature . Flow . Pressure . Level transducers . Position transducers . Velocity and acceleration . Strain gauges, loadcells and weighing . Fieldbus systems . Installation notes 13 Control Systems Introduction . Laplace transforms and the transferfunction . Block diagrams . Feedback . Generally desirableand acceptable behaviour . Stability . Classification ofsystem and static accuracy. Transient behaviour .Root-locus method . Frequency-response methods .State-space description . Sampled-data systems .Some necessary mathematical preliminaries . Sampler andzero-order hold . Block diagrams . Closed-loop systems .Stability . Example . Dead-beat response . Simulation .Multivariable control . Dealing with non linear elements . 6. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims Disturbances . Ratio control . Transit delays . Stability . Industrial controllers . Digital control algorithms . Auto-tuners . Practical tuning methods 14 Digital Control Systems Introduction . Logic families . Combinational logic . Storage . Timers and monostables . Arithmetic circuits . Counters and shift registers . Sequencing and event driven logic . Analog interfacing . Practical considerations . Data sheet notations 15 Microprocessors Introduction . Structured design of programmable logic systems . Microprogrammable systems . Programmable systems . Processor instruction sets . Program structures . Reduced instruction set computers (RISC) . Software design . Embedded systems 16 Programmable Controllers Introduction . The programmable controller . Programming methods . Numerics . Distributed systems and fieldbus . Graphics . Software engineering . Safety Section D Power Electronics and Drives 17 Power Semiconductor Devices Junction diodes . Bipolar power transistors and Darlingtons . Thyristors . Schottky barrier diodes . MOSFET . The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) 18 Electronic Power Conversion Electronic power conversion principles . Switch-mode power supplies . D.c/a.c. conversion . A.c./d.c. conversion . A.c./a.c. conversion . Resonant techniques . Modular systems . Further reading 19 Electrical Machine Drives Introduction . Fundamental control requirements for electrical machines . Drive power circuits . Drive control . Applications and drive selection . Electromagnetic compatibility 20 Motors and Actuators Energy conversion . Electromagnetic devices . Industrial rotary and linear motors Section E Environment 21 Lighting Light and vision . Quantities and units . Photometric concepts . Lighting design technology . Lamps . Lighting design . Design techniques . Lighting applications 22 Environmental Control Introduction . Environmental comfort . Energy requirements . Heating and warm-air systems . Control . Energy conservation . Interfaces and associated data 23 Electromagnetic Compatibility Introduction . Common terms . The EMC model . EMC requirements . Product design . Device selection . Printed circuit boards . Interfaces . Power supplies and power-line filters . Signal line filters . Enclosure design . Interface cable connections . Golden rules for effective design for EMC . System design . Buildings . Conformity assessment . EMC testing and measurements . Management plans 24 Health and Safety The scope of electrical safety considerations . The nature of electrical injuries . Failure of electrical equipment 25 Hazardous Area Technology A brief UK history . General certification requirements . Gas group and temperature class . Explosion protection concepts . ATEX certification . Global view . Useful websites Section F Power Generation 26 Prime Movers Steam generating plant . Steam turbine plant . Gas turbine plant . Hydroelectric plant . Diesel-engine plant 27 Alternative Energy Sources Introduction . Solar . Marine energy . Hydro . Wind . Geothermal energy. Biofuels . Direct conversion . Fuel cells . Heat pumps 28 Alternating Current Generators Introduction . Airgap flux and open-circuit e.m.f. . Alternating current windings . Coils and insulation . Temperature rise . Output equation . Armature reaction . Reactances and time constants . Steady-state operation . Synchronising . Operating charts . On-load excitation . Sudden three phase short circuit . Excitation systems . Turbogenerators . Generatortransformer connection . Hydrogenerators . Salient-pole generators other than hydrogenerators . Synchronous compensators . Induction generators . Standards 29 Batteries Introduction . Cells and batteries . Primary cells . Secondary cells and batteries . Battery applications . Anodising . Electrodeposition . Hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis Section G Transmission and Distribution 30 Overhead Lines General . Conductors and earth wires . Conductor fittings . Electrical characteristics . Insulators . Supports . Lightning . Loadings 7. //integras/b&h/Eer/Final_06-09-02/prelims 31 Cables Introduction . Cable components . General wiring cables and flexible cords . Supply distribution cables . Transmission cables . Current-carrying capacity . Jointing and accessories . Cable fault location 32 HVDC Introduction . Applications of HVDC