employee retention - orientation, occupational safety and motivation
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Occupational Safety & Health
OrientationChey Cipriano Collado
Purpose of Orientation
Orientation is a set of activities such as familiarizing new employees with the company rules, policies & procedures with the view of making the employee well-adapted to the work environment.
What is Orientation?
1. It creates an initial favorable impression.2. It enhances interpersonal acceptance.3. It helps the new recruit adjust himself to the job.
Levels of Orientation
Who is responsible for Orientation?
2. Departmental & Job Orientation
1. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO)2. The Head of the HR Department3. The Supervisor of the new employee
1. Company’s overview
2. Key policies & procedures
4. Fringe Benefits
5. Safety & Accident prevention
6. Employee & Union relations
7. Physical Facilities
8. Economic Factors
Departmental & Job Orientation
1. Functions of the Department
2. Job duties & responsibilities
3. Policies, procedures, rules & regulations
4. Tour of the department
5. Introduction to Department employee
How Orientation Programs are Presented?
1. Classes2. Meetings3. Tour of the company offices/ plants4. Films5. Employee handbook6. Information Leaflets7. Slides8. Charts
Occupational Safety & Health
Chey Cipriano ColladoFirst Reporter
SAFETY & HEALTH
What is Health & Safety?
Health – refers to the condition which indicates that a person is free of illness, injury or mental & emotional problems that impair normal human activity.
Safety– freedom from danger or risk.
Who is responsible for Health & Safety?
• Every personnel• Managers & Supervisors• Safety Specialists
Causes of Accidents & Illnesses in the Workplace
1. Tasks2. Working conditions3. Nature of employees
Poor Working Conditions
1. Inappropriate design of the building2. Incorrectly installed machines3. Lack of protective gear4. Fatigue resulted from long work hours5. Noise6. Poor lighting7. Boredom8. Fighting9. Daydreaming10. Alcoholism
Accident Repeaters – persons who have more accidents than the average
3.Safety Incentive Programs
Protecting Employee Health1. Maintaining a healthy work environment.2. Adaptation of the preventive approach to health
maintenance 3. Maintaining health services
Preventive Approach to Health Maintenance
1. Better nutrition2. Regular exercise programs3. Abstinence from smoking & alcohol4. Stress counseling5. Annual physical Examination
Stress – it is the strain a person experiences from
the pressure of the outside forces.
Types of Stress1. Physiological – effects of the stressor include
chemical, neurological or any general body response
2. Psychological – affects the emotional, behavioral, mental or social aspects of an individuals health
1. Prolonged unhappiness or boredom
2. Explosive anger in reaction to minor difficulties
3. Pessimistic view of life
Behavioral Indicators1. Insomnia2. Difficulty in concentrating3. Feeling of hyperactivity4. Excessive use of alcohol or drugs
4 Stages of Stress1st Stage – trembling, twitching, foot/ finger tapping
2nd Stage – sweating palms, nausea, nervous stomach, rapid breathing
3rd Stage – variable heartbeat rate, erratic blood pressure, over secretion of stomach acids, breath holding
4th Stage – headaches, ulcers, asthma, hypertension
Potential Sources of Stress 1. Environmental2. Organizational3. Individual
Individual Approaches to Stress Mgt 1. Increase physical exercise2. Relaxation training3. Expand the social support network
Organizational Approaches to Stress Mgt
1. Implementing sound HRM practices like:
a. effective selection & training
b. clearly written job descriptions
c. clearly stated job performance expectations
d. effective rewards system
2. Increasing formal organizational communication
3. Increasing employee involvement in decision-making
4. Redesigning jobs
Organizing for Safety & Health1. As separate units in any organizational level2. As combination units in any organizational level.
Prior evaluation of health & safety programs, the ff must be in
1.A reliable recording system concerning accidents & illnesses
2.An effective reporting system
3.Well-developed rules & procedures
4.A system of rewards for effective management of the health
& safety function
Evaluating Health & Safety Programs
Occupational Health & Safety LawThe Government incorporated in the Labor Code a pertinent
Chapter ( Chapter II, Occupational Health and Safety) This
consists of four articles (Articles 162-165), which deal with the
1. The mandatory enforcement of occupational health and
2. The development and implementation of training
programs relating o occupational safety and industrial
3. The assignment of the DOLE as the administrator and
enforcer of occupational safety and health laws,
regulations and standards
SOURCE: Personnel and Human Resource Management by Dr. Roberto Medina
MotivationJaana G. Tamayo
-- The process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.
Key Elements• Energy – intensity, drive, vigor
• Direction – consistency with org’s goals
• Persistence – continuous effort
-- Taken from the base word “motive” which meanssomething that causes a person to act. Behavior = reward
Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary
Management 11th Edition, Robbins and Coulter
What are Rewards?
In most cases, motivation comes from some need that results in some type of
reward when the need is fulfilled.
Intrinsic rewards – derived from withinExtrensic rewards – something tangible which is given by another person or org (eg bonuses, praise)
OF NEEDS (1954)
ALDERFER’S ERGTHEORY (1972)
MCCLELLAND’S ACQUIRED NEEDS
-Coined as… “satisfaction progression “- Needs progress from the lowest, subsistence-needs level needs to highest level of self-awareness and actualization.
Levels Of Needs:• Physiological•Safety•Belongingness•Esteem•Self-actualization
-Drew upon Maslow’s theory but suggested that indivs are motivated to move back and forth through the levels in terms of motivators- frustration-regression principle: indivs move in and out of diff levels depending on whether their needs are met
Level of Needs:•Existence•Relatedness•Growth
Also modified Maslow’s Theory and consolidated down to just 2 areas:Hygienes - lower level motivators which included admin, supervision, intrprsonal relationships, working conditions and security
Motivators - focused on higher level such asachievment, work, responsibility and growth
Needs are not innate but are learned or developed through life experiences
Level of Needs:•Need for Achievemnt•Need for Affiliation•Need for Power
Needs-Based Theories of Motivation
Extrinsic Factor Theories of Motivation
Reinforcement Theory B.F Skinner (1953)
• Positive reinforcement – reward
• for positive behavior
• Nega reinforcement – reward avoidance of bad behavior
• Punishment - conseq for - behave
• Extinction – removal of reward for nega behavior
Behavior is a function of its consequences. Consequences that follow a behavior and increase the probability of a behavior to be repeated are called “reinforcers”.
ADAM’S EQUITY THEORY(1963)
VROOM’S EXPECTANCYTHEORY (1964)
LOCKE’S GOAL SETTING THEORY
EQUITY is the concept of fairness and equitable treatment of an employee compared to others who behave similarly w/n an organization
An individual will act a certain way based on the expectation that it will be followed with a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome.
By establishing goals, individuals are motivated to take action to achieve those goals and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance
If the employee feels that he/she is under or over rewarded causing inequity, it may result to higher or lower productivity, increased absenteeism or voluntary resignation.
Linkages:a)Expectancy or effort-performance b)Instrumentality or performance-rewardc)Valence or attractiveness of reward
Intrinsic Factor Theories of Motivation
F. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y
OUCHI’S THEORY Z
Focused on studying job processes, determining the most efficient means of performing and in turn rewarding employees
Assumes that people are motivated and able to continuously work hard and should be paid based on the amount and quality of work done.
Theory X – a negative view that workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely controlled to work effectively
Theory Y – a positive view that employees enjoy work, seek out and accept responsibility and exercise self direction
Rooted in the idea that employees who are involved in and committed to an organization will be motivated to increase productivity.
Based on the Japanese approach in mgt and motivation, Z managers provide rewards such as long term employment, promotion, participatory mgt et al.
Management Theories of Motivation
Incentives and Rewards
Motivation results from a combination of incentives that which can be intrinsic or
So what can a manager provide under
These types of rewards?
Extrensic Rewards• Money• Benefits• Flexible schedules• Job responsibilities
and duties• Promotions• Change in status• Supervision over
•Praise and Feedback•A good boss•A strong leader•Other inspirational people•A nurturing organization
Intrinsic RewardsAccdg to Manion 2005
• Healthy relationships – employees develop a sense of connection
• Meaningful work – where they feel they make a difference in people’s life
• Competence – they can develop skills enable them to perform at or above standards
• Choice – they are encouraged to participate in the org in diff ways taking part in decision making, prob solving, etc.
• Progress – where the development of a task is well facilitated and celebrated uponcompletion
Current Issues in Motivation
• Motivating in Tough Economic Circumstances
• Managing Cross-cultural motivational challenges
• Motivating Unique Groups of Workers
Motivational StrategiesAccdg Nancy Shanks
• Expect the best• Reward desired behavior• Create FUN (focused,
unpredictabe and novel) approach
• Reward employees in ways that enhance performance and motivate them
• Tailor rewards • Focus on revitalizing
employees• Get subordinates to take
responsibility for their own motivation
• Play to employees’ strengths, promote high performance and focus on how they learn