ENGAGING STUDENTS THROUGH THEIR EVERYDAY EXPERIENCES Eann Patterson

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ENGAGING STUDENTS THROUGH THEIR EVERYDAY EXPERIENCES Eann Patterson School of Engineering, University of Liverpool & College of Engineering, Michigan State University. Outline. Introduction Pilot study results Pedagogical discussion & justification Everyday Engineering Examples (E 3 ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>ENGAGING STUDENTS THROUGH THEIR EVERYDAY EXPERIENCES</p><p>Eann PattersonSchool of Engineering, University of Liverpool&amp;College of Engineering, Michigan State University</p></li><li><p>OutlineIntroductionPilot study resultsPedagogical discussion &amp; justification</p><p>Everyday Engineering Examples (E3)What is everyday for our students?</p><p>EngageAttracting &amp; holding student attention</p></li><li><p>For concepts illustrated with E3 Significantly more students rated their learning as high or significant than in the control class E3 overall value correlated very highly with contribution to understandingLearning independent of the level of difficulty</p><p>E3 enhance learningCampbell PB, Patterson EA, Busch Vishniac I, Kibler T, Integrating Applications in the Teaching of Fundamental Concepts, Proc. 2008 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, (AC 2008-499), 2008 </p></li><li><p>Poll A:Which of the following best describes you:I am flexible and openminded; I am happy to have a go at new things without preparation.I am careful and cautious; I investigate a new topic or process in depth before trying it.I like realistic, but flexible plans; I try things out by practicing to see if they work.I plan events to the last detail; I like to know the right answers before trying something new.</p></li><li><p>How do people learn?Active ExperimentationReflective ObservationAbstract ConceptualizationConcrete ExperienceKolb DA, Learning style inventory technical manual. McBer &amp; Co., Boston, MA, 1976.1. flexible &amp; openminded3. realistic &amp; flexible4. plan to the last detail2. careful &amp; cautious</p></li><li><p>Attention grabberseducational role of faculty is not to impart knowledge; but to design learning environments that support knowledge acquisition [for all students]Adams RS, Felder RM, Reframing professional development: A systems approach to preparing engineering educators to educate tomorrows engineers. J. Engineering Education, 97(3):230-240, 2008</p></li><li><p>Cycling through learning modesHoney P, Mumford A. The Manual of Learning Styles 3rd Ed. Maidenhead, 1992</p></li><li><p>Attention grabbersKnowledge is experience, everything else is just information Albert Einstein</p></li><li><p>Common experiencesModern students have limited lab or industry experience</p><p>Our task is to find their common experiences &amp; use them to illustrate engineering principles</p><p>Everyday Engineering Examples provide a pool of common experiences</p></li><li><p>Cycling through learning modesHoney P, Mumford A. The Manual of Learning Styles 3rd Ed. Maidenhead, 1992EVERYDAY EXPERIENCEINSTRUCTOR LEADINSTRUCTOR/STUDENT ACTIVITYSTUDENT LEAD</p></li><li><p>Poll BHow old are you?</p><p>Under 35 36 45 46 55 Over 55</p></li><li><p>Things have changedWhen you were at high school the following did not exist:</p><p>Under 35Flashdrive (2000) q36 45Digital MP3 player (1997) plus all above q46 55Digital camera (1988), Graphing Calculator (1985) plus all aboveOver 55Internet (1983), Spreadsheet (1978), Solar-powered calculator (1978) plus all above</p></li><li><p>Anthropologically significantThe cultural gap between student and professor is large enough to have warranted an anthropological study:Nathan R, My freshman year: What a professor learned by becoming a student, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 2005 </p></li><li><p>Everyday Engineering ExamplesFamiliar real-life objects &amp; situations used to illustrate engineering principles </p><p>Level of idealization minimized to retain relevance and context </p></li><li><p>Poll C - Who said?everything should be made as simple as possible but not simpler</p><p>Niels BohrAlbert EinsteinWilliam of OccamRichard Feynman</p></li><li><p>Poll C - Who said?everything should be made as simple as possible but not simplerAlbert EinsteinOckhams razor: entities are not to be multiplied without necessity William of Ockham</p></li><li><p>Everyday Engineering ExamplesFamiliar real-life objects &amp; situations used to illustrate engineering principles </p><p>Level of idealization minimized to retain relevance and context </p><p>Choice of examples is critical Transparent connection to students experience Basis for straightforward implementation of engineering principles </p></li><li><p>Essential attribute #1Examples need to be familiar to all students Using sailboats to teach vectors might work in Maine but not in the Midwest.Walnuts falling from trees to illustrate kinematics of particles might work on a tree-lined rural campus but is irrelevant for an urban, inner city university.</p><p>Students may panic about the context and fail to listen1</p><p>1. Rosser SV, Gender issues in teaching science, in S. Rose. &amp; B. Brown (eds.), Report on the 2003 Workshop on Gender Issues in the Sciences, pp. 28-37, 2004. </p></li><li><p>Essential attribute #2Pose questions with useful or interesting answers Absence of a useful or interesting end-point creates tedious intellectual exercisesPerceived usefulness of learning influences students motivation1</p><p>Fruitful applications Art Heinricher, Dean of Undergraduate Studies and Professor of Mathematical Sciences, WPI.1. Wigfield A, Eccles JS, Expectancy-value theory of motivation, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1): 68-81, 2000 </p></li><li><p>E3 Exemplar #1WINNIE THE POOH &amp; PIGLETFor Freshman PhysicsTopic: BuoyancyActivity:Show video &amp; discuss buoyancy http://www.archive.org/details/PoohBuoyancy Have students calculate number of helium balloons needed to lift them in a lawn chairWhen they have answer show them http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWYtL7afsMQ&amp;NR=1 </p><p>Chad Young of Nicholls State University on www.EngageEngineering.org</p></li><li><p>E3 Exemplar #2FOOD CARTONS/BOXESFor Freshman Engineering GraphicsTopic: Pattern DevelopmentActivity:Distribute old boxes to studentsHave students estimate volume &amp; surface areaDisassemble boxes measure area of card usedDiscuss how box manufacturers minimize waste.Sheryl Sorby of Michigan Tech. University on www.EngageEngineering.org</p></li><li><p>Funded by the National Science Foundation. Opinions expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the funder.</p></li><li><p>Poll D Who said?It's very hard, so I try and make it as engaging as it can be. But you have to face the fact that, no matter how good it is, you can only hold their attention for a little while.</p><p>Eric Clapton</p><p>Bill Clinton</p><p>Richard Feynman</p><p>Charles Vest</p></li><li><p>Poll D Who said?It's very hard, so I try and make it as engaging as it can be. But you have to face the fact that, no matter how good it is, you can only hold their attention for a little while.</p><p>Eric Clapton</p><p>Bill Clinton</p><p>Richard Feynman</p><p>Charles Vest</p></li><li><p>Poll D:It's very hard, so I try and make it as engaging as it can be. But you have to face the fact that, no matter how good it is, you can only hold their attention for a little while.Eric Clapton (September 4th, 2005 San Diego Union Tribune)</p></li><li><p>Lesson plansEngage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluatenot original: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study in the 1980s from work by Atkin and Karplus1</p><p>Disease of the modern age: continuous partial attention 2Short pieces &amp; may need to re-engage at each step</p><p>Designed to dovetail into existing course plans1. Atkin JM, Karplus R, Discovery or invention? Science Teacher 29(5): 45, 19622. Friedman TL, Hot, Flat and Crowded Why we need a green revolution and how it can renew America, Farrar, Straus &amp; Giroux, New York, 2008</p></li><li><p>5Es (from OED) Engage to attract &amp; hold fast [the students attention]</p><p>Explore to look into closely, scrutinize, to pry into [the topic of the lesson]</p><p>Explain to unfold, to make plain or intelligible [the principle underpinning the topic]</p><p>Elaborate to work out in detail [an exemplar employing the principle]</p><p>Evaluate to reckon up, ascertain the amount of [knowledge &amp; understanding acquired by the students] Little W, Fowler HW, Coulson J, Onions CT, The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Guild Publishing, London, 1983 </p></li><li><p>Sophomore SolidsELEMENTARY STRESS SYSTEMSStress &amp; strain in uniaxial bars iPod, femur, celloDisplacement plus deformation in control cables Bicycle gears, sailboat rudderStress in pressure vessel wall Bicycle pumpSTATICALLY INDETERMINATE PROBLEMSCompatibility &amp; equilibrium iPod, dinosaur displayTORSIONStress &amp; strain due to applied torque Bottle closuresBEAM BENDINGBending moments &amp; shear stress Skateboarder, unicyclist on plankSTRAIN ENERGYConservation of Energy Slingshot, bungee jumperHelical springs Bicycle suspension, pogo stickMETHOD OF SUPERPOSITIONEccentric loading Basketball goalThermal stress &amp; statically indeterminacy Rail tracks, jewellery pendantTWO-DIMENSIONAL STRESS SYSTEMSMohrs circle of stress SausagesCombined bending and torsion Wind-up clock, motor</p></li><li><p>EngageTake your iPod into class and dangle it by the earphone cable. Cut open the cable on an old set of earphones to expose cable and insulation. Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluate</p></li><li><p>ExplorePass around class lengths of copper wire and lengths of empty hollow insulation and invite students to stretch them. Discuss relative extensions and stiffness. Someone will probably snap one so talk about ultimate tensile stress. Be sure have to enough lengths that every student has at least one to play with while you are talking. Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluate</p></li><li><p>ExplainWork through the example below:An iPod, with a mass of 30 grams is dangled from its earplug cable. (a)Assuming that the copper wire of diameter 0.40mm inside the cable carries the entire load, evaluate the stress in the wire due to the weight of the iPod.(b) If the wire in (a) is 1.50m long, by how much will it stretch?(c) Assuming that the plastic insulation, which fits snugly over the wire and has an external diameter of 1mm, carries the entire load, evaluate the stress in the insulation due to the weight of iPoD.(d) If the insulation is made from uPVC for in the circumstances described in (c) calculate the extension of the insulation Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluate</p></li><li><p>ElaborateIn practice the load will be borne by the wire and insulation together, discuss how this will influence the extension of both of them. The copper and plastic are bound together and must extend by the same amount, i.e. wire = insulation. Consequently the wire will extend less and the insulation extend more; causing more tension in the insulation than calculated and less tension in the wire.Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluate</p></li><li><p>EvaluateInvite the students to undertake the following example: (a) Estimate the stress in your femur when standing still and upright with your weight distributed evenly on both feet.(b) Repeat for an adult African elephant and for an adult mouse. Only rough estimates of the bone dimensions and mass are necessary.(c)Assuming that the strength of bone in humans, elephants and mice is approximately equal, discuss the relative susceptibility to fractures.Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate &amp; Evaluate</p></li><li><p>E3 Exemplar #4BALLOONSFor Sophomore Thermodynamics Topic: Entropy Activity:Ask students to blow up balloons &amp; place them in a tidy pile in a corner of the room. You wont get a tidy pile! Ask students to discuss in pairs how the pile of balloons is analogous to heat from the gas stove or barbeque. Energy will always disperse unless it is constrained from doing so. Our most common experience of this dispersion is heat transfer as in the case of the gas stove or barbeque. The measure of energy dispersion is entropy. </p></li><li><p>E3 Exemplar #5VIBRATING RULERFor Junior Dynamics Topic: Free and Forced VibrationActivity:Clamp one end on the bench and flick the free end of the ruler so that it vibrates. Slide it onto the bench so that the pitch of the noise changes the frequency will go up. Show the students how to equate kinetic and strain energy to find the natural frequency.Ask students to repeat the analysis for a whip aerial with a ball on the tip.</p></li><li><p>E3 Exemplar #6BALSA WOOD PLANESFor Sophomore Fluids Topic: TurbomachinesActivity:Invite students to assemble and fly planes.Ask students to draw a velocity diagram for an element of the propeller blade. Discuss pitch angle and local angle of attack.Explain about thrust coefficients and advance ratiosDiscuss how pumps are characterized</p></li><li><p>E3 enhance learningFor concepts illustrated with E3 Significantly more students rated their learning as high or significant than in the control class E3 overall value correlated very highly with contribution to understandingLearning not tied to level of difficulty</p><p>Teaching effectiveness rated significantly higher compared to control classesCampbell PB, Patterson EA, Busch Vishniac I, Kibler T, Integrating Applications in the Teaching of Fundamental Concepts, Proc. 2008 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, (AC 2008-499), 2008 </p></li><li><p>Scotts experienceDr Scott Kiefer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State UniversityTalking about his experience using an Everyday Engineering Example in ME222:Mechanics of Solids</p></li><li><p>Take aways / ConclusionsExploit the learning cycle via everyday experiencesE3 attributes:Familiar to all studentsUseful / interesting (to support motivation)Resonant with students using appropriate context5E lesson plans: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, EvaluateDesigned to dovetail into existing course plans</p></li><li><p>That is what learning is. You suddenly understand something you've understood all your life, but in a new way. Doris Lessing, Nobel Laureate for Literature</p><p>*Holding Slide</p><p>*******************EANN TALKING OVER SOME SORT OF DEMO OF WEBSITE*******EANN TO READ QUOTE WITH PICTURE OF DORIS LESSING ON SCREEN*</p></li></ul>

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