engaging local communities in stewardship of world heritage

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  • COMPACT Engaging Local Communities in Stewardship of World Heritage

    Empowered lives. Resilient nations.

  • COMPACT Engaging Local Communities in Stewardship of World Heritage

    Edited by Jessica Brown and Terence Hay-Edie

    Empowered lives. Resilient nations.

  • ii

    UNDP partners with people at all levels of society to help build nations that can withstand crisis, and drive and sustain the kind of growth that improves the quality of life for everyone. On the ground in 177 countries and territories, we offer global perspective and local insight to help empower lives and build resilient nations. www.undp.org


    The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNDP or contribu-tory organisations. The designations employed and the presentations of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the parts of UNDP or contributory organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or city or its authorities, or concerning the delimi-tation of its frontiers or boundaries.


    This report may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. No use of this report may be made for resale or any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from UNDP.


    Brown, J. and Hay-Edie, T. 2013. COMPACT: Engaging Local Communities in the Stewardship of World Heritage UNDP, New York.

    Design: Laurie Douglas Graphic Design, New York, http://www.lauriedouglas.com

    For all correspondence relating to this report: sgp.info@undp.org

    2013 United Nations Development Programme

    Produced by the United Nations Development Programme




    The United Nations Foundation (UNF) was estab-lished by Ted Turner in January 1998 to support the UN and its causes with special emphasis on population and women, the environment, childrens health and selected humanitarian concerns.

    A key element of the Foundations original envi-ronment strategy was to support the conservation of protected areas designated by the World Heritage Convention (UNESCO, 1972) for their global biodiversity signifi cance. Nominated by the nations in which they are located, World Heritage sites are places of outstanding universal valuefor whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to cooperate.

    Though they have defi ned boundaries, World Heritage sites are very much a part of the communities in which they are located. As such, they provide rich opportunities to develop and promote effective models for integrating compatible human uses with the protection of ecosystem functions and biodiversity.

    World Heritage sites have the potential to show-case the effective integration of sustainable local development with conservation by demonstrat-ing how conservation can contribute to local and national economic development, culture, and pride. With this vision and aim in mind, the UN Foundation joined forces over a decade ago with the GEF Small Grants Programme imple-mented by UNDP to develop and implement an innovative and highly decentralized programme the Community Management of Protected Areas Conservation (COMPACT) initiative.

    Since 2000, the COMPACT programme has been working with communities living in the vicinity of eight World Heritage Sites in Africa, Asia, Meso-America and the Caribbean. Through extensive on-the-ground experience

    and a participatory methodology that integrates an evidence-based approach, COMPACT has rigorously tested the claim that community-based initiatives can signifi cantly increase the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in globally signifi cant protected areas while also improving local livelihoods.

    The UN Foundation is pleased to note that the $6 million in catalytic fi nancing provided to the UNDP has helped leverage an investment in excess of $10 million from the GEF, as well as signifi cant levels of third party co-fi nancing generated by over 430 individual small grants disbursed to civil society partners in the fi eld. Through the support provided by UNF, the programme has facilitated extensive site level coordination of stakeholders, leading to the creation of Local Consultative Bodies and enhanced capacity for the decentralized management of World Heritage sites. Not least, through the many proposals developed by the communities themselves, COMPACT has also benefi tted the lives of thousands of poor people that rely on ecosystem services for their livelihoods and wellbeing.

    UNF is particularly delighted to see the rich body of lessons learned emerging from COMPACT these range from community engagement in the nomination of new sites, participatory planning methodologies, as well as monitoring and evaluation techniques together representing considerable potential for mainstreaming within the operations of the World Heritage Convention, as well as the safeguard of the planets biodiversity for future generations.

    Melinda KimbleSenior Vice-President, United Nations Foundation




    On the occasion of the 11th Conference of Parties for the Convention on Biological Diversity held in India in October 2012, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched its new framework The Future We Want: Biodiversity and Ecosystems Driving Sustainable Development for the period 2012-2020. The strategy refl ects a high level engagement by the UNDP to contribute to the challenge presented to national governments, the UN system, civil society and other major stakeholders to work together to achieve the Aichi CBD targets by the year 2020.

    Protected areas (PAs) are important tools for conservation of biological diversity and sustainable development. They are sources of material and non-material wealth, with important natural, social and cultural values. They provide vital biodiversity benefi ts and ecosystem services, as well as investment and employment opportunities for local communities and indigenous peoples. By securing ecosystem functions and services, as well as by storing carbon, protected areas may in the long term also help humans and wildlife adapt to the impacts of climate change.

    Under the 2012-2020 framework, a leading UNDP signature programme has been dedicated to unlocking the potential of protected areas, including indigenous and community conserved areas, to conserve biodiversity while contributing to sustainable development. Over the coming years, UNDP will work to ensure that terrestrial and marine protected areas are effectively managed, equitably governed, and sustainably fi nanced. UNDP will also strive to connect the agenda on protected area governance and rights-based approaches to conservation to the emerging post-2015 sustainable development goals as the future we want.

    By engaging with thousands of civil society organizations at the local level, the UNDP-implemented Global Environment Facility Small Grants Programme (SGP) has been working for over twelve years to develop a new model for the co-management and shared governance of protected areas. In partnership with the UN Foundation and UNESCO, SGP has focused its effort on eight iconic World Heritage sites to serve as international benchmarks on how protected areas may be better measured in terms of conservation effectiveness, governance and rights. Through the COMPACT country experiences presented in this volume, UNDP is proud to share its experience in supporting the Aichi 2020 targets, as well as fostering a closer coordination amongst UN agencies.

    Besides UNDPs important role in supporting governments to prepare the next generation of National Biodiversity Strategies and Actions Plans (NBSAPs), the continuing engagement with civil society organizations carried out by the SGP will help shape the agenda for protected areas over the coming decade. UNDP looks forward to expanding its work on shared governance of protected areas (identifi ed under Target 11 of the Aichi framework) by building on the experience of COMPACT in developing community-friendly tools and methodologies to enhance the effectiveness of protected areas as instruments for conservation, poverty reduction and community empowerment.

    Adriana DinuUNDP GEF Offi cer in Charge and Deputy Executive Coordinator




    Preface Melinda Kimble iii

    Forward Adriana Dinu iv

    Chapter 1 Designing a working model to engage local communities in the stewardship of World Heritage Sites 1 Terence Hay-Edie and Jessica Brown

    Chapter 2 Key planning frameworks for COMPACTs landscape and seascape approach 11 Leonel Requena and Philip Balderamos

    Chapter 3 COMPACT in the Sian Kaan landscape: Working with indigenous peoples and local communities in key thematic areas 25Julio Moure

    Chapter 4 Incorporating new methodologies and techniques into COMPACTs work at landscape level: The Mt. Kenya World Heritage Site 39 Fred Kihara, Nancy Chege and Gavin Hoch

    Chapter 5 Building capacity: Helping grantees develop and manage their projects in a demand-driven programme 57Agnes Esprit

    Chapter 6 Bringing communities into the management of protected areas: Experience from COMPACT Mt. Kilimanjaro 67 Nehemiah Murusuri and Victoria Nderumaki

    Chapter 7 COMPACT Madagascar: Conservation at the landscape scale across a mosaic of differ


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