emotions and moods

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EMOTIONS AND MOODS

EMOTIONS AND MOODSWhy Were Emotions Ignored in OB?The Myth of RationalityEmotions were seen as irrationalManagers worked to make emotion-free environmentsView of EmotionalityEmotions were believed to be disruptiveEmotions interfered with productivityOnly negative emotions were observed

Now we know emotions cant be separated from the workplaceEmotional TerminologyAffect A generic term that encompasses a broad range of feelings that people experience. It is experienced in the form of emotions and moods.Emotion Intense feelings that are directed at someone or somethingShort termed and action-oriented.Mood Feelings that tend to be less intense and longer-lasting than emotions and often lack a contextual stimulus7-4Affect, Emotions, and Moods

Emotions and MoodsEmotions: Overt reactions that express feelings about events.Emotions always have an object.There are six major categories of emotions.Expression of major emotions is universal.Culture determines how and when people express emotions.Display Rules: Cultural norms about the appropriate ways to express emotions.Mood: An unfocused, relatively mild feeling that exists as background to our daily experiences.Categories of Emotion

The Structure of a Mood3-7Classifying Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

Our basic moods carry positive and negative affects, they cannot be neutral. Emotions are grouped into general mood states. These states impact how employees perceive reality, and thereby the moods can impact the work of employees.

7What is the Function of Emotion?Do Emotions Make Us Irrational?Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging to social statusEmotions are critical to rational decision-makingEmotions help us understand the world around us

What Functions Do Emotions Serve?Darwin argued they help in survival problem-solvingEvolutionary psychology: people must experience emotions as there is a purpose behind themNot all researchers agree with this assessment

8-8Sources of Emotion and MoodPersonality There is a trait component affect intensityDay and Time of the WeekThere is a common pattern for all of us:Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period Happier toward the end of the week Exhibits 8-3 & 8-4WeatherIllusory correlation no effect StressEven low levels of constant stress can worsen moodsSocial ActivitiesPhysical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods8-9Sources of Emotions and Moods3-10PersonalityMoods and emotions have a trait component: most people have built-in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others do. People also experience the same emotions with different intensities. Contrast Arsenal coach Arsene Wenger to Microsoft CEO Bill Gates. One is easily moved to anger, while the other is relatively distant and unemotional. Wenger and Gates probably differ in affect intensity, or how strongly they experience their emotions. affect intensity, or how strongly they experience their emotions. Affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply: when theyre sad, theyre really sad, and when theyre happy, theyre really happy.10Sources of Emotions and Moods3-11Day of Week and Time of Day More positive interactions will likely occur mid-day and later in the week

There are many things that impact our mood and emotions. The time of day or the day of the week is a common cause of emotions for all of us. Many are happier towards the end of the week or mid-day. 1112Emotions, Moods, and Job PerformancePeople in highly emotional states have lower job performance.Especially true in the case of negative emotions.People showing high positive affectivity make better decisions than those showing high negative affectivity.Being in a positive mood helps people recall positive things and being in a negative mood helps people recall negative things.People report greater satisfaction with their jobs while they are in a good mood.Being in a good mood leads people to judge the work of others more positively.People who are in a good mood also tend to be more generous and are inclined to help their fellow workers.People who are in a good mood are inclined to work more carefully with others to resolve conflicts.13Managing Emotions in OrganizationsEmotional Dissonance: Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we express.Emotional Labor: The psychological effort involved in holding back ones true emotions.Organizational Compassion: Steps taken by organizational officials to alleviate the suffering of its employees or others.14Organizational Compassion

7-15The Spectrum of Basic EmotionsClassifying Moods: Positive and Negative AffectMood States: General groupings of affective emotionsPositivity Offset: Generally, at zero input, people are in a positive moodThe Structure of a Mood3-16Classifying Moods: Positive and Negative Affect

Our basic moods carry positive and negative affects, they cannot be neutral. Emotions are grouped into general mood states. These states impact how employees perceive reality, and thereby the moods can impact the work of employees.

16The Functions of EmotionsEmotions and Rationality Emotions are critical to rational thought: they help in Understanding the world around us.Evolutionary Psychology Theory that emotions serve an evolutionary purpose: helps in survival of the gene poolThe theory is not universally accepted

There are some who think that emotions are linked to irrationality and expressing emotions in public may be damaging to your career or status. However, research has shown that emotions are necessary for rational thinking.

Evolutionary psychology is the theory that emotions serve an evolutionary purpose which helps in the survival of the gene pool.

Emotions help us make better decisions and help us understand the world around us. If we are going to make decisions we need to incorporate both thinking and feeling.

17Sources of Emotions and Moods3-18PersonalityMoods and emotions have a trait component: most people have built-in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others do. People also experience the same emotions with different intensities. Contrast Arsenal coach Arsene Wenger to Microsoft CEO Bill Gates. One is easily moved to anger, while the other is relatively distant and unemotional. Wenger and Gates probably differ in affect intensity, or how strongly they experience their emotions. affect intensity, or how strongly they experience their emotions. Affectively intense people experience both positive and negative emotions more deeply: when theyre sad, theyre really sad, and when theyre happy, theyre really happy.18Sources of Emotions and Moods3-19Day of Week and Time of Day More positive interactions will likely occur mid-day and later in the week

There are many things that impact our mood and emotions. The time of day or the day of the week is a common cause of emotions for all of us. Many are happier towards the end of the week or mid-day. 19More Sources3-20WeatherNo impact according to researchStressIncreased stress worsens moodsSocial ActivitiesPhysical, informal, and epicurean activities increase positive moodSleepLack of sleep increases negative emotions and impairs decision makingWeather is thought to have an impact on our emotions, but there is no proven effect.

Stress is an important factor and even at low levels it can cause our mood to change. It is important to maintain a low level of stress to help us control our psychological, as well as our physical health. Social activities have been shown to have a positive impact on our moods. This could be physical outlets such as playing in a basketball league, or it can be going out to dinner with friends. These type of activities are found to have positive impact on our moods.

Sleep can be another factor, it is important to get enough, and high quality levels of sleep.

20Even More Sources3-21Exercise Mildly enhances positive moodAge Older people experience negative emotions less frequentlyGender Women show greater emotional expression, experience emotions more intensely and display more frequent expressions of emotionsCould be due to socializationPhysical activity can also aid in keeping our moods upbeat.

Some characteristics that are beyond our control can impact our moods such as age and gender. Elderly people tend to have fewer negative emotions. Women tend to express their emotions readily, and their moods tend to last longer. Research has shown that this is due to more cultural socialization than to biology.

21Emotional Labor3-22An employees expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at workEmotional dissonance is when an employee has to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another

In many jobs there is an implied agreement on the types of emotions that should be expressed. For example, waitresses are supposed to be friendly and cheerful whether they are currently feeling that emotion or not. When employees dont feel the emotion they are required to express they may experience emotional dissonance. This can lead to burnout and frustration with the job.

22Felt vs. Displayed Emotions3-23Felt Emotions: the individuals actual emotionsDisplayed Emotions: the learned emotions that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given jobSurface Acting is hiding ones true emotionsDeep Acting is trying to change ones feelings based on display rulesAn employees actual emotions are their felt emotions and this is in contrast to the emotions that are required or deemed appropriate which are called displayed emotions. There are two levels of displayed emotions that can be expressed. They are both appropriately called acting. Surface acting is when an employee displays the appropriate emotions even when they dont feel those emotions. Deep acting is when the employee actually changes their internal feelings to match displayed rules, this level of acting can be very stressful.

23Emotional Intelligence3-24A persons ability to:Be self-aware (to recognize his or her own emotions as experienced),Detect emotions in others, andManage emotional cues and information.Moderately associated with high job performanceThe ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups

Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a growing area of study and becoming increasingly important in the understanding of how individuals behave. EI is pulling in ones understanding of emotions and their impact on behavior. An individual who is emotionally intelligent will have a strong sense of self-awareness, recognizing their own emotions when experienced. They are also able to detect emotions in others. By understanding their own emotions and those of others they can manage emotional cues and information to make decisions.

24Emotional Intelligence on TrialIntuitive appeal it makes senseEI predicts criteria that matter positively correlated to high job performanceStudy suggests that EI is neurologically basedEI is too vague a conceptEI cant be measuredEI is so closely related to intelligence and personality that it is not unique when those factors are controlled

3-25The case for:The case against:EI plays a very important role in job performance, however, the jury is still out on the role EI plays in effectiveness in organizations.

The case for EI is based on the fact that it makes sense and appeals to our intuitive thinking. It tends to predict things that matter and are positively correlated to high job performance. Many studies have shown that EI is neurologically based and thus helpful in predicting behavior.

However, EI has its critics as the concept can be seen as too vague and not easily measured. Since it is so closely related to intelligence and personality theories, it is not seen as unique when these factors are controlled. 25OB Applications of Emotions and Moods3-26Selection Employers should consider EI a factor in hiring for jobs that demand a high degree of social interactionDecision Making Positive emotions can increase problem-solving skills and help us understand and analyze new informationCreativity Positive moods and feedback may increase creativity

There are numerous applications of emotions and moods. These include selection of employees, decision making and creativity.

26More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods3-27Motivation Promoting positive moods may give a more motivated workforceLeadership Emotions help convey messages more effectivelyNegotiation Emotions may impair negotiator performanceCustomer Service Customers catch emotions from employees, called emotional contagionMotivation, leadership, negotiation and customer service are also work outcomes that are impacted by emotions and moods, and it is important for managers to understand the connection.27Even More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods3-28Job Attitudes Emotions at work get carried home but rarely carry over to the next dayDeviant Workplace Behaviors Those who feel negative emotions are more likely to engage in deviant behavior at workSafety and Injury at Work Bad moods can contribute to injury at work in several ways. Individuals in negative moods tend to be more anxious, which can make them less able to cope effectively with hazards. A person who is always scared will be more pessimistic about the effectiveness of safety precautions because she feels shell just get hurt anyway, or she might panic or freeze up when confronted with a threatening situation. Negative moods also make people more distractible, and distractions can obviously lead to careless behaviors.

Job attitudes can influence our home life but dont always get carried back to the workplace. However, deviant workplace behaviors are often the result of negative emotions and significantly impact the workplace.

28How Can Managers Influence Moods?3-29Use humor to lighten the momentGive small tokens of appreciationStay in a good mood themselves lead by exampleHire positive people

Managers do have an impact on moods of their employees but not all factors are within their control. Some things that can be done to positively impact moods are to use humor to lighten the moment, provide small tokens of appreciation, stay in a good mood themselves and hire positive people. 29Global Implications3-30Does the degree to which people experience emotions vary across cultures?Do peoples interpretations of emotions vary across cultures?Do the norms for the expressions of emotions differ across cultures?YES to all of the above!

Across cultures there does seem to be differences in the degree to which people experience emotions. It is also apparent that in different cultures there are different interpretations of emotions. Some cultures are more accepting of emotional expression than others. When you are engaging with other cultures be sure to understand their cultural norms.

30Implications for Managers3-31Understand the role of emotions and moods to better explain and predict behaviorEmotions and moods do affect workplace performanceWhile managing emotions may be possible, absolute control of worker emotions is notIn summary, moods and emotions are important to the study of organizational behavior. Also, they are natural expressions and managers should not try to completely control the employees emotions, but they should be aware of the emotions and not ignore emotional indicators. The more you understand the emotions of your employees, the better you will able to predict their behavior.

31Keep in Mind3-32Positive emotions can increase problem-solving skillsPeople with high EI may be more effective in their jobsManagers need to know the emotional norms for each culture they do business withKeep in mind that positive emotions can help to increase problem-solving skills due to heightened job involvement. People with high EI tend to be more effective in their jobs. Finally, it is important that managers are aware of the emotional norms in each culture they work with so they avoid conflict.32