embedded hybrid systems - mae 2012-09-10آ  embedded hybrid systems prof. t. john koo ... a bmw...

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  • WORKSHOP ON HYBRID AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

    Embedded Hybrid Systems

    Prof. T. John Koo

    Embedded Computing Systems Laboratory Institute for Software Integrated Systems

    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer S cience Vanderbilt University

    USA

  • 2Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Collaborators

    � Researchers � Gabor Karsai (Vanderbilt University), Janos Sztipan ovits

    (Vanderbilt University), Shankar Sastry (UC Berkele y), Edward Lee (UC Berkeley), Tom Henzinger (UC Berkeley/EPFL), Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli (UC Berkeley), Claire Tomlin (UC Berkeley/Stanford Univ ersity), George Pappas (University of Pennsylvania), Ian Mit chel (University of British Columbia), Thao Deng (VERIMA G), Datta N. Godbole (Honeywell Technology Center), Zhi H an (Mathworks) and Sandeep Neema (ESCHER)

    � Students (Current/Former) � Jie Chen, Chip Clifton, Abhishek Dubey, Graham Hemi ngway,

    Hang Su and Xianbin W

  • 3Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Funding Support

    � Current � National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career D evelopment

    (CAREER) Program � National Science Foundation Information Technology Research

    Center Program � Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer S cience,

    Vanderbilt University

    � Former � DARPA Information Technology Office Software Enable d

    Control (SEC) Program � DARPA Infromation Technology Office Model Based Inte gration

    of Embedded Software (MoBIES) Program

  • 4Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Outline

    � Embedded Systems: Overview � Embedded Systems: Modeling � Embedded Hybrid Systems: Analysis � Embedded Hybrid System: Design Tool � Conclusion

  • 5Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems: Overview

    � Embedded Systems � are specific purpose computing systems that interac t

    with the environment in which the dynamics are governed by the laws of physics

    � can provide high level of automation and performan ce � have some unique characteristics

    � real-time � ubiquitous � heterogeneous

  • 6Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Embedded Systems = Embedded Hardware + Embedded Software

    � Embedded systems close the feedback loops between the physical world and the information world

    � Embedded software defines the physical behavior of complex systems

    µP

    ROM

    FPGA

    DSP

    Embedded Software Process

    Process

  • 7Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Examples on how embedded software defines physical behavior of a complex system:

    � BMW 745i Sedan � there are more than 70 microprocessors � the computation is embedded in the Transmission

    Electronic Control Unit (ECU), Engine ECU and more

  • 8Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Examples on how embedded software defines physical behavior of a complex system:

    � Boeing 777 � 1280 CPUs onboard � 7 million lines of code

    � International Space Station � 2.6 million lines of code on the ground � 1.5 million lines of code for flight software

  • 9Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Examples on how embedded software defines physical behavior of a complex system:

    � Boeing 777 � 1280 CPUs onboard � 7 million lines of code

    � International Space Station � 2.6 million lines of code on the ground � 1.5 million lines of code for flight software

  • 10Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Examples on how embedded software defines physical behavior of a complex system:

    � Boeing 777 � 1280 CPUs onboard � 7 million lines of code

    � International Space Station � 2.6 million lines of code on the ground � 1.5 million lines of code for flight software

  • 11Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Examples on how embedded software defines physical behavior of a complex system:

    � Boeing 777 � 1280 CPUs onboard � 7 million lines of code � $4 billion development effort!! � > 50% system integration & validation cost!!

  • 12Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Embedded Systems = Embedded Hardware + Embedded Software

    � Embedded hardware development is getting more matur e � However, embedded software lags embedded hardware

    as a reliable component of products

    µP

    ROM

    FPGA

    DSP

    Embedded Software Process

    Process

  • 13Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Computing systems show no signs of becoming less complex. In fact, they are becoming more complex fa ster and faster. � Windows Operating System

    � Windows NT (1992): 4 million lines of code � Windows NT 4.0 (1996): 16.5 million lines of code � Windows NT 5.0 (1998): 20 million lines of code � Windows 2000 (1999): 35 million lines of code

    � Solaris Operating System � 8 million lines of code

    � Linux Operating System � 5 million lines of code

  • 14Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Complexity of developing, testing, and supporting l arge scale software systems continues to escalate

    Source: Capers Jones, Estimating Software Costs, pg. 140 Capers Jones, Patterns of Software Systems Failure & Success Figure: Microsoft Research

    Documentation

    100%100%

    80%80%

    60%60%

    40%40%

    20%20%

    0%0% 100100 1K1K 10K10K 100K100K 1M1M

    18% of time spent on coding, 35% debugging!

    Lines of CodeLines of Code %

    o f E

    ffo rt

    b y

    T as

    k

    Support and Management

    Coding Finding & Removing Defects

    100100 1K1K 10K 10K 100K100K 1M1M 10M10M

    13% of projects are on time!

    Lines of CodeLines of Code

    % o

    f P ro

    je ct

    s

    Early On-time

    Delayed Canceled

    100%100%

    80%80%

    60%60%

    40%40%

    20%20%

    0%0%

  • 15Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Failure in Embedded Software Design � 2005: Toyota recalls 75,000 Prius hybrids due to a s oftware

    defect. � 2004: Pontiac recalls the Grand Prix since the soft ware didn't

    understand leap years. 2004 was a leap year. � 2003: A BMW trapped a Thai politician when the comp uter

    crashed. The door locks, windows, A/C and more were inoperable. Responders smashed the windshield to ge t him out.

    � 2002: BMW recalls the 745i since the fuel pump woul d shut off if the tank was less than 1/3 full.

    � 2001: 52,000 Jeeps recalled due to a software error that can shut down the instrument cluster.

    Source: Total Recall, Jack Ganssle

    Embedded.com. Feb. 06

  • 16Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem!” - Detailed Chronology of Events Surrounding the Apol lo 13 Accident http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Timeline/ apollo13chron.html

  • 17Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Embedded System Design (common practice) � The laws of physics are not well respected � Hardware and software are developed independently � Software is developed by using higher level languag e � Validation and verification are performed individua lly

    Pyramid at Medum, Egypt

  • 18Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Embedded System Design (current trend) � The laws of physics are partially considered � Development of hardware and software are coupled � Some software is synthesized from models � Validation and verification are performed tightly

    Pyramid at Giza, Egypt

  • 19Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems : Overview

    � Embedded System Design (model integrated) � The laws of physics are well captured in models � Hardware and software are co-designed based on mode ls � Software is synthesized from models � Validation and verification are model based

    Pyramid at Louvre, France

  • 20Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Outline

    � Embedded Systems: Overview � Embedded Systems: Modeling � Embedded Hybrid Systems: Analysis � Embedded Hybrid System: Design Tool � Conclusion

  • 21Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems: Modeling

    � Embedded Systems: � Embedded systems are complex and heterogeneous. � Various types of models are used for designing comp onents

    within an embedded system. � These components interact with each other concurren tly.

  • 22Workshop on Hybrid and Embedded Systems 2006

    Embedded Systems: Modeling

    � I

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