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Elements of Poetry and Fiction. Virginia Grasso Prof : Mariana Mussetta English Literature II Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa Universidad Tecnológica de Villa María 23/02/2013. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Elements of poetry and fiction

Elements of Poetry and FictionVirginia GrassoProf: Mariana MussettaEnglish Literature II Licenciatura en Lengua InglesaUniversidad Tecnolgica de Villa Mara23/02/2013

1Poem: A peace of writing arranged in patterns of lines and of sounds which often RHYME, expressing thoughts, emotions, and experiences in words that excite your imagination*.

Poetry: The art of writing poems (beauty, grace, deep feelings)*. *(Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 1084)2The poemIt gives pleasure.It has unique value to the fully realized life.It has spiritual value.It says more and says it more intensely than does ordinary language.It creates new and significant experiences for the reader.It is an aid and a mean of living.It has extra dimensions than does ordinary language.3Allegory The word allegory is from the Greek word allegoria which means speaking otherwise.Allegory is a story in verse or prose with a double meaning a primary or surface meaning, and a secondary or under-the surface meaning.Since it represents one thing in the guise of another. 4AllegoryAn abstraction in that of a concrete image, it can be read, understood and interpreted at two levels literal level

political and ethical level religious 5Allegory Allegories are effective in teaching, explaining or illustrating some abstract idea or a moral principle. It is an essence a figurative representation of some abstract truth by the use of symbolic language (Eg: the fable and the parable can reflect the nature of human beings, they are figurative ways of telling stories about fictional characters and events).

6AllegoryAn allegory also appeals to the imagination more than a metaphor, which tends to have a more rational basis.

7Allegory Example:

Once upon a time, there was a little girl who wanted to explore the world, so, one day she packed up her things and set out on a journey. She walked through the woods that surrounded her hut until she reached a road. Standing on the other side of the road was another traveler, a little boy. When asked, he suggested that she go north, for that was where the big towns and more interesting sights were. So she walked along the road northward until she reached a large town. She spent several days exploring the town and meeting all kinds of strange people. Finally she grew bored, and found a new road along which to travel. Standing at the edge of town was a young woman. When asked, she suggested that the little girl go east, for that was where the small cities and most interesting sights were. So the little girl walked eastward along the road until she came to a small city. She wandered through the city for a few weeks and saw all manner of new inventions. Finally she had seen everything, so she left and found a new road along which to travel. Waiting at an intersection was a man, who, when asked, suggested that the little girl go south, for that was where the big cities were. So the little girl walked along the road going south for quite some time, until she came to a large city. There she talked with people from different countries who spoke different languages and had entirely different cultures. She learned a lot during her stay, but finally she had had enough of the city, so she found another road along which to travel. Resting in a nearby park was an old woman, who, when asked if she could recommend any particular direction for the little girl to travel, exclaimed, Oh, there is a lovely forest west of here. I love to wander through the trees and enjoy the peace and quiet. So the little girl went west and after a while, found the very forest in which she lived. She skipped through the trees to her hut, glad to be home. 8AlliterationIt occurs when the initial sounds of a word, beginning with a consonant or a vowel are repeated in close succession.

Eg: The soft surge of the sea.

It accentuates the beauty of language in a given context and it unites words or concepts through a kind of repetition.

9Alliteration Examples:Athena and Apollo.He hopped about happily.Nate never knows.People who pen poetry. Sometimes snakes slithered past.Lovely lady.

10AssonanceIf alliteration occurs at the beginning of a word and the rhyme at the end, assonance takes the middle territory. Assonance occurs when the vowel sound within a word matches the same sound in a nearby word, but the surrounding consonant sounds are different, Eg: Tune and June are rhymes Tune and food are assonant 11Assonance It serves to give a sense of continuity or fluidity to the verse.

It is effective when the rhyme is absent: It gives the poem more flexibility. Like alliteration it is more ornamental.

12Denotation It is when you mean what you say, literally.

That is, the dictionary meaning or meanings of the word.

Eg: greasy (like car engines, need to be greasy) home (means only the place where one lives)13ConnotationIt is created when you mean something else, something that might be initially hidden.It is based on implication, or shared emotional association with a word.It is important in poetry because poets use them to further develop or complicate a poems meaning.It is very important for it is one of the means by which he can concentrate or enrich his meaning.14Connotation examples:Greasy is a completely innocent word.

Greasy contains negative associations for most people if they are talking about food or people.

Home suggests security, love, comfort, and family. 15Diction It refers to the choice and the order of words.It has been split into vocabulary and syntax.

Vocabulary simple complex

Syntax ordinary unusual16DictionIt is possible to use plain language in a complicated way (poetry). It is equally possible to use complicated language in a simple way.

17Diction Diction is a web rather than a level:

There is something deeper than a surface meaning to consider, so poetic diction is complex.18Diction examples:A) She took an apple from under the tree.

First, lets alter the order, or syntax:

From under the tree she took an apple. it brings the rhyme (she/tree) close together 19Diction examples: 2) She, from under the tree, took an apple.

It plays on our notion of suspense

20Diction examples: 3) From under the tree, an apple she took.

It sounds like it belongs in a ballad or some other form where the took at the end of the sentence either for emphasis or to set up rhyme (crook: steal)

21Second, lets alter the vocabulary:1) She picked up a fruit from the ground, where it lay.2) She pilfered an apple that had fallen from its tree. 3) The lovely woman stooped and grabbed the fallen apple. basic elements a woman an apple but different emphasis a tree

22Diction exercises:They watched a pretty red sunset.

Then, without warning, a knock come at the door.

I wash awash in memories, reliving the innocence of time past.23Irony As a figure of speechVerbal irony: saying the opposite of what one means. It refers to a difference between the way something appears and what is actually true.It is indirect. It refuses to state something simply as the way it is.

24Irony It allows us to say something but to mean something else, whether we are being sarcastic, exaggerating, or understating.

Irony is more restrained than sarcasm.

Irony is easier to communicate in speech than in writing.

25Irony example:A child is playing violin and his aunt says, he is obviously not ready for the youth orchestra Is the aunt speaking ironically or not? Is he playing poorly? The tone is straight Is he playing perfectly? The tone is ironic It depends on the way the aunt pronounces

26SarcasmIt implies ridicule on the colloquial level.

Sarcasm is simply bitter or cutting speech, intended to wound the feelings.

Greek: to tear flesh.

It is cruel, and means to hurt. 27Satire It is a more formal term, usually applied to written literature rather than to speech (on the literary level).It implies higher motive: it is ridicule (either bitter or gentle) of human folly or vice, with the purpose of bringing about reform or at least of keeping other people from falling into similar folly or vice.28Metaphor It compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other.It asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another.It is evoked by the to be verb or not.

It makes abstract concrete unknown familiar29MetaphorIt enlivens by touching the readers imagination.

It gives connection in the unity between alien things.

It identifies one object or idea with another, in one or more aspects.

Is a figure of speech that involves an implied comparison between two relatively unlike things.

30MetaphorIt seems comparisons between two seemingly dissimilar things.

It expands the sense.

It clarifies the meaning of something.

It is one of the chief elements that distinguishes poetry from less lofty forms of communication.31Metaphor examples:The road was a ribbon of moonlight.

the ship ploughs the sea.

Julie is a gem.

Rain falls in teardrops from the sky.32Simile In simile the comparison is expressed by the use of some word or phrase such as:

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