engaging communities in protected area tourism

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Engaging Communities in Protected Area Tourism. Steve McCool Department of Society and Conservation The University of Montana Steve.McCool@cfc.umt.edu. Starting Points. 1.Goals of protected area and tourism planning Conserving heritage, values, resources and opportunities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Engaging Communities in Protected Area TourismSteve McCoolDepartment of Society and ConservationThe University of MontanaSteve.McCool@cfc.umt.edu

  • Starting Points1.Goals of protected area and tourism planningConserving heritage, values, resources and opportunitiesTourism is a tool Providing communities and their citizens with routes to economic opportunityIncentives and sources of income/revenueEnhancing quality of lifeRecognizing that income is not the only measure of development

  • Starting Points2.Protection of values in a dynamic, uncertain, complex and contentious contextIn short, a messy situationRequires new, different approaches to planning and public engagement

  • Starting Points3. Vision of the community and role of tourismWhat the community would look like in the futureThe vision for tourismContribution of tourism to the communitys visionRole of conservation in vision

  • ObjectivesWhat makes for successful engagementWhat are the implications for how we see public engagement

  • What makes for a successful plan?ImplementationTechnical Planning (LAC)Public Engagement (Consensus and Learning)

  • Protected Area Decisions Requiring Public EngagementPurpose and goals of the protected areaWhat values are to be protectedWhat tourism experiences and opportunities are to be offered and promoted

  • Protected Area Decisions Requiring Public Engagement

    Framing problems Identifying and ranking issues

  • Protected Area Decisions Requiring Public EngagementSetting standards of acceptable changeManagement of trade-offsConflicting goalsHow much, what kind, where, tourism development is acceptable?

    How much impact is acceptable???

  • Dimensions of Success:A FrameworkPlan is writtenPlan is implemented (values are protected)Socially acceptable goals and actions

    Traditional Approaches based on a Culture of Technical Control

  • Dimensions of Success:A FrameworkRepresentation All interests at the tableRelationshipsBuilding trustLearningProcess, content, each otherOwnershipSense of carrying, responsibilityEnhanced functioningCapacity to make and implement decisions

    Emergent approaches, based on a culture of learning and power-sharing

  • So, Whats the Message?Requires a plan itselfBased on how the specific planning context is framedWith specific expected outcomesProcess is critical to a useful planIntertwined with technical aspects

  • Models of Public EngagementTechnical Planning ProcessExpert Based

  • Models of Public EngagementTechnical Planning ProcessScopingAlternativesExpert Lead

  • Models of Public EngagementTechnical Planning ProcessPublic ParticipationCollaborative

  • Models of Public EngagementTransactive

  • Tourism DevelopmentCommunity and individual capacityTechnicalBusiness management, market, guidingServiceFinancialRelationship with protected areaIncludes legal restrictions, personal relationships

  • What Information Public Engagement Provides Tourism PlannersCommunity strengths, weaknessesIdentification of resources, capacities and opportunities

  • What Information Public Engagement Provides Tourism PlannersSocial/cultural effectsAcceptability of tourism development actionsDistribution/availability of skills, capital, business acumen

    Social Effects:CommodificationExploitationTransformationCompetitionDemonstrationHomogenizationDisplacement

  • Thank you!Steve McCoolSteve.McCool@cfc.umt.edu

  • Growth in International Travel