Engaging and motivating learners

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Susie Macfarlane School of exercise and nutrition sciencesFaculty of health, Deakin universityEngaging and motivating learners: an evidence based approach</p> <p>CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]1Susie Macfarlane School of exercise and nutrition sciencesFaculty of health, Deakin universityEngaging and motivating learners: an evidence based approach(to improve performance)CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BAsk for two volunteers:an engagement detectiveAnd an disengagement detective</p> <p>Could ask people to line up according to how hard they think it is to engage learners, fold the line and have a conversation with someone about why they stood where they didSit with that person.</p> <p>[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]25 PrinciplesActive LearningProgress not judgementPersonalisationIntrinsic motivationFoster collaboration</p> <p>CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]3What is it important to engage our learners and staff?</p> <p>Engagement is important because it predicts important outcomes (e.g., learning, development) and because it reveals underlying motivation(Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon &amp; Barch, 2004)CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BWhy engagement important? </p> <p>It's the glue that holds the learning process togetherThe essence </p> <p>- neuroscience- not compliance but build habit- lifelong learning- community of professionals shared ownership over goals and responsibility for excellence so doesn't require surveillance bit all work toward same direction[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]4</p> <p>What is our purpose? CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]5What is engagement?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B1. Ask individuals to write a definition2. Discuss with the person you dont know and come up with a definition you are happy withWrite it on A4</p> <p>Now meet up with another pair you dont know and do the same.[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]6What is engagement?The degree of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion that students show when they are learning or being taught, which extends to the level of motivation they have to learn and progress in their education(Abbott, 2014)CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]7What is engagement?A student's willingness, need, desire and compulsion to participate in, and be successful in, the learning process promoting higher level thinking for enduring understanding."(Bomia et al, 1997)CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]8Challenge with support</p> <p>MeaningENGAGEMENTLearning or AchievementCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BSENS Teaching seminarS Macfarlane, S Torres, H Brown, P Gastin9What is engagement?Goal-directedFocusedIntensePersistentInterested Empowered to make changeCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]10What Dis-engageS?Think about a time when you felt disengaged from a learning experience</p> <p>Why was this?</p> <p>How could that experience have been changed to engage you?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BREFLECTION</p> <p>Personal experience and emotionDiversityProblem solvingBeing asked not being toldCollaboration[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]11What is DIS- engagement?ApatheticDistractedHalf-heartedHelpless Burned outAllowed external forces outside their control to regulate their task environmentCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]12What strategies do you use to engage?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]13Principle 1: active learningAll learners engage in active learningDesigning active and collaborative learning</p> <p>Principle 1: active learningCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi14RETENTIONReal experience Model/simulate real experienceRole play a situation Hands on workshopView exhibitWatch demonstrationMoving picturesView imageDales Cone of ExperienceLEARNING OUTCOMESListen to lectureRead textDefine, Describe List, Explain DemonstrateApply PracticeAnalyseDesignCreate Evaluate10%20%30%50%70%90%CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BMay surprise you</p> <p>Is there one of these methods in your workplace that could be adapted to have better outcomes?Is there a method you know of that could be shared?</p> <p>SENS Teaching seminarS Macfarlane, S Torres, H Brown, P Gastin15Recall vs TransferRetention: remember what is learnedTransfer: not only remember but make sense of and be able to use what is learned</p> <p>Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BSusieSENS Teaching seminarS Macfarlane, S Torres, H Brown, P Gastin16Reading or listeningObserving or doingBLearning independentlyLearning with othersDisconnected from experienceSolving a real problemHigh stakes assessmentPractice with feedbackModerate stressLow stressLearnt in isolation Connected to prior knowledgeTo pass or achieve a gradeFor a meaningful purposeACRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]17ActivityIdentify a learning approach B that you could share</p> <p>Identify a learning approach A you could adapt to a B</p> <p>Discuss with the person next to youCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BPrinciple 2: personalisationIntellectualSocialCulturalPsychological andPhysical healthExperiencePrior knowledgeGenerational experience Prior experiences of learningCultural backgroundsSocial support and skillsPsychological and physical healthCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B19Principle 3: progress not judgementMary achieved a final grade of 83%Lee achieved a final grade of 62%CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi20(Mangels, Butterfield, Lamb, Good, Dweck, 2006) Fixed beliefs vs Growth beliefs Performance orientation vs Learning orientationLearning MotivationLearning requires effort, practice and experience People are either smart or dumbChallenge myself, take risks and learnAppear smart and always prove myselfCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BStory about a teacher who is modelling a learning orientation:Her young student achieved 100% in a test, and the teacher responded Oh no, I am so sorry, I have not challenged you enough and you have missed out on an opportunity to learn![Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]21Fixed vs growth mindsetStudents who believe that intelligence is a fixed quantity are particularly vulnerable to decreased performance when they realize they are at risk of failing</p> <p>whereas students who view intelligence as acquirable are better able to remain effective learnersCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi22Engagement StrategiesWhat conditions support a growth mindset and mastery learning?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi23Principle 4: intrinsic motivation</p> <p>CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B24ExtrinsicMotivationIntrinsicMotivationRyan, Koestner and Deci (1999)</p> <p>Conducted a meta-analysis of 128 studies Examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivationCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BNeed bothThere are usually quite a lot of extrinsic factors How can we build in evidence based approaches to increasing our learners intrinsic motivation?[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]25Findings</p> <p>Rewards for Engagement, Completion and Performance significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation All rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards undermined IM.(Ryan, Koestner and Deci (1999)</p> <p>Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance(Cameron, Banko, Pierce, 2001)</p> <p>Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behaviour and self-reported interest</p> <p>CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BNeed bothThere are usually quite a lot of extrinsic factors How can we build in evidence based approaches to increasing our learners intrinsic motivation?[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]26PurposeAutonomyMasteryIntrinsic MotivationSelf Determination TheoryRyan &amp; DeciWhat I do has meaning for myself, my team, our patients and our community I have choice and can determine what I contribute and howI can make progress and develop masteryCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BSDTEdward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan </p> <p>Intrinsic motivation</p> <p>initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itselfas opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation).</p> <p>Humans have inherent tendency toward growth development but this does not happen automatically, people need conditions that support this. </p> <p>three psychological needs motivate people to initiate behaviour essential for their psychological health and well-being. </p> <p>These needs are universal and innate </p> <p>Purpose or belonging: the universal want to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for othersMethods: Provide opportunity for learners to consider problem and its impact, and to have an impact on others</p> <p>Autonomy: Is the urge to be causal agents of one's own life however, this does not mean to be independent of othersMethods: Consultation, Choice in what you do and how you do itExample when teaching a unit in Health Behaviour. 1600 students compulsory first year. Assignment was a case study, but to ensure deeper learnng and retention, experiential learning, we adapted the task to a personal health behaviour change plan.Provided them the choice in what health behaviour they would like to address.</p> <p>Competence and Mastery: Seek to control the outcome and experience masteryPractice and feedbackA sense of progress with students,, and each week set goals, implement their plan and keep a journal</p> <p>Example HBS110- Provided students the opportunity to choose a health behaviour they would like to work onSENS Teaching seminarS Macfarlane, S Torres, H Brown, P Gastin27Autonomy supporting strategiesControlling strategiesInterestsPreferencesChoice-makingCuriositySense of ChallengeIncentivesConsequencesDirectivesDeadlinesAssignmentsINTRINSICALLY MOTIVATINGEXTRINSICALLY MOTIVATINGCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BSENS Teaching seminarS Macfarlane, S Torres, H Brown, P Gastin28Recognition &amp; acceptanceLearningPhases of learning and changeImplementContinuous ImprovementClarity of PurposeMeaningful impact or outcomePractice &amp; FeedbackHarness learners strengthsScaffold &amp; support learning Build on existing knowledgeCelebrate successEngagement StrategiesSupport from all levels of leadershipCollaborative projectsEmbed evaluationOpportunities for reflectionClear standardsAcknowledge effort Involve learners actively in planning stagesLearner choice in timing, role or contributionMasteryAutonomyPurposeAchievable taskConnect learning or skill development to higher level goalsTeamwork &amp; collaborationProvide resourcesDistributed responsibility Remove barriersDistributed responsibility Expand on successesCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B[Add presentation title, presenter name here][Add Presenter contact details here]29ActivitySelect an engagement strategy you could implement or expand in one of the phasesDiscuss with the person next to youCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BThinking of a current teaching challenge, scenario or project:Which principle is most relevant?What small achievable change could impact engagement?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BEngage allHarness strengths and diversityWork together to create meaning</p> <p>Principle 5: FOSTER collaborationCRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi32Designing for engagementIm not good enoughI wont take partIm bored (angry)I dont matterI dont belongCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B33Designing for engagementI am valuableIm not good enoughI will contributeI wont take partI am challengedIm bored (angry)I have purposeI dont matterHarness strengthsDesign individual or small group tasks in which everyone is required to participateProvide a task, problem to solve or question to answerAssign authentic, unique, interdependent rolesI am valuedI dont belongRecognise diversity CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B34facilitating for engagementAUTHORITYCOMPETITIONFEAR OF FAILURECOMPLIANCETALKINGDEPENDENCETeachers / SupervisorsLearners / StaffCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B35facilitating for engagementEMPOWERMENTAUTHORITYCOLLABORATIONCOMPETITIONCOURAGE TO LEARNFEAR OF FAILUREOWNERSHIPCOMPLIANCEASK / MODELTALKINGSELF EVALUATIONDEPENDENCETeachers / SupervisorsLearners / StaffCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B36facilitating for engagementEMPOWERMENTAUTHORITYCOLLABORATIONCOMPETITIONCOURAGE TO LEARNFEAR OF FAILUREOWNERSHIPCOMPLIANCEDiscuss, scaffold and assign responsibility for quality of learning and of outcomes.Encourage peer interactions, assistance, feedback.Acknowledge effort, risk-taking, persistence, evaluation and analysis, and improvement - not marks.Shared understanding of purposeASKINGTALKINGDont tell. Give thinking time.Ask, model, ask, explain, ask, think, ask and discuss.SELF EVALUATIONDEPENDENCEResponsibility for qualityCRICOS Provider Code: 00113B37ask questions:</p> <p>to interest, engage and challengeto assess prior knowledge and understandingto stimulate recall, in order to create new understanding and meaningto focus thinking on the most important concepts and issuesto help learners extend their thinking from the factual to the analyticalto help learners to see connections to promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the formation of hypothesesto promote learners thinking about the way they have learned</p> <p>CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B38Final questionsWhat conditions can you create that foster engagement and support a performance culture?CRICOS Provider Code: 00113BJaqi39ReferencesHidden curriculum (2014, August 26). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum. Bomia, L, Beluzo, L, Demeester, D, Elander, K, Johnson, M, &amp; Sheldon, B (1997) The impact of teaching strategies on intrinsic motivation. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, p. 294.Deci, EL, Koestner, R, Ryan, RM (1999) A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation, Psychological Bulletin, 125(6): 627-668Harlen W, Deakin Crick R (2002). A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students' motivation for learning. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. Issue 1. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education. (link)Mangels...</p>