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Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Guiding Document March, 2004 Conservation Management Strategy

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  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp

    Guiding Document

    March, 2004

    Conservation Management Strategy

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp

    Conservation Management Guiding Document March 2004

    1

    Copies of this report may be obtained from:

    The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority

    1424 Clarke Road, London, ON N5V 5B9

    Phone: (519) 451-2800 Fax: (519) 451-1188

    A pdf version of this report may downloaded from the UTRCA web site at www.thamesriver.on.ca

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    AcknowledgementsThe Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp Conservation Management planning has been successful due to the support and interest of a large number of organizations and individuals. Participation through meetings, tours, workshops, and email has been exceptional and very much appreciated.

    Specific individuals and organizations represented on the Local Advisory Committee: Emma Boersen, Neighbouring Landowner Jane Boyce, Stratford Field Naturalists Jackie Catania, Neighbouring Landowner Elaine & Roger Cook, Stratford Field

    Naturalists, Upper Avon River Conservation Club

    Bob Faulhafer, Local Outdoor Opportunities Partners (LOOP)

    Milt Illman, LOOP Tony Jackson, LOOP Ken Maronets, Perth Stewardship Network, staff

    member Gary Marsh, Neighbouring Landowner Dave McLachlin, Ducks Unlimited Canada,

    staff member Scott Nahrgang, LOOP Dwight Satchell, Neighbouring Landowner Gayle Schmidt, Neighbouring Landowner Robin Van De Lande, Grand River

    Conservation Authority (GRCA), staff member George Wicke, Neighbouring Landowner,

    Perth Stewardship Network, GRCA Board Member, LOOP

    The Municipality of Perth East provided support and assistance in developing this guiding document.

    Special thanks to the sponsors of this work: TD Friends of the Environment Foundation, Stratford Chapter Trojan Technologies Inc, London

    UTRCA staff supporting the Conservation Management project:

    Brenda Gallagher, Forestry and Vegetation Assessment Technician

    Bill Mackie, Superintendent Support Services and Properties

    Steve Sauder, Strategy Specialist

    Tara Tchir, Ecologist

    Karen Wilkie, Support Services and Properties Technician

    2

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgements..2Table of Contents.....3 Size & Location...4Purpose of Management Plan...4History Ellice Swamp...5 Property Ownership.....5Environmental Significance........6Partners6Management Plan Process.......7Management Plan Mission...8Principles.....8Priority Issues..9Management Plan Goals & Targets...9, 10Criteria for Decision Making.11Perceived Top Current Acceptable Uses.......11Considerations for Hunting12Considerations for Hiking/Bird Watching.13Considerations for Snowmobiling.....13Current Unacceptable Uses...14Considerations for Enforcing Unacceptable Uses14Management Plan Next Steps15Friends of Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps..16 Technical Summary15Maps..40

    3

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Size & Location

    Ellice Swamp 1,014 hectares (2,504 acres)

    Gads Hill Swamp 705 hectares (1,741 acres) there are north and south parcels, the northern parcel is not publicly accessible

    The swamps are located between Milverton and Stratford

    Ellice Swamp is part of the watershed divide for the Grand and Upper Thames watersheds

    Purpose of Management Plan

    Provides direction for future policies and management

    Ensures sustainability of the resource

    4

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    History - Ellice Swamp

    Originally known as Ellice Huckleberry Swamp

    Peat extraction occurred in the 1930s

    Experimental tree planting occurred in the 1950s

    Drains have been established through the swamp

    Traditionally used as hunting areas

    Property Ownership

    Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp are primarily owned by the Upper Thames River Conservation Authority

    The most northern section of Ellice Swamp is owned by the Grand River Conservation Authority

    This is not crown land, crown land is owned by the federal government

    UTRCA is primarily responsible for the managing these wetlands and paying the taxes

    5

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Environmental Significance

    Provincially Significant Wetlands

    Significant water storage area in Perth County

    Largest natural areas within Perth County

    Provincially rare species: Northern Slender Ladies Tresses

    Partners

    Township of Perth East

    Neighbouring Landowners

    Stratford Field Naturalists

    Local Outdoor Opportunities Partners

    Swampers Snowmobile Club

    Perth Stewardship Network

    Ducks Unlimited

    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

    Grand River Conservation Authority

    Upper Thames River Conservation Authority

    6

    Regionally rare species: Yellow Ladys Slipper, Velvet-leafBlueberry, Adders Tongue Fern, Cottongrass, Golden-winged Warbler

    One of the largest deer yards in Perth County

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Management Plan Process

    February 2002

    -Visited stakeholders- Identified issues/challenges

    May 2002

    - Hosted community meeting- Identified priority issues/challenges- Shared background information

    June 2002 May 2003

    - Local Advisory Committee established- Mission, goals, targets and key actions developed- Tours hosted of Hullet Marsh and Ellice Swamp

    7

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Mission

    Working with the community to protect the ecosystem health of Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp through the wise use and management of these long term resources

    Principles

    Ecological integrity

    Ecological sustainability

    Shared responsibility

    Public participation

    Awareness & education

    Wise use

    8

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Perceived Priority Issues heard at Public Meetings

    Impact of All Terrain Vehicles

    Lack of access control

    Lack of designated uses

    Impact of beavers

    Impact of drains on hydrology

    Poaching

    Perth East Landfill Site

    Management Plan Goals & Targets

    Goal A

    To develop and implement strategies that protect or improve the ecosystem health of Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp

    Targets: Develop measures (indices) of ecosystem health for plant and wildlife habitat, and hydrology

    Identify the impact of Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp on the surrounding landscape

    Establish baseline monitoring

    9

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Management Plan Goals & Targets

    Goal B

    To develop strategies for community participation, awareness, and ongoing learning

    Targets:

    Establish a Friends of Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp Committee with representation from a variety of sectors

    Develop signs and pamphlets with information about Ellice Swamp and Gad Hill Swamp

    Develop community education opportunities

    Goal CTo develop strategies for public safety and wise use

    Target: Establish designated uses with

    the Local Advisory Committee

    10

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Criteria for Decision Making

    Complements the management plan goals

    Does not disturb the ecological sensitivity of the area

    Meets UTRCA public safety requirements

    Complies with existing Federal, Provincial, Municipal, and Conservation Authority acts and regulations

    Is manageable

    Follows Forest Best Management Practices

    Respects traditional acceptable uses

    Perceived Top Current Acceptable Uses

    Hunting

    Hiking/Bird Watching

    Snowmobiling

    11

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Considerations for Hunting

    Should signs be posted during hunts?

    Consider using the MNR Guardians Program as a Communication/Education method

    Need to develop enforcement program that includes MNR/OPP/UTRCA/Guardians

    Is trapping currently occurring? Need to consider safety

    Should provide education materials to Hunting/Hiking Clubs

    Should post MNR Hunting Regulations with dates of hunts

    Should develop designated parking/access areas

    Need to consider various hunting seasons

    Tree stands should not be permanent

    Should respect traditional hunting seasons

    Should use orange vests

    Consideration should be given for people with physical challenges

    12

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Considerations for Hiking/Bird Watching

    Should consider using the abandoned railway bed for hiking possible access from GRCA property

    Should hiking trails be marked and separate from the snowmobile trail?

    Should make information available regarding different seasons for activities

    Need to look for feasible access points

    Considerations for Snowmobiling

    Should continue UTRCA / Snowmobile Club Agreement

    Continue to use existing trail

    Should consider trail restoration for ATV damage

    Should develop pruning protocol with members of the Ellice SwampersSnowmobile Club

    13

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Examples of Current Perceived Unacceptable Uses

    All Terrain Vehicles

    Other motorized vehicles (except snowmobiles)

    Unauthorized dumping

    Tree harvesting

    Considerations for Enforcing Perceived Unacceptable Uses

    Should policies that ban motorized vehicles (except snowmobile on designated trails) be developed?

    Should signs that show permitteduses be developed?

    Should control gates at entrances be installed?

    Consider developing an education / enforcement program

    14

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Management Plan - Next Steps

    Revise the document based upon public and stakeholder review

    Establish Friends Committee

    Develop policies and implementation guidelines based upon this document

    Friends of Ellice Swamp and Gads Hill Swamp

    Could be responsible for local management recommendations / implementation in partnership with UTRCA /GRCA

    Could include volunteer work at Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp

    Could involve fund-raising if money needs to be spent

    Could be an incorporated organization / gain charitable status

    Could include supporting community education and awareness of wise use

    15

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Technical Summary

    16

  • Conservation Management Strategy

    Maps

    40

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    40

    TTTTTable of Contentsable of Contentsable of Contentsable of Contentsable of Contents

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 17

    PURPOSE .......................................................................................................................................................... 17

    INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 17

    STUDY AREA .....................................................................................................................................................18

    METHODS .........................................................................................................................................................18Cultural Use ............................................................................................................................................... 18Field Surveys .............................................................................................................................................. 18Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 19

    RESULTS ........................................................................................................................................................... 19Cultural Use of Ellice Swamp ..................................................................................................................... 19Vegetation Change Within Ellice Swamp ................................................................................................... 20Cultural Use of the Gads Hill Swamps ........................................................................................................ 20Vegetation Change Within the Gads Hill Swamps ..................................................................................... 21Wildlife ...................................................................................................................................................... 22Benthic Organisms .................................................................................................................................... 23

    DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTS .............................................................. 24Natural Heritage Features .......................................................................................................................... 24Surface Water Quantity and Quality .......................................................................................................... 25Groundwater Quantity and Quality ........................................................................................................... 26Open Water Habitat .................................................................................................................................. 26

    Waterfowl ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Beavers .......................................................................................................................................... 26 Mosquitoes ................................................................................................................................... 26

    DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON LAND USE ACTIVITIES .................................................................. 27Recreational Use ........................................................................................................................................ 27

    Trails for Hiking / Snowmobiling / Cross Country Skiing ................................................................. 27 All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) .............................................................................................................. 27 Dog Running ................................................................................................................................. 28 Camping ....................................................................................................................................... 28 Hunting and Trapping .................................................................................................................. 28

    Resource Use ............................................................................................................................................. 28 Peat Extraction .............................................................................................................................. 28 Tree Plantation Harvesting ............................................................................................................ 28 Drains ........................................................................................................................................... 29 Landfill Site ................................................................................................................................... 29

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................................. 30

    APPENDIX A. UTRCA 1997- 2002 Benthic Sampling Data ................................................................................. 31

    APPENDIX B. Bird Species Records from 2001 to 2003 for Ellice Swamp .......................................................... 34

    APPENDIX C. List of Native Plant Species Recommended for Reforestation / Planting .......................................35

    APPENDIX D. Pruning Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 39

    i

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    41

    LIST OF TABLESTable 1. Water Quality Ranges for FBI Values .................................................................................................... 19Table 2. Benthic Diversity Results from the West Tributary of Black Creek ......................................................... 23Table 3. Benthic Diversity Results from the East Tributary of Black Creek .......................................................... 23Table 4. Benthic Diversity Results from the East Upstream Tributary of Black Creek .......................................... 23Table 5. The FBI values and water quality conditions for tributaries of Black Creek from 2000 and 2002 ......... 24

    LIST OF MAPSMap 1 Location of Ellice and Gads Hill SwampsMap 2 Soils of Ellice and Gads Hill SwampsMap 3 Drain Classification for Drains Surrounding Ellice and Gads Hill SwampsMap 4 Land Use Surrounding Ellice and Gads Hill SwampsMap 5 Property Ownership of Ellice and Gads Hill SwampsMap 6 Vegetation Communties of Ellice SwampMap 7 Vegetation Communities of South Gads Hill SwampMap 8 Potential Naturalization of Areas Surrounding Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps

    ii

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    17

    EXECUTIVE SUMMAREXECUTIVE SUMMAREXECUTIVE SUMMAREXECUTIVE SUMMAREXECUTIVE SUMMARYYYYY

    Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps, located between Stratfordand Milverton in Perth County, are recognized asEnvironmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) in Perth County.As well, South Gads Hill and Ellice Swamps areProvincially Significant Wetlands while North Gads HillSwamp is a Locally Significant Wetland. Severalprovincially and regionally rare plant and animal speciesoccur in the Swamps. Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps draininto the headwaters of the Thames River. Ellice Swampalso drains into a tributary of the Grand River.

    Ownership of these wetlands rests with the Upper ThamesRiver and Grand River Conservation Authorities.Responsibility for the Swamps future rests with these publicagencies, as well as with community interest groups, thelocal townships and the broader county. This communitybased Management Strategy is the product of the interestsand ideas of a broad cross-section of these groups.

    Ecological and land use recommendations were developedbased on information compiled from biological fieldinventories, literature reviews and public consultation.Ecological recommendations include: increase the amount of forest cover in marginal lands

    adjacent to the Swamps to enhance wildlife corridors andinterior habitat;

    monitor surface water and groundwater quantity andquality upstream, within and downstream of the Swampsto determine the hydrological cycle; and

    enhance open water areas for waterfowl.

    Land use recommendations include: develop and maintain trails for passive recreational

    activities such as hiking, snowmobiling and crosscountryskiing;

    review hunting and trapping activities annually to ensurethat Conservation Authority guidelines are appropriateand being followed; and

    mitigate abandoned or unnecessary drainage activitiesthrough the swamp.

    All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), unsupervised dog running,camping, peat extraction, tree harvesting and drainageare not appropriate land use activities given the sensitivefeatures and functions that the Swamps support.

    PURPOSEPURPOSEPURPOSEPURPOSEPURPOSE

    The purpose of the ecological study is to describe the abiotic,biotic (terrestrial and aquatic) and cultural features andfunctions of Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps. Informationcollected from field inventories, literature reviews andpublic consultation is presented here to assist the LocalAdvisory Group (LAG), called Friends of Ellice and GadsHill Swamps, and the Conservation Authorities (UTRCAand GRCA) in identifying issues, appropriate land uses,and management strategies for Ellice and Gads HillSwamps.

    The UTRCA and GRCA will work in partnership withFriends of Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps to ensure that thelands owned by each Authority in the Swamps are managedcarefully and consistently by implementing the managementplan. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR),in cooperation with the UTRCA and GRCA, will continueto be involved in the monitoring and protection of thesewetland areas.

    INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    Swamps, such as Ellice and Gads Hill, are defined as treedwetlands (deciduous and/or coniferous) that containstanding water all or most of the time (Lee et al. 1998).They are neither wholly firm land nor water bodies.Wetlands act as natural filtering systems that improve waterquality. Wetland plants absorb nutrients and help cycle themthrough the food chain. Plants also slow down flowingwater and thereby cause silt to settle out.

    Wetlands also act to mitigate floods by slowing down andholding the runoff of spring meltwater and storm water.This ability to hold back spring runoff and slowly release itduring the normal low summer flow in rivers can helpprevent serious water supply problems. Wetlands not onlyhelp in preserving a more even flow in streams throughoutthe year, but aid in maintaining the natural level of the watertable in the soil through groundwater infiltration andreplenishment. The more wetlands in a drainage area, thehigher the likelihood that serious water shortages can beprevented. Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps were identifiedas three of only 15 areas in the Upper Thames watershedthat serve as natural groundwater water storage areas(UTRCA 1952).

    Finally, wetlands have high biodiversity of both plant andanimal species. As a result of extensive drainage andclearing, wooded wetlands (i.e. swamps) are relatively rarein southern Ontario and the species associated with themare susceptible to further loss through wetland fragmentationand degradation.

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    18

    STUDSTUDSTUDSTUDSTUDY AREAY AREAY AREAY AREAY AREA

    Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps are owned and managed asprotected natural areas by the Upper Thames River andGrand River Conservation Authorities. These Swamps arelocated between Stratford and Milverton and drain intoBlack Creek and the Avon River, tributaries and headwatersof the Thames River (Map 1). Ellice Swamp is situatedwest of the Village of Gads Hill and bridges the watersheddivide between the Upper Thames River and the GrandRiver. The portion of Ellice Swamp in the Grand Riverwatershed drains toward the Nith River (Map 1). The GadsHill Swamps are located just east of the village and arefound entirely within the Upper Thames River watershed.Land is flat to undulating with little relief.

    Ellice Swamp is 1,014 hectares (2,504 acres) and is thelargest remaining wetland both in Perth County and in theUpper Thames River watershed. It is located on the flat toundulating Stratford Till Plain. The soils in this area areprimarily composed of muck and peat (Map 2). Theseorganic or hydric soils vary from less than 40 cm to greaterthan one metre in depth. The shallow overburden is madeup of silt loam to clayey silt till with shallow deposits ofsand. Underlying this zone is a higher clay content that ismore impervious, restricting lateral flow and maintainingthe wetland. Bedrock occurs at a depth of approximately40 m below ground. A perched groundwater table occursnear the surface throughout Ellice Swamp within the sandylens above the clay. The groundwater eventually dischargesinto two stream channels, one of which drains into the NorthBranch of the Thames River via the East Black Creek Drainand the other of which drains into the Nith River, a tributaryof the Grand River system (Maps 1 and 3).

    The Perth County Groundwater Management Studyhighlighted Ellice Swamp as a significant groundwaterrecharge zone. It is also recognized by the OntarioMinistry of Natural Resources (OMNR) as aProvincially Significant Wetland (PSW) and is classifiedas an Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) in PerthCounty.

    The Gads Hill Swamps are 705 hectares (1,741 acres) andconsist of two wooded blocks, a southern section (495hectares) and a northern section (120 hectares). Both arelocated on a sand plain, with clay and silt loam underlyingmuck soils (Map 2). South Gads Hill Swamp is the largestwooded area in the Avon River watershed and is one of themain sources of water for the Avon River, which drainsinto the North Branch of the Thames River (Map 1). Itfeeds the Seip Drive and Western Drains which flow intothe large Court Drain beside Highway 19 (County Road119) and eventually enter the Avon River 13 km away atthe eastern outskirts of Stratford (Maps 1 and 3). NorthGads Hill Swamp supplies water to Black Creek via theCorcoran Drain (Maps 1 and 3). Black Creek eventuallydrains into the North Branch of the Thames River.

    Both South and North Gads Hill Swamps are designatedas ESAs in the County of Perth. South Gads Hill Swampis recognized by the OMNR as a Provincially SignificantWetland (PSW) while North Gads Hill Swamp isrecognized by the OMNR as a Locally SignificantWetland (LSW).

    METHODSMETHODSMETHODSMETHODSMETHODS

    Cultural UseCultural UseCultural UseCultural UseCultural Use

    To describe the cultural heritage landscape of Ellice andGads Hill Swamps, a review of current and adjacent landuses was undertaken. This entailed reviewing historicaland current land use maps, historical literature such asConservation Authority reports and newspaper articles, aswell as consulting with the public, various stakeholders andagency staff to identify the multi-use demands of localresidents and tourists who enjoy the wetland areas.

    Field SurField SurField SurField SurField Surveysveysveysveysveys

    A vegetation inventory was conducted in the fieldthroughout the spring and summer of 2002 in Ellice andSouth Gads Hill Swamps. The classification of vegetationcommunities followed the Ecological Land Classification(ELC) system for Southern Ontario (Lee et al. 1998). Thissystem was designed to standardize the way vegetationcommunities are described and labelled throughout southernOntario, depending on the composition of dominant treespecies, soil types, hydrology and understorey vegetation.Vegetation communities in Ellice and South Gads HillSwamps were classified to the ecosite level (i.e. green levelof the ELC) wherever possible (UTRCA database). NorthGads Hill Swamp was not inventoried because of timerestraints. Since there is no public access, it is believedthat land use pressures are not as great for North Gads HillSwamp.

    The vegetation field work was efficient and unobtrusive.Plants and animals were not removed from the site. Eachcommunity was surveyed on foot. A description of the topfour species by presence for each vegetation layer (canopy,sub-canopy, shrub and herbaceous) was recorded, as wellas descriptions of the physiography. An evaluation ofecological community features, such as the presence ofseeps, healthy watercourses, dead standing snags and fallenlogs, etc., was conducted. There was no formal quantitativeanalysis of the vegetation during this survey (i.e. nosampling quadrats or measured transects). Prism sweeps,used to determine basal area (or tree density by species andsize), were recorded at least once in each treed community.Given time and budget constraints, a detailed assessment ofthe vegetation and of wildlife was not possible. Wildlifespecies were recorded opportunistically during the vegetationsurveys. Significant breeding areas for birds, amphibians andreptiles were presumed, but not confirmed, in this study.

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    19

    Benthic samples were obtained from 1997 to 2003 in threestreams and drains downstream and adjacent to the Swamps(Map 3) using a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developedby the United States Environmental Protection Agency andmodified by Dr. Robert Bailey of the University of WesternOntario Zoology Department. A representative section ofstream is selected, incorporating a riffle if present, andsampled by moving upstream along a diagonal transect,dislodging and capturing invertebrates with a 0.5 mm meshD- frame net. Samples are preserved in the field andanalysed in the lab to randomly select subsamples for 200individuals, which are identified to the Family taxonomiclevel. Fish samples were collected within Ellice Swamp inthe fall of 2003 at the same time as the benthic sampling,using an electro shocker to temporarily stun the fish forcapture. Fish were identified in the field and released.

    Data AnalysisData AnalysisData AnalysisData AnalysisData Analysis

    Natural resource inventories including wetland evaluations,forest resource inventory maps, Conservation Authorityreports, water quality reports, benthic surveys and otherbackground data were synthesized to establish a baselineof information. Since woodland community boundariesdetermined in the field are recognizable on air photos, bothnatural and cultural feature boundaries (i.e. roads, railroads,trails) within and surrounding the Swamp areas weremapped onto 1:2000 OBM maps. These maps were thenoverlayed to determine land use activities compatible withthe natural resource.

    A biotic index was assigned to the benthic invertebrate taxa,indicating their pollution sensitivity and tolerance on a scalefrom 0 to 10 (Appendix A). Lower numbers indicatepollution sensitivity and high numbers indicate pollutiontolerance. A value of -1 indicates that no biotic index valuehas been assigned to these taxa. The Family Biotic Index(FBI) is the weighted average of the biotic index and numberof bugs in each taxa in the sample. Table 1 shows the waterquality ranges for the FBI values.

    Table 1. Water Quality Ranges for FBI values.

    Good 6.50

    RESULRESULRESULRESULRESULTSTSTSTSTS

    Cultural Use of Ellice SwampCultural Use of Ellice SwampCultural Use of Ellice SwampCultural Use of Ellice SwampCultural Use of Ellice Swamp

    Ellice Swamp, which was once so large it hindered thetownships early development, has a rich cultural history.To enable settlers to move into the area, Ellice Swamp waseventually drained by several large ditches (Babb 1974). Agreat deal of what was once swamp wilderness is nowamong the most productive sections of Perth County.

    In the pioneer days, the Swamp was rich in flora and fauna.It was used by the pioneers for berry picking and for peatextraction (Wicke, pers. comm.). Wolves and deer wereplentiful and ran throughout the Swamp while large watersnakes moved through the black muck. Many interestingpioneer families lived adjacent to the Swamp. Frank Rustoncame to Canada from Ireland in the mid 1800s. He arrivedin Toronto, but soon set off on foot in search of work (Babb1974). After brief stops in Brampton, Guelph and thenWartburg, he continued his journey on foot and eventuallysettled near Kinkora where he married. Ten years later hebought a farm on a small clearing on the edge of ElliceSwamp from the Canada Company. He lived here until hemoved to Stratford in 1909. He died two years later. Hisson took over the farm in 1909 but then sold it in 1918.

    Another interesting pioneer was Mr. Middleditch whopurchased a 100 acre tract within Ellice Swamp from theCanada Company in the early 1870s in the hopes of curinghis wife from tuberculosis. It was believed that she wouldbe cured by breathing in the fragrant pine and cedar trees.A squatters cabin within the 100 acres was enlarged, andMr. Middleditch went about clearing and draining his land.The familys few belongings were carried from the Rustonhome located two miles west of the 100 acre tract, whichwas the closest dwelling that could be reached by wagonand oxen. Mrs. Middleditch eventually recovered, and wenton to organize a Sunday School in her home. This eventuallyresulted in a little brick chapel a few yards from her doorthat remained active until 1940. Today, there is no bush onthe property and all the land is tillable.

    The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (UTRCA)recognized the importance of Ellice Swamp to the watershedand began purchasing it in 1948. In 1954, the Grand RiverConservation Authority (GRCA) purchased 78 acres(approximately 32 ha) of land from John and NancyNafziger for $1000, who had purchased the land in ElliceSwamp from the Crown in 1939. The original intent of bothConservation Authorities in purchasing the lands was to secureareas prone to flooding. More recently, the ConservationAuthorities have broadened their interest in Ellice Swampbecause of its importance as a Provincially Significant Wetland(PSW) and as one of the largest natural areas in south-centralOntario. The Authorities are also exploring other uses of thesite, such as passive recreation and hunting.

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    20

    In the 1950s, Dr. Wellwood, a biology professor at theUniversity of Guelph, discovered many rare plants in ElliceSwamp that were not found anywhere else in Canada. Helater contacted the Upper Thames River ConservationAuthority in the hopes of securing their protection duringthe reforestation program.

    Today Ellice Swamp is completely surrounded byagricultural lands (Map 4). A few isolated woodland patchesremain scattered within this agricultural matrix. In additionto the publicly owned lands of the UTRCA and GRCA, theSwamp is divided into a number of private land holdings aswell as a large forest block owned by the Township of PerthEast (Map 5). This township property contains a smallbridge and trail operated by the Ellice Swamperssnowmobile club (a member of the Ontario Federation ofSnowmobile Clubs). A township landfill site that is in fulloperation is located at the north end of the Swamp in theGrand River watershed (Map 5).

    VVVVVegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Within Ellice Swampithin Ellice Swampithin Ellice Swampithin Ellice Swampithin Ellice Swamp

    Ellice Swamp was originally a mixed coniferous anddeciduous swamp forest, composed chiefly of Eastern WhiteCedar, hemlock, Silver Maple, Black Ash and White Elm(UTRCA 1952). It was also known as the ElliceHuckleberry Marsh due to the large number of huckleberriesgrowing in the area. Most of the original vegetation wascleared and drained for agricultural purposes around 1900.As well, Ellice Swamp was repeatedly burned after drainswere put through it to make the edges useable foragriculture. Several attempts at agricultural use occurred,including pasturing and orchard plantings. Repeated firesand peat extraction operations in the 1930s contributed tothe altered forest composition of the Swamp. In the 1950s,the MNR undertook experimental tree planting of bothconiferous and deciduous species in large areas throughoutEllice Swamp, altering the Swamps original character.

    Although Ellice Swamp was inventoried for the 1952 UpperThames Valley Conservation Report, the inventory was notvery detailed. Only four forest cover types were recognized:wet scrub, aspen (extensive and widely distributedthroughout the Swamp), willow (found on wet sites) andSilver Maple-White Elm (found on poorly drained soils butrelatively common in the Swamp). Over 50% of the areawas described as woodland, 20% as open or marsh land,20% as scrub land and 5% as bogs and lakes (UTRCA1952). The lands in the Grand River watershed werecomposed mostly of deciduous swamp, shrub thicket andopen water marsh with a small section of upland plantationnear the township road. Most of the water reaching ElliceSwamp at this time was from precipitation. Sinceprecipitation is low in nutrients and has a low pH (moreacidic), peat soils and bog vegetation developed.

    In 1982, Ellice Swamp was again evaluated, this time forthe Perth County Preliminary Environmentally Sensitive

    Areas Survey (Hoffman and Lamb 1982). In the lessdisturbed areas of the Swamp, it was noted that poplar, BlackAsh and Silver Maple scrub dominated. Dogwoods,willows, meadowsweets, chokeberries and blueberries wereprevalent in the understorey. The centre of the Swamp wascovered with sphagnum moss and Leather-leaf underlainwith peat, indicators of a bog. Few remnants of the originalbog vegetation existed and huckleberries appeared to beextirpated. Woody vegetation had rapidly invaded the drier,drained soils at the expense of the wet bog species. At theedges, dense thickets of trembling aspen occurred, butdecreased toward the centre. As a result of drainage andattempts at farming, the wetland communities were alteredor lost, resulting in a shift from marsh to swampcommunities, a reduction in open water habitats and anincrease in woody species. Large areas of the marsh werealso planted in coniferous tree species. Ironically, it is thedegraded condition of the Swamp from drainage activitiesthat increased habitat diversity. This diversity attracted largenumbers of bird species and was one of the reasons whythe Swamp was designated as an Environmentally SensitiveArea (ESA) in Perth County.

    In 1985 Ellice Swamp was evaluated for its wetlandcharacteristics. According to the OMNR wetlandevaluation, there were approximately 13 different swampcommunities in Ellice Swamp. The vegetation surveyconducted in the spring and summer of 2002 for thismanagement plan confirmed that these wetland habitats arestill present and appear to have expanded in size since thewetland evaluation, with the exception of some of thewetland habitats adjacent to the landfill site (Map 6). TheUpper Thames portion of Ellice Swamp is currentlycomprised of three cultural community types in whichapproximately 0.3% of the entire Swamp is cultural meadow,16% is cultural plantation and 0.2% is cultural thicket. Anumber of old field and orchard communities are present.Only 2% of the Swamp is upland deciduous forest. Theother four community types are wetlands. Approximately23% is deciduous swamp, 1% is mixed swamp, 41% isswamp thicket with deciduous over storey and 7% is swampthicket with coniferous over storey. The rail line on bothproperties is mostly gravel and is only sparsely vegetated.Some of the significant plant species found in Ellice Swampinclude the provincially rare Northern Slender LadiesTresses, Carex trisperma (sedge), Bog Fern, Swans Sedge,Rugulose Grapefern, Yellow Screwstem and the regionallyrare Cotton Grass and Adders Tongue Fern (NHIC 2003).

    Cultural Use of the Gads Hill SwampsCultural Use of the Gads Hill SwampsCultural Use of the Gads Hill SwampsCultural Use of the Gads Hill SwampsCultural Use of the Gads Hill Swamps

    When the pioneers arrived in North Easthope, almost allthe lots had soil types and moisture conditions that rangedfrom well drained to poorly drained (Robinson 1998). As aconsequence, many varieties of trees including white pine,white cedar and hemlock, as well as other plants, flourished.

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    21

    The first settlers in the area arrived in the late 1850s(Robinson 1998). Land adjacent to North Gads Hill Swampwas used for crops, grain and hay. Woodlands adjacent toSouth Gads Hill Swamp were used in a variety of ways,including the operation of small seasonal sawmills that tookpine and hemlock, pasture lands, harvested for fuel and tiledand drained for crops.

    Many of the first buildings built by the early settlers weremade of white pine because of its resistance to rot and theease with which it could be cut and shaped with hand tools(Robinson 1998). White cedar was used for roof shinglesand rail fences. Old growth cedar rails, if off the groundand well ventilated, lasted for hundreds of years. Hemlock,less desirable for framing and finishing houses, was usedextensively for framing and siding barns because of itsresistance to rot (Robinson 1998). As a result, many of thepine, cedar and hemlock trees have become extinct on farmwoodlands, although there still is a sampling of eachthroughout the North Easthope township.

    Recognizing that the main natural water storage area forthe Avon River is the Gads Hill Swamp and that most ofthe land within the Gads Hill Swamps is not suitablefarmland, the UTRCA purchased a number of properties inthe late 1950s to ensure the protection of this importantwater recharge area. These small parcels of land help tokeep the small streams flowing while providing habitat forsongbirds and animals.

    VVVVVegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Wegetation Change Within the Gads Hill Swampsithin the Gads Hill Swampsithin the Gads Hill Swampsithin the Gads Hill Swampsithin the Gads Hill Swamps

    The UTRCA began purchasing lands within the Gads HillSwamps in 1951. The 1952 Upper Thames ValleyConservation Report characterized North Gads Hill Swampby three forest cover types: wet scrub, aspen (throughout)and Silver Maple-White Elm (relatively common but onpoorly drained soils). Over 80% of the area was comprisedof woodland, 15% was open or poorly drained marginalland and 5% was scrub land (UTRCA 1952).

    The 1952 Upper Thames Valley Conservation Reportcharacterized South Gads Hill Swamp as more diverse thaneither North Gads Hill or Ellice Swamps. South Gads HillSwamp had nine forest cover types: wet scrub, aspen(distributed throughout), Tamarack (which was uncommonand found on muck soils with little drainage), Black Ash-White Elm-Red Maple (found on moist to wet soils), SilverMaple-White Elm (found on poorly drained soils butrelatively common), White Elm (also found on poorlydrained soils and relatively common), beech-Sugar Maple(found throughout), Eastern White Cedar (on sites of slowdrainage that are not strongly acidic) and willow (on wetsites). Although South Gads Hill Swamp had already beenmostly cut over, there were some stands of larger WhiteElm, Silver Maple and Eastern White Cedar trees (UTRCA1952).

    Over half of South Gads Hill Swamp was woodland in 1952,while 20% was open land and 20% was scrub land. Thewooded area of the Swamp enclosed some vigorous springsand at least one pool where inflowing water entered theground, since there was no visible surface outlet. Most ofthe water reaching South Gads Hill Swamp was replenishedby precipitation, although there was also this groundwaterdischarge component in the form of springs. Thegroundwater component provided nutrients to the wetlandwhich made the vegetation at South Gads Hill Swampdifferent than the bog vegetation at Ellice Swamp.

    In 1982, South Gads Hill Swamp was evaluated as part ofthe Perth County Preliminary Environmentally SensitiveAreas Survey (Hoffman and Lamb 1982). The most notablecommunity types recorded at that time were earlysuccessional stands of Silver Maple, ash and aspen foundthroughout the Swamp. Along its perimeter, a young spruceplantation was established by the Ontario Ministry ofNatural Resources (OMNR). A high quality upland maple-beech forest was found on higher ground. At the south eastedge of the woods, a hemlock-Eastern White Cedar swamp,several wet willow-dogwood thickets, an Eastern WhiteCedar bog forest and small pockets of Tamarack wererecorded. The coniferous forest associations on moist andhummocky ground contained a large number of borealspecies not commonly found in southern Ontario.

    In 1985 the Gads Hill Swamps were evaluated for theirwetland community characteristics. According to theOMNR wetland evaluation, there were only nine wetlandcommunity types in the Gads Hill Swamps. North GadsHill Swamp had two organic swamp communities andappeared to be drying up while South Gads Hill Swamphad seven organic swamp wetland communities and wasthought to be hydrologically connected by surface water toother wetlands. As well, South Gads Hill Swamp containedregionally significant plant species. The Gads Hill Swampswere re-evaluated for their wetland communitycharacteristics in 1994. According to the OMNR wetlandevaluation, over 20 wetland community types wererecognized. Fifteen swamp wetlands on humic / mesicorganic soil were recorded in North Gads Hill Swamp whileten individual organic swamp and marsh wetlands on humic/ mesic soil and clay / loam soil were recorded for SouthGads Hill Swamp. South Gads Hill Swamp had bothpalustrine and riverine site types, and provincial as well asregionally significant plant species. South Gads Hill Swampwas no longer thought to be hydrologically connected bysurface water to other wetlands.

    A detailed terrestrial inventory of South Gads Hill Swampwas conducted as part of the Court Drain SubwatershedPlan Study for the City of Stratford (Aquafor Beech Ltd.2002 ). The Court Drain study described South Gads HillSwamp as a deciduous wetland. The vegetation surveyconducted in the spring and summer of 2002 for thismanagement plan confirmed the findings of the Court Drain

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    22

    study (Map 7). The majority of the woodland lies in a largeshallow depression on table land that is poorly drained,which results in a plant community dominated by Red, Silverand Manitoba Maple that experiences extensive floodingafter spring melt, but gradually dries up by mid to latesummer. The degree of seasonal flooding has probably beenreduced over time due to the construction of drainagesystems. Over the past 100 years, the wetland forest on thewestern half of the site has been undergoing succession toa drier deciduous swamp with more Sugar Maple (AquaforBeech Ltd. 2002 ). This is consistent with the age of thestand as most trees are less than a hundred years old. Canopycover is > 90% throughout most of this area. The soil inthe Swamp is homogeneous and consists of a wet mediumsilty loam with a depth of > 40 m to bedrock.

    The drier, more upland areas on the eastern side of SouthGads Hill Swamp consist of a mix of tree species that reflectthe historical uses of this land. Local records show thatfarming was practised unsuccessfully on this land for a fewgenerations. Therefore, much of the area is still in a mid-successional phase. Remnants of apple orchards can befound near the southeast side. Most trees on the uplandareas are relatively young, under 70 years. Since these areasare slightly higher, they dry up and consequently do notexperience seasonal flooding. Canopy cover is less than50% in most of these upland areas, and in some parts thereare still large patches of old field communities comprisedof weeds and grasses.

    WWWWWildlifeildlifeildlifeildlifeildlife

    Ellice Swamp contains regionally significant bird species.The open water marsh habitat in the GRCA watershed is acritical area for waterfowl staging and production, as wellas an active feeding area for colonial waterbirds. In 1985,several significant bird species were recorded in ElliceSwamp, including the regionally significant Golden-wingedWarbler, found nowhere else in Perth County. Otherregionally significant species found in Ellice Swamp at thistime include the Red-headed Woodpecker, the Yellow-billedCuckoo and the Yellow Warbler.

    In 1985, Ellice Swamp also contained several bird speciesof concern (NHIC), including:

    Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Blue-winged Warbler Cerulean Warbler Northern Water Thrush Red-shouldered Hawk White-throated Sparrow Yellow-breasted Chat

    The Golden-winged Warbler, Yellow Warbler, Yellow-breasted Chat, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher and White-throatedSparrow were recorded again in Ellice Swamp by JaneBoyce between 2001 and 2003 (Appendix B).

    The Gads Hill Swamps are also significant areas forbreeding birds. The diversity of habitat types, ranging fromold field communities to dense deciduous forests, providesignificant feeding and breeding grounds for a wide varietyof indigenous birds. For example, the Northern Harrier, aprovincially significant bird species, uses South Gads HillSwamp for breeding and feeding habitat. South Gads HillSwamp is also locally significant for waterfowl productionand for waterfowl breeding habitat. Great Blue Heronrookeries are present in both swamp areas.

    In addition to bird species, Ellice and Gads Hill Swampscontain a high diversity of wildlife. The large open watermarsh area in Ellice Swamp contains perhaps the highestdiversity of wildlife, including fish and amphibians. Reptileand amphibian species recorded opportunistically fromEllice and Gads Hill Swamps during the vegetation surveyconducted in the spring and summer of 2002 include:

    American Toad Bullfrog Garter Snake Green Frog Leopard Frog Snapping Turtle Snowshoe Hare Spring Peeper Western Chorus Frog Wood Frog

    Wildlife tracks from the following mammal species werefound in Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps during the vegetationsurvey conducted in the spring and summer of 2002:

    American Mink Beaver Cottontail Coyote Meadow Vole Muskrat Red Fox Red Squirrel Striped Skunk Raccoon Virginia Oppossum White-tailed Deer

    Insect species recorded during the vegetation surveyconducted during the spring and summer of 2002 include:

    Azure species Cicada Eastern Tent Caterpillar Fritillary species Great Spangled Fritillary Mourning Cloak Red Spotted Purple Sulphur Swallowtail species

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    23

    A total of nine species of fish were sampled during benthicsurveys in and adjacent to Ellice Swamp in the fall of 2003.This is a fairly high total for such a small water body. Thesample included the Pearl Dace and Brassy Minnow, twospecies that are fairly uncommon in the Thames, althoughabundant elsewhere. Other species included the CreekChub, Mudminnow, Stickleback, Red-bellied Dace,Stoneroller, Fathead Minnow and Common Shiner.

    Benthic OrBenthic OrBenthic OrBenthic OrBenthic Organismsganismsganismsganismsganisms

    Table 2 through to Table 4 summarize the benthic samplingdata presented in Appendix A. Map 3 shows the locationsof the 3 benthic sampling sites. The Family Biotic Index(FBI) values and water quality conditions for tributaries ofBlack Creek from 2000 and 2002 are presented in Table 5.Corresponding water quality conditions were determinedfrom Table 1. Table 5 shows that between 2000 and 2002,the tributaries of Black Creek had poor FBI values.

    Table 2. Benthic Diversity Results from the West Tributaryof Black Creek (combined samples from 2000 and 2002 atSite 1, Map 3).

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Year Sampled

    Acariformes Water Mite 2002Asellidae Sow Bug 2000/02Ceratopagonidae Biting Midge 2002Chironomidae Midge 2000/02Corixidae Water Boatmen 2002Cyclopoida Fish Lice 2002Dytiscidae Predacious Diving Beetle 2000/02Elmidae Riffle Beetle 2000/02Erpobdellidae Leech 2000/02Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle 2000/02Hydropsychidae Net-spinning Caddisfly 2000Lymnaeidae Pond Snail 2000/02Muscidae Muscid Fly 2000Nematoda Thread Worm 2000/02Oligochaeta Aquatic Worm 2000/02Ostracoda Seed Shrimp 2000Physidae Pouch Snail 2000Planorbidae Orb Snail 2000Simuliidae Black Fly 2002Sphaeriidae Fingernail Clam 2002Tabanidae Horse Fly 2002

    Table 3. Benthic Diversity Results from the East Tributaryof Black Creek (combined samples from 2000 and 2002 atSite 2, Map 3).

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Year Sampled

    Acariformes Water Mite 2002Chironomidae Midge 2000/02Coenagrionidae Narrow-winged Damselfly 2000Corixidae Water Boatmen 2002Cyclopoida Fish Lice 2000Dytiscidae Predacious Diving Beetle 2002Elmidae Riffle Beetle 2000/02Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle 2000/02Hydraenidae Minute Moss Beetle 2002Hydrozoa Hydra 2002Lymnaeidae Pond Snail 2002Nematoda Thread Worm 2000/02Oligochaeta Aquatic Worm 2000/02Ostracoda Seed Shrimp 2000/02Perlidae Stonefly 2002Physidae Pouch Snail 2000/02Planorbidae Orb Snail 2000/02Simuliidae Black Fly 2002Sphaeriidae Fingernail 2000

    Table 4. Benthic Diversity Results from the East UpstreamTributary of Black Creek (samples from 2002 at Site 3, Map3).

    Taxonomic Name Common Name

    Acariformes Water MiteAsellidae Sow BugBaetidae Small MayflyCambaridae CrayfishChironomidae MidgeCollembola SpringtailCorixidae Water BoatmenCurculionidae Snout BeetleCyclopoida Fish LiceDytiscidae Predacious Diving BeetleElmidae Riffle BeetleGammaridae SideswimmerGomphidae Clubtail DragonflyHaliplidae Crawling Water BeetleHydrozoa HydraLeptophlebiidae MayflyLibellulidae Skimmer DragonflyLymnaeidae Pond SnailNematoda Thread WormOligochaeta Aquatic WormOstracoda Seed ShrimpPhysidae Pouch SnailPlanorbidae Orb SnailSimuliidae Black FlySphaeriidae Fingernail Clam

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

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    Table 5. The FBI values and water quality conditions fortributaries of Black Creek from 2000 and 2002 (refer toMap 3). Corresponding water quality conditions weredetermined from Table 1.

    Date Black Creek Drain FBI Value Condition(refer to Table 1)

    June W. Trib (Site 1) 6.67 poor 2000 E. Trib (Site 2) 7.48 very poorJune W. Trib (Site 1) 6.65 poor 2002 E. Trib (Site 2) 6.70 poor

    E. Trib Upstream (Site 3) 6.66 poor

    DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDAAAAATIONSTIONSTIONSTIONSTIONSON ECOLOGICON ECOLOGICON ECOLOGICON ECOLOGICON ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTSAL ELEMENTSAL ELEMENTSAL ELEMENTSAL ELEMENTS

    Ecosystem management strategies have been developed toprotect, maintain or enhance the integrity of Ellice and GadsHill Swamps. Generally, these strategies:

    identify protection and enhancement opportunities fornatural heritage features;

    encourage wise land use and source water protectionplanning;

    promote best management practices; and identify opportunities for land acquisition, rehabilitation

    or restoration.

    These strategies are discussed below.

    Natural Heritage FNatural Heritage FNatural Heritage FNatural Heritage FNatural Heritage Featureseatureseatureseatureseatures

    The Upper Thames watershed, like many southwesternOntario watersheds, has been extensively modified foragricultural production and urban growth. Land usepractices over the past century have reduced the naturalareas in the watershed to remnants of their original extent.Only about 13% of the original forest cover and 5% of theoriginal wetland area remain in the watershed (Riley andMohr 1994).

    Forest cover in Perth County, currently at 9%, is lower thanthe average for the watershed. The remaining forest coveris comprised mainly of woodlands and wetlands on poorlydrained soils, steep slopes, stream corridors or otherinoperable land. As well, vegetation species such as whitepine, white cedar and hemlock that were once commonlyfound in woodlands, have rapidly declined throughout PerthCounty because they were prized as sources of goodconstruction material (Cook, pers. comm.).

    As a result of the low forest cover and the absence of majorriver systems and large lakes, bird habitat diversity is lowin Perth County compared to other counties in southwesternOntario. This landscape supports few forest and field

    species and instead favours edge, open space and habitatgeneralist species. Although Perth County does not haveany major migration corridors remaining on the landscape,the natural areas surrounding Ellice and Gads Hill Swampscan play a critical and necessary role in maintaining wildlifepopulations and functions by providing habitat refuge forbirds and mammals that use the Swamps.

    Historical records suggest that Perth County once containedlarge areas of suitable habitat for reptiles and amphibians,including marshes, swamps, bogs, large upland forests andmeadows. Many of these wetland and woodland habitatshave been drained and cleared for agricultural productionand rural/urban settlement. The managementrecommendations for Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps willfocus on opportunities to protect and enhance remainingnatural heritage features and will identify potentialopportunities to reclaim or rehabilitate adjacent areas tocontribute to specific forest cover targets and a desired futurecondition.

    Recommendations

    Conduct vegetation surveys every 10 years to monitorvegetation change occurring in the Swamps. Measuresincluding prism sweeps, species counts, weediness scores,wetness and diversity indices can be used to determinechanges in plant and animal species composition. Thesesurveys are intended to identify long term trends andchanges in vegetation communities within the Swamps.

    Reforest marginal lands adjacent to the Swamps (Map 8)with native tree or shrub species suited to the prevailingsoil conditions (refer to Appendix C) to increase theamount of interior habitat for area sensitive species andto buffer the more sensitive habitats found within theSwamps.

    Pursue the possibility of securing marginal land adjacentto the Swamps (Map 8).

    Develop wildlife corridors (Map 8) through woodrowsor community planting efforts with native tree or shrubspecies suited to the prevailing soil conditions (refer toAppendix C) to reconnect Ellice and Gads Hill Swampsto nearby woodlands, buffer watercourses and enhancewildlife habitat.

    Further explore the concept of establishing corridors andconnectivity through proximity rather than physicallinkages. This work will involve understanding specificrequirements of various species with respect to travel anddispersal distances.

    Partner with the OMNR to re-evaluate South Gads HillSwamp to determine opportunities for wetlandcomplexing with the large wetland forest locatedimmediately south of it.

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

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    Surface WSurface WSurface WSurface WSurface Water Quantity and Qualityater Quantity and Qualityater Quantity and Qualityater Quantity and Qualityater Quantity and Quality

    Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps contribute to surface waterquality through base flow, flood attenuation and maintainingthe water table level in the soil. Base flow describes flowconditions during periods of dry weather and typicallyoriginates from groundwater discharge, surface waterdischarge from wetlands and surface water discharge fromurban areas. Base flows are critical to the survival of aquaticsystems during periods of dry weather.

    Peat and muck, of which the Swamps are largely composed,have tremendous water holding capabilities and slowlyrelease water during low flow periods. The slow release ofwater by the peat and muck soils in the Ellice and GadsHill Swamps attenuate floods by providing a more evenlydistributed flow throughout the year in the creek systemand by recharging the water table level in the soil. Forestcover also enhances the water storage role of the area byreducing the rate of snow melting.

    Wetland vegetation is very efficient in purifying water byremoving nutrients and sediment. Surface water quality isassessed using a suite of indicators including waterchemistry, water organisms and invertebrate communitystructure. Water chemistry analysis includes measurementsof nutrients (nitrates, phosphorus), metals (copper, lead,zinc), temperature, pH, flow rate, suspended solids andchloride. Water organisms, such as amphibians, fish andinvertebrates, can also be used to assess stream health sinceindividual species have different pollution sensitivities. Achange in numbers and types of fish in the water is usuallya sign that their habitat is in trouble. Finally, invertebratecommunity structure can be used as an indicator since morediverse invertebrate communities indicate healthier streams.

    One recent surface water quality monitoring initiative withinthe streams downstream from Ellice and Gads Hill Swampsis a surface water chemistry site that has been selected aspart of the Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network(PWQMN). The site is in the Black Creek Subwatershedclose to the outlet on County Road 20 (Map 1). Althoughmonitoring at this site is relatively recent, it can be used toindicate baseline conditions of the stream. If additionalwater quality monitoring stations are placed closer to theSwamps, this site can be used in assessing the impact of theSwamps on water quality by comparing water qualitydifferences between stations.

    Another relatively recent surface water quality monitoringinitiative is the monitoring of benthic invertebrates. Table5 shows that the tributaries of Black Creek have poor FamilyBiotic Index (FBI) values and a simple invertebratecommunity structure, both of which indicate impaired waterquality. This is typical of agricultural drains which tend todry up during minor droughts, resulting in an impairedhabitat. On the other hand, preliminary results gatheredfrom the three drains in the fall of 2003 indicate that the

    upstream drain (Site 3), located partially within ElliceSwamp, has a more diverse invertebrate community thanthe other two sampled tributaries, with several taxa notcommonly found in streams in this area. Although benthicdata from the fall of 2003 have not been fully analysed,these preliminary results indicate that Ellice Swamp maybe functioning as a permanent wetland community.

    Recommendations

    Continue to monitor surface water chemistry at the threeselected benthic sites (Map 3) to detect any changes towater quality.

    Monitor surface water chemistry at locations upstreamof the Swamps to assess inputs to the stream.

    Monitor surface water chemistry at locations along theopen drain section within the Swamps to understandwetland function.

    Monitor surface water chemistry at locations immediatelydownstream of the Swamps to assess changes to waterquality within the wetland.

    All additional surface water chemistry sites should belocated at similar locations as benthic invertebratemonitoring sites and possibly the groundwater test sitesfor a complete understanding of the hydrological elementsof the Swamps.

    Surface water chemistry samples should be analysed fora standard suite of chemical parameters developed by theMinistry of the Environment (MOE) which include keyindicators of nutrients (nitrates, phosphorus), metals(copper, lead, zinc), suspended solids and chloride. Thiswould complement the work begun by the PWQMN. Itis recommended that a minimum of eight samples peryear be conducted, over a minimum period of five years.

    Increase forest cover in marginal areas around the Swampsand along stream corridors (Map 8) with native tree orshrub species suited to the prevailing soil conditions (referto Appendix C). Vegetated buffer strips are excellentfilters around wetlands, ensuring wetlands receive cleanersurface water.

    Follow Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Nutrient,Soil, Water and Habitat Management (booklets availablefrom Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food).

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

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    GrGrGrGrGroundwater Quantity and Qualityoundwater Quantity and Qualityoundwater Quantity and Qualityoundwater Quantity and Qualityoundwater Quantity and Quality

    Water is in constant motion, continually recycling throughthe environment in a series of pathways called the watercycle. Underground areas where large quantities of waterare found are called aquifers. The draining of swamps andbogs has resulted in a reduction in the amount of waterinfiltrating into the ground to recharge local and / or regionalaquifers. Combined with the recent drought of the pastyears, water tables appear to be in decline. This hasimportant implications for the 80 percent of wells in PerthCounty that recover water from aquifers. It also hasimportant implications on base flow and water qualityconditions in streams.

    Water is a universal carrier. Pollutants can be carried withwater through all phases of the water cycle. In wetlandareas, where water is held by soil or vegetation, water willinfiltrate through soil materials to be stored as groundwater.Groundwater can then slowly move to lakes, rivers, ponds,other wetlands or to the soil surface. Since groundwatermoves so slowly, contamination may take a long time todetect. As well, it is very difficult to clean up a contaminatedaquifer. Given that Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps are at ornear the source headwaters of the Upper Thames Riverwatershed, source water protection of both surface andground water quality and quantity is very important in theseareas.

    In 2003 a shallow well was drilled within Ellice Swamp(Map 3). Although it is too early to analyse monitoringresults, this shallow well will provide some importantbaseline information regarding the quality and quantity ofgroundwater in the aquifer.

    Recommendations

    To understand the groundwater resources and hydrologiccycle in this area, undertake a study to describe allaquifers, their interconnectedness and estimates ofgroundwater flow and potential paths using additionalshallow wells within or adjacent to the Swamps. Giventhe soil conditions and sensitive habitats within theSwamps, it may not be possible to use heavy machineryto drill wells within the Swamps. Instead, other methodsof drilling should be explored (e.g. probes).

    Monitor all wells twice a year to account for seasonalvariability.

    Open WOpen WOpen WOpen WOpen Water Habitatater Habitatater Habitatater Habitatater Habitat

    The Swamps provide habitat for many types of bird andanimal species. Protecting the hydrologic regime of theseareas will ensure that these wildlife habitats are sustained.Some important considerations are the maintenance of openwater habitat for waterfowl, the control of Beaver activities

    and the concern over stagnant pools as potential mosquitobreeding habitat.

    Waterfowl

    It is important to maintain and enhance the open water areasfound within and adjacent to the Swamps for waterfowl.The only large open water area in the Swamps is a largemarsh area in the GRCA portion of Ellice Swamp (Map 6).It is approximately 9 ha in size.

    Recommendation

    Work with Ducks Unlimited (DU), Department ofFisheries and Oceans (DFO), Ontario Ministry ofAgriculture and Food (OMAF), Ontario Ministry ofNatural Resources (OMNR) Wetland Drain RestorationProject coordinators and drainage superintendents todetermine the feasibility of putting control devices on thedrainage network to maintain the open water areas in theSwamps and recover swamp hydrology.

    Beavers

    Beavers can have an enormous impact on hydrology byblocking drainage channels (natural and man-made) andcutting down trees. In Ellice Swamp, Beavers can bebeneficial if their populations are kept in balance since theyhelp to maintain higher water levels and create open waterhabitats. However, most of their natural predators havebeen reduced in number. The Fish and WildlifeConservation Act (1997) regulates hunting and trappingactivities. Hunters and some adjacent landowners havenoticed recently that the Beavers have been less active inthe Swamps. For example, between 2001 and 2002 onlyone dam removal was necessary, compared to as many asfive removals a year prior to this (LOOP Board of Directorsmeeting May 2nd, 2002).

    Recommendations

    For more information regarding effective means ofkeeping nuisance wildlife populations in balance, contactthe local Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR)office. They can suggest appropriate management actionsto maintain these numbers.

    Ensure all nuisance animal issues be brought to UTRCA,GRCA and OMNR before specific actions are taken byindividual landowners.

    Mosquitoes

    One misconception regarding mosquito breeding habitatsis that any type of standing water, such as wetlands andwaterways, may produce large numbers of virus-infectedmosquitoes. Although many species of mosquitoes arecommonly found in wetlands, healthy wetlands are not the

  • Ellice Swamp & Gads Hill Swamp Technical Summary

    27

    preferred habitat of the type of mosquito species that areprimarily responsible for transmitting WNv. Instead, healthywetlands have features that reduce the number ofmosquitoes. Mosquitoes are an important part of thewetland food chain and healthy wetlands are home tohundreds of mosquito-eating insects, birds, frogs, fish,turtles and bats. This balanced predator - prey relationshipprovides natural mosquito control. In addition, water levelsnaturally fluctuate in wetlands or are stirred by the wind,which helps reduce the number of mosquitoes. Therefore,not all open water habitats should be drained, filled, sprayedor managed to eliminate the possible transmission of WestNile virus (WNv). If a wetland is disturbed by humans orif other life forms are eliminated through the incorrect useof pesticides or an alteration in the natural hydrology, it ispossible that the number of mosquitoes in a wetland mayactually increase.

    Recommendation

    Visitors and users of the Swamps should wear longsleeved shirts and apply DEET. Avoiding the Swampsfrom dusk through dawn is an effective way to reducethe risk of exposure to WNv. Contact the Perth DistrictHealth Unit for more information on personal protectivemeasures for WNv.

    DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDDISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDAAAAATIONSTIONSTIONSTIONSTIONSON LON LON LON LON LAND USE ACTIVITIESAND USE ACTIVITIESAND USE ACTIVITIESAND USE ACTIVITIESAND USE ACTIVITIES

    Recreational UseRecreational UseRecreational UseRecreational UseRecreational Use

    Existing recreational and resource use activities wereevaluated to identify opportunities and constraints.

    Trails for Hiking / Snowmobiling / Cross-Country Skiing

    There are no official trails designated in Ellice Swamp,although a couple of trails have been created within theSwamp and are well used (Map 6). The snowmobile clubcurrently marks and grooms the trails from fall to spring toensure they are safe for their users. This also ensures thatusers remain on the designated trail. The trails within ElliceSwamp run north - south from concession road to concessionroad and have been widened over time because of theorganic soil conditions. Large ruts have also developed insome areas. Where these ruts have become so large thatthe trail is no longer useable, new trails have developedadjacent to the old trail.

    The UTRCA would like to develop a fully integrated trailsystem within Ellice Swamp. It has been suggested thatthe 12.1 acre portion of abandoned railway bed that runsthrough Ellice Swamp (Map 6) could be used as a recreation/nature trail. CN originally sold the entire railway to the

    Township of Perth East (formerly Ellice Township) in 1996when it abandoned its line between Stratford and Milverton.The Township then sold each parcel to the respectivelandowners adjacent to the rail line. The UTRCA was ableto purchase its portion of the land with financial assistancefrom Roger and Elaine Cook of the Stratford FieldNaturalists Club. The GRCA purchased the rail lineeasement that bisected its 78 acre parcel of land.

    The purchase of the abandoned rail line allows for thepossibility of creating a looped trail within the Swamp.Abandoned railway corridors, characterized by their easygrades and substantial width over large uninterrupteddistances, are suitable for hiking, snowmobiling,snowshoeing, cross-country skiing and possibly cycling andhorseback riding. This type of trail has the societal benefitof connecting human and natural communities for natureappreciation and education.

    The difficulty in using the rail line as a potential trail is thatthere is no public right of way to access it. Although theUTRCA and GRCA now own the section of abandonedrail line within Ellice Swamp, they were not able to purchasetitle to the entire rail line.

    Recommendations

    Trails should not be placed in areas of peat and mucksince compaction and exposure to oxygen from upturningassociated with trail use would cause further damage tothe organic soils. It may be possible to design a boardwalk to protect the sensitive soil conditions.

    Maintain existing official trails and reduce the wideningof these trails by using small, light equipment thatminimizes impact to the environment as much as possible.Part of snowmobile trail maintenance includes pruningto keep the trail from being overgrown. Branches thatare hanging over the trail or hindering trail access shouldbe removed so that walking, skiing and snowmobilingcan be done safely. A pruning protocol that minimizesimpact to the environment (refer to Appendix D) shouldbe developed with members of the snowmobile club.

    Hiking, snowmobiling and cross-country skiing shouldcontinue to be permitted by the UTRCA and GRCA.

    All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs)

    All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) cause severe damage to soilthrough compaction and the aeration of peat and muck soil.Muck tends to occur in low areas with no surface drainageand is defined as an accumulation of greater than 18 inchesof decomposed material. Peat soils occur where the watertable is permanently high and the organic material is notable to decompose. If exposed to air, peat and muck rapidlydegrade and the entire ecosystem is destroyed.

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    Recommendation

    ATVs should not be permitted within the Swamps due tothe sensitivity of the organic soils throughout the area.

    Dog Running

    Unsupervised dogs running loose can cause problems byscaring, injuring or killing wildlife. However, there isminimal disruption to the ecology of the Swamps insupervised dog training or trialing.

    Recommendation

    Dogs should not be permitted to run unsupervised throughthe Swamps.

    Camping

    Overnight camping is not an appropriate activity given thesensitivity of the soils to compaction. As well, campfiresmay start peat fires, which can burn undetected for years.

    Recommendation

    Camping should not be permitted in the Swamps.

    Hunting and Trapping

    Hunting and trapping are traditional activities in Ellice andGads Hill Swamps. The OMNR has a variety of wildlifemanagement regulations and controls in place to allow forthe sustainable use of the resource, and to ensure that huntingand trapping are safe and ethical pursuits. Hunters andtrappers:

    require licences; are restricted by seasons and time of day regulations; have specialized training in hunter safety; have a variety of gear restrictions to ensure the safe, ethical

    and humane use of their equipment; and follow codes of conduct to strive for enjoyable

    experiences in the woods along with fellow hunters andother outdoor recreationalists.

    Hunting and trapping are important tools that OMNRutilizes to manage wildlife populations. This has becomemore important over the past two decades as many wildlifespecies have become highly abundant and generatedincreasing concern especially in an agricultural landscape.The common species hunted include deer, grouse, raccoon,rabbit, Ring-necked Pheasant, ducks, geese, woodcock andWild Turkey. Trappers commonly harvest Muskrat, mink,beaver, and raccoon.

    The swamps are located in wildlife management unit 86Awhich includes that part of Perth County north of Highway8. Information on harvests is assembled on a WMU basis;

    therefore, specific information on the swamps is notavailable.

    OMNR closely manages the deer harvest, and plans onheavy harvesting rates in order to control the population, toalleviate agricultural crop damage and vehicle collisions.About 250 deer are harvested annually in WMU 86A, anda large portion of that harvest occurs in or within closeproximity to Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps. Deer are presentin the swamps throughout the year, and are harvested byarchery hunters beginning in October. By the Decembershotgun hunt, most of the corn crop has been harvestedfrom the neighbouring landscape, and many deer havemigrated to larger woodlots especially the Ellice and GadsHill deer yards. These areas provide the major harvest ofdeer in the unit.

    Wild Turkeys have been reestablished throughout PerthCounty over the past five years, and populations have beenexpanding well. Turkeys prefer large expanses of forestedland, a feature that is not well represented in Perth County.Perths first Wild Turkey hunting season in over 100 yearswas held in 2003. A total of 39 birds were harvested, with10 birds harvested in North Easthope and eight birds inEllice. Close to half of the Countys harvest would havecome from in or within close proximity to Ellice and GadsHill Swamps.

    Recommendations

    Hunting should continue to be permitted by the UTRCAand GRCA in accordance with the OMNR HuntingRegulations (OMNR 2003).

    ResourResourResourResourResource Usece Usece Usece Usece Use

    Peat Extraction

    In Ellice and South Gads Hill Swamps there is evidence ofpast peat extraction activities. This is not a sustainable useof the area, as it takes many centuries for peat and mucksoils to develop. Many of the unique plants found in theSwamps only grow on peat and muck soils.

    Recommendation

    Peat extraction should not be permitted in the Swamps.

    Tree Plantation Harvesting

    In the past, trees were planted to establish forest cover andsupport wildlife. However, forest management activitieshave been sparse and much of the forest cover is in anoverstocked condition. As well, some of the tree speciesplanted in the Swamps in the 1950s are not compatible withthe soil conditions and are naturally dying back. This die

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    back is allowing appropriate native tree species better suitedto the wetland conditions, such as Black Spruce andTamarack, to establish in the old plantations. Currentlythere are no plans to thin the plantation to facilitate a morehealthy diversity of tree species.

    Recommendations

    Selective logging is not recommended in the wetlandhabitats of the Swamps at this time since damage to thesoil from the logging machinery would be moredetrimental than the benefits derived from thinning theplanted stands.

    Although most trees in the upland communities of theSwamps are too small to be marketable at this time, theremay be opportunity in the future to thin the plantations.

    Drains

    Historically, both Ellice and Gads Hill Swamps have beendrained to varying degrees over the past century in order toincrease productive agricultural land area and controlflooding (Map 3). Most of the open drains occur on theedges of these Swamps, while some interior areas appearto have been tiled. In general, drains impact wetlands bydiverting water out of the wetland, drastically reducinghydrological function and negatively impacting thevegetation and wildlife supported by the original wetland.Alterations to watercourses have resulted in a much higherdrainage density and flashier flow regime than in pre-settlement times, which has greatly altered habitat foraquatic and semi-aquatic animals.

    The majority of drains coming out of Ellice and Gads HillSwamps are dry by late August, with occasional isolatedpools remaining. The few drains that have been pushedinto the Swamps are detrimental since they drain water outof these natural water storage areas without creating soilconditions dry enough for cultivation, or even pasture. Aswell, the ongoing maintenance and cleaning of drainageditches does a lot of damage to adjacent riparian habitatand water quality. Most drain maintenance occurs alongconcession roads in roadside ditches adjacent to theSwamps.

    Recommendations

    Abandon all drains and tiles within the Swamps thatwould not significantly affect fish or fish habitat (Class Fdrains on Map 3). This action would require consultationwith the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food(OMAF), drainage superintendents, Department ofFisheries and Oceans (DFO) and landowners.

    Work with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources(OMNR) Wetland Drain Restoration Project coordinatorsto determine the feasibility of putting control devices onthe drains and recovering swamp hydrology.

    Work with drainage superintendents to develop bestmanagement practices for prioritizing and cleaning drains,especially those immediately adjacent to the Swamps.

    Landfill Site

    The Ellice landfill is located at line 52 and road 126, southof Brunner in the Township of Perth East (Map 5). Thelandfill is 40.5 ha in size and its operation predates the early1980s. Currently it is operated by the Township of PerthEast and collects approximately 700 cubic metres ofresidential, commercial and industrial waste from thetownship per year as well as garbage from Milverton.

    There is concern that the landfill site is having an impacton the wetland ecosystem. However, the landfill site is incompliance with the Certificate of Approval for the Ministryof the Environment (MOE). According to the Ellice LandfillMonitoring Report (Azimuth Environmental Consulting Inc.2003), the landfill has had minimal impact on thesurrounding environment since leachates were not detectedin either the groundwater or surface water.

    According to Azimuth Environmental Consulting Inc.(2003), there are three explanations as to why there appearsto be little environmental impact from the landfill. Onereason could be the fact that the landfill is located on a highpiece of land with a non-porous clay bottom that does notallow water (and leachates) to infiltrate. Another reasoncould be that the high organic content of the soil in theSwamp (greater than 5 m thickness) completely attenuatesthe organics from the waste pile. The third reason that thepotential for unacceptable environmental impacts is thoughtto be low could be due to the small amount of waste currentlybeing disposed of at the landfill site.

    Recommendations

    The landfill report recommends that surface water at thelandfill site be monitored twice a year.

    An assessment of the groundwater system should beconducted in the event that leachates do leave the landfillarea. This means that there should be at least one upgradient well to establish ambient groundwater conditionsand one down gradient well at the boundary of the landfillto detect impacts. Given the soil conditions and sensitivehabitats within Ellice Swamp, it may not be possible touse heavy machinery to drill wells within the Swamp.Instead, other methods of drilling should be explored (e.g.probes).

    Groundwater should be monitored twice a year todemonstrate that the landfill is performing as designedand to account for seasonal variability. Since groundwatermoves so slowly, contamination may take a long time todetect.

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    BIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHYBIBLIOGRAPHY

    Aquafor Beech Limited. 2002. City of Stratford CourtDrain Subwatershed Plan Study.

    Azimuth Environmental Consulting Inc. 2003. The 2002Landfill Monitoring Report for Ellice Landfill,Township of Perth East. Prepared for the Township ofPerth East. AEC 02-055.

    Babb, E. 1974. Middleditch family pioneers in ElliceSwamp. The Beacon Herald.

    Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. 1997.

    Hay, S.G. 1971. International Biological Program (IBP).J.B. Falls. Department of Zoology and G.A. Hills. Facultyof Forestry. University of Toronto.

    Hoffman, D. and L. Lamb. 1982. Perth County:Preliminary Environmentally Sensitive Areas Survey.Experience 81 and 82. Ministry of the Environment.Perth County Planning Office. 128pp.

    Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P.Uhlig and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological LandClassification for Southern Ontario. FirstApproximation and Its Application. Ontario Ministryof Natural Resources, South-Central Science Section,Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS FieldGuide FG-02.

    Ministry of the Environment. 1982. Perth County:Preliminary Environmentally Sensitive Areas SurveyExperience.

    Ministry of Natural Resources. 1984. Life Science Areasof Natural and Scientific Interest in Site District 6-1.

    Ministry of Natural Resources. 2003. HuntingRegulations Summary. Ontario Ministry of NaturalResources. Queens Printer for Ontario. 96pp.

    Riley, J. and P. Mohr. 1994. The Natural Heritage ofSouthern Ontarios Settled Landscapes. TechnicalReport TR-001. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.Southern Region, Aurora. 78pp.

    Robinson, D., editor. 1998. Hills of Home: A History ofNorth Easthope. North Easthope History BookCommittee. 837pp.

    Tompkins, D. and S. Tuzi. 1976. Sensitive Areas Surveyfor Wingham District. Ontario Ministry of NaturalResources. Wingham District. Southwest Region.

    Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (UTRCA).1952. Upper Thames Valley Conservation Report1952. Department of Planning and Development.Toronto, Ontario

    Upper Thames River Conservation Authority (UTRCA).1981. Wetland Acquisition Program.

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    APPENDIX A. UTRCA 1997- 2002 Benthic Sampling Data

    BLACK CREEK WEST TRIB (SITE 1)

    Sampled 6/22/00 UTM X: 501441 UTM Y: 4811760

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Life Stage # in Subsample Biotic IndexREP: 1

    Chironomidae Midge P 2 5.4Chironomidae Midge L 34 5.4Coenagrionidae Narrow-winged Damselfly N 2 9Cyclopoida Fish Lice A 1 -1Elmidae Riffle Beetle L 4 4.5Elmidae Riffle Beetle A 10 4.5Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle L 1 4Nematoda Thread Worm A 2 -1Oligochaeta Aquatic Worm A 48 8Ostracoda Seed Shrimp A 2 -1Physidae Pouch Snail A 7 8Planorbidae Orb Snail A 10 -1Sphaeriidae Fingernail Clam A 1 8

    Stream Health Poor Family Biotic Index 6.67

    Sampled 6/6/02

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Life Stage # in Subsample Biotic IndexREP: 1

    Acariformes Water Mite A 7 4Chironomidae Midge L 49 5.4Chironomidae Midge P 5 5.4Corixidae Water Boatmen A 8 -1Dytiscidae Predacious Diving Beetle L 6 -1Elmidae Riffle Beetle L 3 4.5Elmidae Riffle Beetle A 3 4.5Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle L 3 4Hydraenidae Minute Moss Beetle L 1 -1Hydrozoa Hydra A 1 -1Lymnaeidae Pond Snail A 7 6Nematoda Thread Worm A 9 -1Oligochaeta Aquatic Worm A 87 8Ostracoda Seed Shrimp A 21 -1Perlidae Stonefly N 2 1Physidae Pouch Snail A 6 8Planorbidae Orb Snail A 2 -1Simuliidae Black Fly L 2 6

    Stream Health Poor Family Biotic Index 6.65

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    BLACK CR EAST TRIB (SITE 2)

    Sampled 6/22/00 UTM X: 502116 UTM Y: 4811280

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Life Stage # in Subsample Biotic IndexREP: 1

    Asellidae Sow Bug A 33 8Chironomidae Midge L 5 5.4Chironomidae Midge P 1 5.4Dytiscidae Predacious Diving Beetle L 2 -1Elmidae Riffle Beetle L 6 4.5Erpobdellidae Leech A 1 -1Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle L 3 4Hydropsychidae Net-spinning Caddisfly L 2 4.5Lymnaeidae Pond Snail A 18 6Muscidae Muscid Fly L 1 6Nematoda Thread Worm A 1 -1Oligochaeta Aquatic Worm A 20 8Ostracoda Seed Shrimp A 4 -1Physidae Pouch Snail A 93 8Planorbidae Orb Snail A 187 -1

    Stream Health Very Poor Family Biotic Index 7.48

    Sampled 6/6/02

    Taxonomic Name Common Name Life Stage # in Subsample Biotic IndexREP: 1

    Acariformes Water Mite A 1 4Asellidae Sow Bug A 3 8Ceratopagonidae Biting Midge L 2 6Chironomidae Midge L 71 5.4Chironomidae Midge P 1 5.4Corixidae Water Boatmen A 8 -1Cyclopoida Fish Lice A 6 -1Dytiscidae Predacious Diving Beetle L 4 -1Elmidae Riffle Beetle L 9 4.5Erpobdellidae Leech A 1 -1Haliplidae Crawling Water Beetle A 1 4Lymnaeidae Pond Snail A