emotion and moods

Click here to load reader

Post on 14-Jul-2015

150 views

Category:

Education

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Chapter Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to:Differentiate emotions from moods, and list the basic emotions and moods.Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve.Identify the sources of emotions and moods.Show the impact emotional labor has on employees.Describe Affective Events Theory and identify its applications.Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence.Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues.Contrast the experience, interpretation, and expression of emotions across cultures. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?The Myth of RationalityEmotions were seen as irrationalManagers worked to make emotion-free environmentsView of EmotionalityEmotions were believed to be disruptiveEmotions interfered with productivityOnly negative emotions were observed

    Now we know emotions cant be separated from the workplace 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • What are Emotions and Moods? 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*See E X H I B I T 8-1

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • The Basic EmotionsWhile not universally accepted, there appear to be six basic emotions:AngerFearSadnessHappinessDisgustSurpriseAll other emotions are subsumed under these sixMay even be placed in a spectrum of emotion:Happiness surprise fear sadness anger - disgust 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Basic Moods: Positive and Negative AffectEmotions cannot be neutral.Emotions (markers) are grouped into general mood states.Mood states affect perception and therefore perceived reality. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-* E X H I B I T 8-2

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • What Is the Function of Emotion?Do Emotions Make Us Irrational?Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging to social statusEmotions are critical to rational decision-makingEmotions help us understand the world around us

    What Functions Do Emotions Serve?Darwin argued they help in survival problem-solvingEvolutionary psychology: people must experience emotions as there is a purpose behind themNot all researchers agree with this assessment

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Sources of Emotion and MoodPersonality There is a trait component affect intensityDay and Time of the WeekThere is a common pattern for all of usHappier in the midpoint of the daily awake period Happier toward the end of the weekWeatherIllusory correlation no effect StressEven low levels of constant stress can worsen moodsSocial ActivitiesPhysical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-* See E X H I B I T 8-3 and 8-4 for Emotion Timing

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • More Sources of Emotion and MoodSleep Poor sleep quality increases negative affectExerciseDoes somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed peopleAgeOlder folks experience fewer negative emotionsGenderWomen tend to be more emotionally expressive, feel emotions more intensely, have longer-lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do menDue more to socialization than to biology 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Emotional LaborAn employees expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.Emotional Dissonance:Employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling anotherCan be very damaging and lead to burnoutTypes of Emotions:Felt: the individuals actual emotionsDisplayed: required or appropriate emotionsSurface Acting: displaying appropriately but not feeling those emotions internally Deep Acting: changing internal feelings to match display rules - very stressful 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-* See E X H I B I T 8-5 for Emotional Labor and Pay

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Affective Events Theory (AET)An event in the work environment triggers positive or negative emotional reactionsPersonality and mood determine response intensity Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-* E X H I B I T 8-6

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Implications of AET An emotional episode is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences triggered by a single eventCurrent and past emotions affect job satisfactionEmotional fluctuations over time create variations in job performanceEmotion-driven behaviors are typically brief and variable Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance

    Emotions provide valuable insights about behaviorEmotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work: they accumulate 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Emotional Intelligence (EI)A persons ability to:Be self-awareRecognizing own emotions when experiencedDetect emotions in othersManage emotional cues and informationEI plays an important role in job performanceEI is controversial and not wholly acceptedCase for EI:Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is biologically-based.Case against EI:Too vague a concept; cant be measured; its validity is suspect. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • OB Applications of Emotions and MoodsSelectionEI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs. Decision MakingPositive emotions can lead to better decisions.CreativityPositive mood increases flexibility, openness, and creativity.MotivationPositive mood affects expectations of success; feedback amplifies this effect.LeadershipEmotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • More OB Applications of Emotions and MoodsNegotiation Emotions, skillfully displayed, can affect negotiationsCustomer ServicesEmotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationshipsEmotional Contagion: catching emotions from othersJob AttitudesCan carry over to home, but dissipate overnightDeviant Workplace BehaviorsNegative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization)Managers InfluenceLeaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise employees increase positive moods in the workplace. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.8-*

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Global ImplicationsDo people experience emotions equally?No. Culture can determine type, frequency, and depth of experienced emotionsDo people interpret emotions the same way?Yes. Negative emotions are seen as undesirable and positive emotions are desirableHowever, value of each emotion varies across culturesDo norms of emotional expression vary?Yes. Some cultures have a bias against emotional expression; others demand some display of emotionHow the emotions are expressed may make interpretation outside of ones culture difficult 8-* 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Summary and Managerial Implications8-* 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.Moods are more general than emotions and less contextualEmotions and moods impact all areas of OBManagers cannot and should not attempt to completely control the emotions of their employeesManagers must not ignore the emotions of their co-workers and employeesBehavior predictions will be less accurate if emotions are not taken into account

    2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

    Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall