elements of poetry: sound devices & figurative language


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  • CORNELL NOTES REMINDER*Your NameTodays DatePeriodTitle is POETRY: SOUND DEVICES & FIGURATIVE LANGUAGEWrite words to be defined and types of figurative language here.Write definitions, explanations, and some examples here.For these notes, you do not need to use a summary space, as you see here.

  • Idiom*Phrases that are not intended to be taken literally. The literal meaning of the phrase often does not make sense.He drove me up the wall. Literal meaning = I was a passenger in a car he was driving that went up a wall.Figurative meaning = He irritated or annoyed me greatly.

  • Idiom (continued)*What are some other idioms you are familiar with?

    Copy down 2-3 of them, list the literal and figurative meaning of each.

  • Hyperbole*A hyperbole is an exaggeration used to provide emphasis on a concept or idea.

    Example: I have told you a thousand times to clean up your room!

  • Personification*This occurs when a writer gives human-like qualities to non-human things.

    Example: The camera loves me!

  • Simile and Metaphor*A simile is a comparison between two generally unlike things that uses the words like or as

    A metaphor also is a comparison between two generally unlike things that does not use like or as. Instead, it commonly uses is or was.

  • Imagery*This is when a writer uses descriptive language that speaks directly to one or more of a readers five senses:

    Hearing, sight, taste, touch, and smell.

  • Onomatopoeia*Words that sound like their meaning --- the sound they describe.buzz hiss roar meow woof rumble howl snap zip zap blip whack crack crash flutter flap squeak whirr.. pow plop crunch splash jingle rattle bam!

  • Alliteration*The repetition of initial consonant sounds, in two or more neighboring words or syllables.The wild and wooly walrus waits and wonders when we will walk by.Slowly, silently, now the moonWalks the night in her silver shoon;This way, and that, she peers, and seesSilver fruit upon silver trees-- from Silver by Walter de la Mare

    How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? (almost ALL tongue twisters!)

  • Assonance*A repetition of vowel sounds within words or syllables.Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese.Free and easy.Make the grade. The stony walls enclosed the holy space.

  • Consonance*Repetition of internal or ending consonant sounds of words close together in poetry.

    Example: I dropped the locket in the thickmuck

  • Repetition Words or phrases repeated in writings to give emphasis, rhythm, and/or a sense of urgency.

    Example: from Edgar Allen Poes The Bells

    To the swinging and the ringing of the bells, bells, bells Of the bells, bells, bells, bells Bells, bells, bells To the rhyming and the chiming of the bells!*Think of all the songs you know where words and lines are repeated often a lot!

  • Rhythm and MeterRhythm is the sound pattern created by stressed and unstressed syllables.The pattern can be regular or random.Meter is the regular patterns of stresses found in many poems and songs..Rhythm is often combined with rhyme, alliteration, and other poetic devices to add a musical quality to the writing.*


    I think that I shall never see a poem lovely as a tree.

    The purple words/syllables are stressed, and they have a regular pattern, so this poetic line has meter. *

  • RhymeThe repetition of end sounds in wordsEnd rhymes appear at the end of two or more lines of poetry.Internal rhymes appear within a single line of poetry.Slant rhyme is when words do not technically rhyme, but sound very similar.*Ring around the rosies,A pocket full of posies,Abednego was meek and mild; he softly spoke, he sweetly smiled.He never called his playmates names, and he was good in running games;

  • Rhyme SchemeThe pattern of end rhymes (of lines) in a poem.Letters are used to identify a poems rhyme scheme (a.k.a rhyme pattern).The letter a is placed after the first line and all lines that rhyme with the first line. The letter b identifies the next line ending with a new sound, and all lines that rhyme with it.Letters continue to be assigned in sequence to lines containing new ending sounds.*a.k.a = also known asThis may seem confusing, but it isnt. Really!


    Twinkle, twinkle little staraHow I wonder what you are.aUp above the earth so high,bLike a diamond in the sky.b

    Baa, baa, black sheepa Have you any wool?b Yes sir, yes sir,c Three bags full.b*

  • RHYME SCHEME CONTINUEDWhat is the rhyme scheme of this stanza?

    Whose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not see me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.*From Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost

  • Did you get it right? aabaWhose woods these are I think I know. aHis house is in the village though; aHe will not see me stopping here bTo watch his woods fill up with snow. a*

  • Elements of Poetry: Types of Poems

  • CORNELL NOTES REMINDER*Your NameTodays DatePeriodTitle is POETRY: Types of PoemsWrite words to be defined and types of figurative language here.Write definitions, explanations, and some examples here.For these notes, you do not need to use a summary space, as you see here.

  • Lines and StanzasRemember:A line is like a sentence in a poem.A stanza is like a paragraph in a poem. It is a group of lines forming a section of a poem.A two-line stanza is called acouplet. A three-line stanza is called atercet. A four-line stanza is called aquatrain. A five-line stanza is called acinquain. A six-line stanza is called asestet. A seven-line stanza is called aseptet. An eight-line stanza is called anoctave,or sometimes anoctet.


  • DiamanteA 7 lined poem. That is diamond in shapeLine 1: Noun or subject Line 2: Two Adjectives describing the first noun/subect Line 3: Three verbs ending in ing describing the first noun/subject Line 4: Four words: two about the first noun/subject, two about the antonym/synonym Line 5: Three verbs ending in ing about the antonym/synonym Line 6: Two adjectives describing the antonym/synonym Line 7: Antonym/synonym for the subject *

  • Diamante cont.Rain humid, damp refreshing, dripping, splattering wet, slippery, cold, slushy sliding, melting, freezing frigid, icy Snow *

  • HaikuHaiku is an unrhymed Japanese verse consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables (5, 7, 5) or 17 syllables in all. Haiku is usually written in the present tense and focuses on nature.

    I walk across sandAnd find myself blisteringIn the hot, hot heat


  • Cinquain Cinquain is a short, usually unrhymed poem consisting of twenty-two syllables distributed as 2, 4, 6, 8, 2, in five lines Line 1: Noun Line 2: Description of Noun (Adjectives)Line 3: Action (Verbs ending in ing)Line 4: Feeling or Effect Line 5: Synonym of the initial noun *

  • Cinquain (continued)

    SpaghettiMessy, spicySlurping, sliding, fallingBetween my plate and mouthDelicious*

  • Epitaph An epitaph is a brief poem inscribed on a tombstone praising a deceased person, usually with rhyming lines. What happened to me, was not good, Hit by a car, bounced off the hood, Would get up, if only I could, Now here I lay, where once I stood *

  • AcrosticAcrostic Poetry is where the first letter of each line spells a word, usually using the same words as in the title.

    Devoted, On Guard. *

  • Shape Poetry Poetry can take on many formats, but one of the most inventive forms is for the poem to take on the shape of its subject. Therefore, if the subject of your poem were of a flower, then the poem would be shaped like a flower. If it were of a fish, then the poem would take on the shape of a fish *

  • Limerick A limerick is a light hearted humorous poem. A limerick always has the rhyming schemeA-A-B-B-A

    Oftentimes, Limericks follow the structure of Hickory Dickory Dock


  • Limerick (continued)

    There once was an ape in a zoo Who looked out through the bars and sawyou Do you think it's fair To give poor apes a scare? I think it's a mean thing to do.*

  • Free VerseFree Verse is an irregular form of poetry in which the content free of traditional rules of versification, (freedom from fixed meter or rhyme). In moving from line to line, the poet's main consideration is where to insert line breaks. Some ways of doing this include breaking the line where there is a natural pause or at a point of suspense for the reader. *

  • Free Verse cont.The Red Wheelbarrow by William Carlos Williams so much depends upon a red wheel barrow glazed with rain water beside the white chickens *

  • SonnetA Sonnet is a poem consisting of 14 lines, written in iambic pentameter, with a particular rhyme scheme. FYI: William Shakespeare wrote many well-known sonnets

    Sonnets consist of 4 stanzas:Stanza 1 = QuatrainStanza 2 = QuatrainStanza 3 = QuatrainStanza 4 = Couplet*

  • Sonnet (continued)Iambic pentameter:What is an iamb?An iamb is one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable, as in the word beyond.Unstressed syllable is marked withStressed syllable is marked with

    Example: *

  • Sonnet (continued)EXAMPLE:


    Sonnet 18 William ShakespeareShall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the da


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