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  • ENGAGING ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN NEW ZEALAND

    A report prepared for the Asia New Zealand Foundation by

    Terry McGrath, Andrew Butcher,

    John Pickering and Hilary Smith

    July 2005

    Report 2005

  • PAGE

    ABOUT THE AUTHORS 2

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 3

    INTRODUCTION 4

    Methodology 5

    Limitations of the Research 6

    Overview: Immigration and Settlement 7

    Demography of the Asian Population 8

    in New Zealand Today

    SECTION ONE 10

    Examples of Engaging Asian Communities 10

    International examples 10

    Australia 10

    Latent talents A UK response 11

    The New Zealand experience 12

    Successful Engagement and Programmes 16

    Programmes must respond to 18

    a recognised need

    Programmes must target 18

    Programmes must consult 18

    Programmes must deliver 19

    in a culturally sensitive manner

    Programmes must 19

    demonstrate legitimacy

    Programmes must have 19

    trusted leadership

    SECTION TWO 20

    Conceptual Framework 20

    Belonging 22

    Neighbourhood 22

    Social activities 22

    Friends 23

    Telephone and internet access 23

    Volunteer/Unpaid work outside home 23

    PAGE

    SECTION TWO contd.

    Participation 24

    Education 24

    Voting 24

    Employment 24

    Housing 25

    Inclusion 26

    Accessing services 26

    Health services 26

    Integration programmes 26

    Recognition 27

    Racism and discrimination 27

    First language use 27

    Legitimacy 28

    Safety 28

    Immigration services 28

    Treaty of Waitangi 28

    Service providers 29

    SECTION THREE Recommendations: 30

    Policy, Practice, Programmes, People

    Language-Related Recommendations 30

    General Recommendations 33

    Policy 33

    Programmes 34

    CONCLUSION 35

    APPENDIX 1

    Indicator Framework Table for Measuring 36

    the Impact of Settlement Policies

    on Social Cohesion

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1

  • TERRY MCGRATH is National Co-ordinator of

    the International Student Ministries Inc and

    International Student Chaplain at Massey

    University. He has been involved in the pastoral

    care of international students for over 20 years.

    Qualified in Science, History, Development Studies

    and Teaching, he is the co-author of Nga Tangata:

    Partnerships in the Pastoral Care of International

    Students (Asia Pacific Migration Network, 2002)

    and more recently Campus Community Linkages in

    Pastoral Care of International Students (2004).

    Terry is also the recipient of a Massey Blue Award

    for services to international students, Vice-

    President of ISANA New Zealand, and secretary

    to ANZTCA (Tertiary Chaplains Association).

    DR JOHN PICKERING is a Director of ie Limited.

    John has been a member of the Code of Practice

    Guidelines Advisory Committee and chaired the

    levy-funded Tertiary Professional Development

    Advisory Committee. He is the immediate past

    President of ISANA New Zealand. John spent seven

    years managing international student support in a

    university. He is a trained scientist with qualitative

    and quantitative research experience and about

    80 publications and conference presentations.

    He spent seven years living in continental

    Europe and is a Polish permanent resident.

    DR HILARY SMITH has over 20 years of experience

    in language education. Overseas she has taught in

    Tonga, Papua New Guinea and the Lao PDR.

    In New Zealand her background is mainly in

    the tertiary education sector including Victoria

    University and International Pacific College. She

    chairs the national council of VSA (Te Tuao Tawahi

    Volunteer Service Abroad). Her Masters research

    with the Lao refugee community in Wellington

    involved policy around language provision for

    refugee communities, and her PhD was on language

    policy for migrant and international students in

    schools and teacher training. She has published

    in the areas of language and education policy.

    DR ANDREW BUTCHER holds degrees in History,

    Criminology and Sociology from both Victoria

    and Massey Universities. His PhD was on the

    re-entry experiences of East Asian international

    tertiary students to their countries of origin.

    He has also researched participants experiences of

    discrimination, and international students pastoral

    care provisions by community groups. He has a

    number of publications on international students

    and participants experiences. He has also been

    invited to present his research at the University of

    Oxford and a number of New Zealand international

    education and migration conferences.

    ABOUT THE AUTHORS

    2

  • IT IS IMPORTANT for us to thank those who

    participated in this research by giving up their

    time and telling us their stories of engaging with

    New Zealand communities. Their stories and

    insights are important for all New Zealanders to

    listen to; we hope we have done them justice here.

    We also thank the following research assistants

    for undertaking the interviews and leading focus

    groups: Chze Pheng Ching; Poh Yin Ching;

    Suranthi de Silva; Jane Ng; Rachel McLeish;

    Ade Kurniawan; Yukiko Kojima; Moon-Chong Suh;

    Sharma Deshpande; Zhong Xi; Christina Lin Na;

    Joanna Chai; Dr Marissa Roland; Bindu Jacob;

    Yvette Koo; Esther Wang; Anna Puetener;

    Frank Shin; and Adella Choronge.

    Tracey Hunt provided valuable administrative

    support, while Massey University Chaplaincy in

    Palmerston North and The Street City Church

    in Wellington provided venues for research

    team meetings.

    Chze Pheng and Poh Yin Ching provided

    organisation and management of the Auckland team

    as well as insight and advice to the research team.

    Zhong Xi provided translation and helpful advice

    in preparing information for focus groups. Janeen

    Mills provided project management and general

    support to the project management team.

    Dr Kevin Dunn, University of New South Wales

    and Professor Ram Gidoomal, CBE, of the London

    Sustainability Exchange and Middlesex and

    Cambridge universities, both provided useful

    information about overseas experiences of

    engaging migrant communities.

    Jenny McGrath, Yvette Koo and Kim Allen provided

    editorial comments, while Professor Paul Spoonley

    and Associate Professor Noel Watts provided

    insightful peer review.

    The Asia New Zealand Foundation, particularly

    Dr Rebecca Foley, provided both the funding and

    ongoing and encouraging support for this research.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    3

  • 4NEW ZEALANDS ASIAN communities are nothing

    new. From the goldfields of Central Otago in the

    1800s to the international students on Aucklands

    Queen Street in the third millennium, they are a

    marked element in New Zealands history and a

    firm feature on New Zealands social landscape.

    This research on successfully engaging Asian

    communities in New Zealand, commissioned by the

    Asia New Zealand Foundation (Asia:NZ), looks at

    ways that engagement happens (or doesnt, as the

    case may be) between various Asian communities

    and various other communities in New Zealand.

    The trials and tribulations of Asians settling into

    and being discriminated against in New Zealand

    are well documented. This report does not seek

    to revisit this well trodden path; rather, it seeks

    to take the further steps: moving from unsettled

    encounters to successful engagement. Amongst

    these further steps are identifying what works in

    assisting engagement and the factors that need to

    be taken into account when designing programmes.

    Additionally, focus is drawn towards the roles of

    central and local government and their agencies

    in providing strategic guidance, co-ordination and

    cohesion amongst the diverse groups seeking to

    provide programmes and to assist engagement.

    Following this general introduction, which covers

    methodology, limitations of the research and a

    broad overview of the policies affecting Asian

    migration to New Zealand, the report is divided

    into three sections. Section One examines

    New Zealand and international models of engaging

    Asian communities. Aimed specifically at those

    agencies with a role in relation to New Zealands

    Asian communities, the information from this

    section is intended to inform practice.

    Section Two focuses on the issue of engagement

    from a social cohesion framework, using the

    words of the actual participants in the research.

    Contributing to the broader discussion surrounding

    the engagement of different communities,

    this section examines the specific elements of

    belonging, participation, inclusion, recognition

    and legitimacy.

    Finally, Section Three provides a series of

    recommendations to contribute towards greater

    engagement. These recommendations flow from

    the findings of Sections One and Two.

    INTRODUCTION

    The trials and tribulations of Asians settling into and being discriminated against in New Zealand are well documen