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Dr. Alex Bennet Bangkok University; Mountain Quest Institute
Empowering Decision-Makers Proactive Approach to Compete in a Turbulent World
What you see depends on the direction from which you look.
Change Occurs Inside Out
• Energy follows thought • Mind builds form
– What we think about, we direct energy towards; this focused energy gives thought the power to manifest physically.
• Thoughts and images have a profound creative and motivating power within human consciousness.
• Our beliefs and feelings deeply influence who we are.
The material world is an effect … not a cause.
What we believe in and how we view the world is always reflected in what we think about, what we talk about, and what we do … we are expressing what we believe to be important, our values and beliefs.
So … what we think and talk about and act upon DRIVES our perceptions of the things around us within our threshold …
The threshold within which knowledge and events make sense to us … At any given moment in time, each individual and each organization functions from a very definable band or region of thinking, talking and acting.
If a proposed new idea … or strategy or initiative is below our threshold, it is dismissed as unimportant.
If a proposed new idea … or strategy or initiative is above our threshold, it is not comprehended and has no perceived value. •Our level of knowledge and the
frame of reference from which that knowledge is driven define this window.
•Pushing the edges of this threshold produces discomfort, and we seek to bring our environment and our values and beliefs back into balance.
•As we are able to integrate new experiences and knowledge into our threshold, our understanding increases and, by definition, our threshold moves.
Individual Change Model
Aware of the needed action Understand its meaning and the expected result Believe that the action is real and will work Feel good about taking the action Feel ownership for the action (a personal responsibility for taking action) Feel empowered to take action (having the right and knowledge and freedom to take the action) Know that taking this action will make a difference
AWARENESS UNDERSTANDING BELIEVING FEELING GOOD OWNERSHIP EMPOWERMENT IMPACT ACTION
Mobilizing personal action
l A ct
Reflection and Analysis
Unfolding Today •Change from the Inside Out • What is Knowledge and Why is it Critical to Our Success • Introduction to Decision-Making • The Current Environment • Thinking Complexity • Decision-Making in a Complex Situation • Tools for the Decision-Maker
• Shifting Frame of Reference • Relationship Network Management • Engaging Tacit Knowledge
What is knowledge and why is it critical to our success?
The Performance of your organization every day depends completely upon what every individual in your organization does that day--Actions.
The Learning Environment
Knowledge = The capacity to take effective action! Learning = The creation of knowledge!
Social Interaction Create
Experience Knowledge Make
Action High Performance
Knowledge is: …the human capacity (potential & actual
ability) to take effective action in varied and uncertain situations.
All Knowledge is built on Information, Information is any non-random pattern.
Knowledge includes: …awareness, understanding, meaning, insight,
creativity, ideas, intuition, judgment, and anticipating the outcome of your actions.
KNOWLEDGE (INFORMING) • The information part of knowledge; it could be implicit, explicit, tacit or any combination of these. • Represents insights, meaning, understanding, expectations, theories and principles that support or lead to effective action. • When viewed separately this is information that may lead to effective action. However, it is considered knowledge when it is used as part of the knowledge process.
KNOWLEDGE (PROCEEDING) • Represents the process and
action part of knowledge. • The process of selecting
information relevant to a situation at hand and mixing it with internal information from memory (associative patterning) in order to take effective action.
COPYRIGHT Mountain Quest Institute, 2006
Aspects of Knowledge Assumptions
Reflection and Analysis
Surface knowledge Shallow knowledge Deep knowledge
Levels of Knowledge
Surface knowledge involves facts, data, simple concepts and other information that can be memorized and applied, captured and stored in technology systems for processing and reference.
Shallow knowledge requires context
and the understanding of relationships gained through interaction such as conversations, dialogues and the flow of ideas in communities and teams.
Deep knowledge is the domain of the
expert who has “lived” knowledge gained over time through effortful practice.
Characterization of organizational knowledge needs. Routine decisions made in organizations are at the
surface level. Decisions requiring deep knowledge are much fewer, and tend to be more critical.
NUMBER OF DECISIONS
ORG LEVELS PROBLEMS ORG DECISIONS SOLUTION SOURCES
ONTOLOGICAL STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL TACTICAL
Purpose Mission Values Complex Situations Complicated Situations Simple Situations
Higher Authority Leadership Leadership Management Decisions Management Supervisory Decisions Routine Decisions
12 COPYRIGHT Mountain Quest Institute, 2006
The Mind of the Decision-Maker
Knowledge is represented in in the brain as patterns … • Groups of neurons with synapse
connection strengths between the synaptic spaces.
The interpretation and meaning of incoming patterns are very much a function of preexisting patterns in the brain.
The intermixing of the external patterns with the internal patterns creates recognition, sense- making, meaning, and ultimately knowledge.
EXTERNAL PATTERNS FROM
(Event, Situation, Problem)
INTERNAL PATTERNS OF HISTORICAL
(Derived by internal reflection, instant
recognition, emotional response)
Frame of Reference PATTERN
REPRESENTATIONS & RELATIONSHIPS WITH
External Consistency in Instant of Time
● Everything we learn is stored in patterns. ● A piece of brain tissue the size of a grain of sand
contains a hundred thousand neurons and one billion synapses (connections), all talking to one another.
● A single thought might be represented in our brain by a network of a million neurons, each connected to one thousand other neurons.
● Every decision-maker has internal sets of patterns whose associations allow them to make sense of the world. ● The patterns are different in each brain ● Each individual has built a personal frame of
reference from experience (pattern relationships)
The Mind: Patterns and Pattern Association Assumptions
Reflection and Analysis
The creation of knowledge is unique to each decision-maker.
Decisions, Decisions ?
NO DECISION IS A DECISION.
Recent History of Decision-Making • Traditional decision theory was built on an implied causal or
deterministic connection between the decision that was made and the end result.
– Closed system with feedback loops between a decision, the action taken, and the result achieved.
• In full throes of Bureaucracy, decisions lay fully in the domain of managers. By 1990’s decision-makers well versed in mathematical and statistical techniques such as utility analysis, operations research, decision matrices and probabilistic decision trees.
• However, this approach does not work with complex systems where causes are difficult or impossible to i