engaging students, engaging instructors: fueling active learning through technology integration curt...
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Engaging Students, Engaging Instructors: Fueling Active Learning Through Technology IntegrationCurt Bonk, Indiana UniversityPresident, CourseShare.firstname.lastname@example.org://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonkhttp://CourseShare.com
Timeout!!!What do you do with technology today?________________________________________What about 10 years ago??? _______________________________________
Active Learning Principles1. Authentic/Raw Data2. Student Autonomy/Inquiry3. Relevant/Meaningful/Interests4. Link to Prior Knowledge5. Choice and Challenge6. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner7. Social Interaction and Dialogue8. Problem-Based & Student Gen Learning9. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives10. Collab, Negotiation, & Reflection
Technology Goals at Purdue1. Experience with wide variety of technology2. Instructional opportunity for diverse learners.3. Link field to class and discuss/dialogue.4. Inquiry, reflection, journals, personal sums.5. Scaffolded learning opportunities.6. Encourage to create artifacts with tech.7. Some electronic assignments and portfolios.8. Link students & faculty-telecommunications.(e.g., bulletin boards and online discussions)9. Interactive simulations.10. Informal e-mail.
Technology ToolsMBL--sensors, probes, microphones, motion detHand held Devices: Graphing calculators, palm pilots, NewtonsExploratory Simulationsphysics, chemistry, etc.Telecommunications & Interpers Exchanges: e.g., keypals, ask expert, cross-age mentoring.Assistance Technology: screen magnifiers, speech synthesizers and digitizers, voice recognition devices, touch screens, alternative computer keyboards, and headpointing devices Writing: post-it notes, outlining aids, semantic webbing tools, prompting tools, word processors, grammar checks.
More Technology ToolsCognitive Tools: graphing tools, spreadsheets, word processors, and databasesIntelligent Tutors: Geometry, Algebra, StatisticsDistance Learning: Web and videoconferencingClass Management: Gradebooks, track studentsPresentation/Integration: Smart lecturnsTesting: Essay grade, computer adaptive testingClassroom Assessment: Digital portfolios
Technology IdeasExperts via video/computer conferencingTeleconferencing talks to tchrs & expertsReflect on field & debate cases on the WebMake Web resources accessibleCollab with Students in other places/countriesHave students generate Web pages/pub workRepresent knowledge with graphing toolsVideoconference with colleaguesMake Web link suggestions
More Technology IdeasTake to lab for group collaboration.Take to computer lab for Web search.Take to an electronic conference.Put syllabus on the Web.Create a class computer conference.Require students sign up for a listserv.Use e-mail minute papers & e-mail admin.Have students do technology demos.
Asynchronous Possibilities1. Link to peers and mentors.2. Expand and link to alternative resources. 3. Involve in case-based reasoning.4. Connect students in field to the class.5. Provide e-mail assistance6. Bring experts to teach at any time.7. Provide exam preparation.8. Foster small group work.9. Engage in electronic discussions & writing.10. Structure electronic role play.
Are you ready?
To Cope with the Technology Explosion, We Need Instructor E-Learning Support!!!
Problems FacedAdministrative:Lack of admin vision.Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that they do not understand the time needed.Lack of system support. Little recognition that this is valuable.Rapacious U intellectual property policy.Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.Pedagogical:Difficulty in performing lab experiments online.Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.Time-related:More ideas than time to implement. Not enough time to correct online assign.People need sleep; Web spins forever.
Best of Online Pedagogical Strategies
Changing Role of the TeacherThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)From oracle to guide and resource providerFrom providers of answers to expert questionersFrom solitary teacher to member of teamFrom total control of teaching environment to sharing as a fellow studentFrom provider of content to designer of learning experiences.
Little or no feedback givenAlways authoritativeKept narrow focus of what was relevantCreated tangential discussionsOnly used ultimate deadlinesProvided regular qual/quant feedbackParticipated as peerAllowed perspective sharingTied discussion to grades, other assessments.Used incremental deadlinesPoor InstructorsGood InstructorsDennens Research on Nine Online Courses (sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling)
What do we need???FRAMEWORKS!
1. Models of Technology in Teaching and Learning(Dennen, 1999, Bonk et al., 2001)Enhancing the Curriculumcomputers for extra activities: drill and practice CDExtending the Curriculumtranscend the classroom with cross-cultural collaboration, expert feedback, virtual field trips and online collaborative teams.Transforming the Curriculumallowing learners to construct knowledge bases and resources from multiple dynamic resources regardless of physical location or time.
2. Reflect on Extent of Integration:The Web Integration Continuum(Bonk et al., 2000)Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the WebLevel 2: Web Resource for Student ExplorationLevel 3: Publish Student-Gen Web ResourcesLevel 4: Course Resources on the WebLevel 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others======================================Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & GradedLevel 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond ClassLevel 8: Entire Web Course for Resident StudentsLevel 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite StudentsLevel 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative
3. Reflect on Interactions:Matrix of Web Interactions(Cummings, Bonk, & Jacobs, 2002)Instructor to Student: syllabus, notes, feedback to Instructor: Course resources, syllabi, notes to Practitioner: Tutorials, articles, listservsStudent to Student: Intros, sample work, debates to Instructor: Voting, tests, papers, evals. to Practitioner: Web links, resumesPractitioner to Student: Internships, jobs, fieldtrips to Instructor: Opinion surveys, fdbk, listservs to Practitioner: Forums, listservs
4. Four Key Hats of Instructors:Technicaldo students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work?ManagerialDo students understand the assignments and course structure?PedagogicalHow are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking?SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed?Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
5. Feedback/Praise: "Wow, I'm impressed...," "That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure you have considered...," "Thanks for responding to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone mention..."
6. Cognitive Task Structuring: "You know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required, you should now summarize the peer responses that you have received...," "How might the textbook authors have solved this case."
8. Push to Explore: "You might want to write to Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL on the Web that addresses this topic..."
How to Combine these Roles?
E-ModeratorRefers to online teaching and facilitation role. Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it means more than that. It is all roles combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to provide information, to question, to summarize, etc. (Collins & Berge, 1997; Gilly Salmon, 2000); see http://www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.
Other HatsWeaverlinking comments/threadsTutorindividualized attentionParticipantjoint learnerProvocateurstir the pot (& calm flames)Observerwatch ideas and events unfoldMentorpersonally apprentice studentsCommunity Organizerkeep system going
Still More HatsAssistantDevils advocateEditorExpertFilterFirefighterFacilitatorGardenerHelperLecturerMarketerMediatorPriestPromoter
Web Facilitation???Berge Collins AssociatesMauri Collins and Zane L. Bergehttp://www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml#mod
Facilitating Electronic DiscussionHave Students Initiate, Sign up for RolesProvide Guidelines and StructureWeave and Summarize WeeklyBe patient, prompt, and clearFoster Role Play, Debate, and InteractionAssign Due Dates, Times, and PointsConstantly Monitor, Converse not DictateAssign Buddies/Pals or Include Mentoring
There is a Problem
Were Handing out degrees in electronic page turning!!!To get the certificate, learners merely needed to read (i.e. click through) each screen of material
But How Avoid Shovelware???
This form of structure encourages teachers designing new products to simply shovel existing resources into on-line Web pages and discourages any deliberate or intentional design of learning strategy. (Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999)
How Bad Is It?Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the company is too slow in responding to technical problems with its course-management software have formed an independent users group to help one another and to press the company to improve.(Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Ed)
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