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    Elements of

    Poetry

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    What do you knowabout poetry?

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    1. Speaker

    a. The voice that communicates

    with the reader of a poem.

    b. A poems speaker can be the

    voice of a person, an animal, oreven a thing.

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    Example

    Lie back, daughter, let your head

    Be tipped back in the cup of my hand.

    from First Lesson by Philip Booth

    Who is the speaker?

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    2. Lines and Stanzas

    a. line- a row of words, which may

    or may not form a complete

    sentence.

    b. Stanza- a group of lines forminga unit (poem paragraph)

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    Example

    Drum on your drums,

    batter on your banjoes,

    Sob on the long cool

    winding saxophones.

    Go to it, O jazzmen.

    From Jazz Fantasia by Carl Sandburg

    Identify a line and a stanza.

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    3. Rhythm

    Rhythm- the pattern of sound

    created by the arrangement ofstressed and unstressed

    syllable in a line. Rhythm can

    be regular or irregular.

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    Example

    Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary

    Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore

    While I nodded nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,

    As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door

    Tis some visitor, I muttered, tapping at my chamber door

    Only this and nothing more.

    From The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

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    4. Rhyme

    a. Internal rhyme- occurs within lines

    of poetry

    b. End rhyme- occurs at the ends of

    lines

    c. Rhyme scheme- the pattern of rhyme

    formed by the end rhyme

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    Example

    Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary

    Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore

    While I nodded nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,

    As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door

    Tis some visitor, I muttered, tapping at my chamber door

    Only this and nothing more.

    Find examples of end rhyme and internal rhyme and the rhyme

    scheme.

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    5. Sound Devices

    a. Alliteration- the repetition ofconsonant sounds

    b. Onomatopoeia- the use of a word orphrase, such as swoosh or clank, that

    imitates or suggests the sound ofwhat it describes

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    Example

    Give an example of alliteration.

    Give an example of onomatopoeia.

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    6. Imagery

    a. Imagery- descriptive language

    used to represent objects,

    feelings, and thoughts.

    b. It often appeals to the five

    senses- sight, hearing, touch,taste, smell.

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    Example

    Black horse drive a mower through the weeds,

    And there, a field rat, startled, squealing bleeds.

    from Reapers by Jean Toomer

    To what senses do these lines appeal?

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    7. Figures of Speech

    a. Simile- uses the words like oras

    to compare two unlike things

    Example: My love is like a red,

    red rose.

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    7. Figures of Speech

    b. Metaphor- compares two or more different

    things by stating or implying that one

    thing is another

    Example:

    I was not one for keeping

    Rubbed in a cage a wing that would be

    free.

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    Extended metaphor

    a metaphor thatappears through out a

    poem

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    Dead metaphor

    Metaphor so common that it ispart of everyday speech

    Examples: the woman is a

    beautiful flower or love abeautiful flower

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    7. Figures of Speech

    c. Personification- giving human

    characteristics to an animal, object,

    or idea

    Example:

    The headlights of the car stared at Bill.

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    Apostrophe

    Addressing/ speaking to an animal,

    object, or idea as if it were a

    human

    Example: Death, why do you mockme?

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    Other Literary Elements

    Hyperbole exaggeration to create aneffect

    Examples:I was so surprised you could haveknocked me over with a feather.

    I would rather die than eat brusselssprouts.

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    Other Literary Elements

    Oxymoron two or three words

    that combine opposite ideas

    Examples:

    sweet sorrow

    jumbo shrimp

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    Other Literary Elements

    Paradox holding contradictory ideastogether in order to point to a deeper truthExamples:

    For it is in giving that we receive,

    In pardoning that we are pardoned,

    And in dying that we are born to eternal life.

    Saint Francis ofAssisi

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    Types ofPoetry

    Epic a long narrative poem (tells a story)

    in which a hero has a great adventure

    Lyrical expresses a speakers personalthoughts and feelings

    Narrative tells a story

    Dramatic the speaker is a character whogives a speech (like a monologue in a play)

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    Introduction to PoetryIntroduction to Poetry

    By Billy CollinsBy Billy Collins

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    I ask them to take a poemI ask them to take a poem

    and hold it to the lightand hold it to the light

    like a color slidelike a color slide

    or press an ear against its hive.or press an ear against its hive.

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    I say drop a mouse into a poemI say drop a mouse into a poem

    and watch him probe his way out.and watch him probe his way out.

    or walk inside a poems roomor walk inside a poems room

    and feel the walls for a light switch.and feel the walls for a light switch.

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    But all they want to doBut all they want to do

    is tie the poem to a chair with ropeis tie the poem to a chair with rope

    and torture a confession out of it.and torture a confession out of it.

    They begin beating it with a hoseThey begin beating it with a hose

    to find out what it really means.to find out what it really means.