engineer's quick reference guide

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  • Engineers quick reference guide FOR GROUND INVESTIGATION

    www.rsk.co.uk

  • 02 STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE

    STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE

    Example standards and codes of practice

    BS 5930:2015 Code of practice for ground investigations

    BS 10175:2011 Investigation of potentially contaminated sites Code of practice

    UK Specification for Ground Investigation

    BS EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design (parts 1 and 2)

    BS EN ISO 14688 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identification and classification of soil (parts 1 and 2)

    BS EN ISO 14689 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identification and classification of rock (part 1)

    BS EN ISO 22475 Geotechnical investigation and testing Sampling methods and groundwater measurements (Parts 13)

    BS EN ISO 22476 Geotechnical investigation and testing Field testing (parts 112)

    BS EN ISO 22282 Geotechnical investigation and testing Geohydraulic testing (parts 16)

    BS 1377:1990 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes (parts 19)

    BS EN ISO 17892 Geotechnical investigation and testing Laboratory testing of soil (multiple parts)

    Note: Where standards have been amended (e.g. BS 10175:2011 + A1:2013), the amendment number and date have been omitted from the above list for clarity. Information obtained from British Standards BSI.

    This guide does not purport to replace or supersede any British Standard, and should not be relied upon as if it were one. RSK shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages or other liabilities whatsoever or however caused, arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to, or arising from the use of this guide.

    RSKS SERVICES

    n Site investigationn Drillingn Risk assessmentn Remediation options appraisaln Remedial designn Laboratory testingn Expert witnessn Due diligencen Waste managementn Air and noise qualityn Earthworks modellingn Civil and structural engineering

  • Drilling rigs and investigation equipment

  • 04 DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Dando 2000

    Mass (unladen) 1700 kg

    Working height 6.65 m

    Length during transit 7.5 m

    Height during transit 1.75 m

    Usual delivery method

    Towed by 4WD vehicle

    Working space requirements

    Preferably 10 3 m

    Dando 2500

    Mass (unladen) 1995 kg

    Working height 6.83 m

    Length during transit 8.45 m

    Height during transit 1.8 m

    Usual delivery method

    Towed by 4WD vehicle

    Working space requirements

    Preferably 10 x 3 m

    CABLE PERCUSSION DRILLING RIGS

    Cable percussion drilling

    n Suitable for drilling soil and weak rock

    n Able to penetrate most rocks only short distances

    n Borehole depths of up to 90 m achievable in suitable ground (30 m for limited-access rig)

  • 05DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Dando 3000

    Mass (unladen) 1850 kg

    Working height 6.55 m

    Length during transit 8.5 m

    Height during transit 1.88 m

    Usual delivery method

    Towed by 4WD vehicle

    Working space requirements

    Preferably 10m x 3m

    Limited-access (cut down) rig

    Note: This rig is electrically operated by a portable generator and uses a 5-kVA, 440-V supply.

    Working height2.2 (min.) to 4.5 m (max.)

    Usual delivery method

    4WD towed trailer

    Working space requirements

    2 x 6 m (max.)

    CABLE PERCUSSION DRILLING RIGS

    Borehole diameter

    n 150 mm, 200 mm, 250 mm or 300 mm (for full-sized rigs)

    n 150 mm and 200 mm (for limited-access rigs)

  • 06 DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Comacchio 200 series

    Maximum depth (in suitable ground)

    60 m

    Mass (unladen) 24002700 kg

    Working height 4.5 m

    Length during transit 4.5 m

    Height during transit 2.1 m

    Usual delivery method

    4WD towed trailer

    Comacchio 300 series

    Maximum depth (in suitable ground)

    60 m

    Mass (unladen) 3000 kg

    Working height 4.5 m

    Length during transit 4.5 m

    Height during transit 2.1 m

    Usual delivery method

    4WD towed trailer

    ROTARY DRILLING RIGS

    n Suitable for forming boreholes through soil and rock

    n Drilling techniques include rotary coring, rotary percussive (open hole) drilling, dynamic sampling and flight augering

    n All rigs MUST include a safety cage around the rotating drill string to prevent personnel access to rotating parts

  • 07DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Comacchio 400 series

    Maximum depth (in suitable ground)

    120 m

    Mass (unladen) 6000 kg

    Working height 7.4 m

    Length during transit 6.1 m

    Height during transit 2.5 m

    Usual delivery method

    Rigid lorry

    Comacchio 600 series

    Maximum depth (in suitable ground)

    200 m

    Mass (unladen) 800010,000 kg

    Working height 8.0 m

    Length during transit 5.34/7.33 m

    Height during transit 2.5/3.0 m

    Usual delivery method

    Rigid or articulated lorry (low loader)

    ROTARY DRILLING RIGS

    n Maximum borehole diameter is dependent on rig type, drilling method, ground conditions and depth

    n The 200 and 300 series models are typically suitable for forming holes up to 120150 mm diameter

    n The 400 and 600 series rigs are typically suitable for forming holes up to 150300 mm diameter

    n The 400 and 600 series rigs are also suitable for rotary wireline coring to depths of up to 250 m

  • 08 DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Archway Dart

    Mass (unladen) 960 kg

    Working height 2.4 m*

    Length during transit 2.36 m

    Height during transit 1.27 m

    Usual delivery method

    4WD towed trailer

    *Drill rods can be extended above this

    Dando Terrier

    Mass (unladen) 1126 kg

    Working height 2.85 m*

    Length during transit 2.7 m

    Height during transit 1.48 m

    Usual delivery method

    4WD towed trailer

    *Drill rods can be extended above this

    TRACKED DYNAMIC (WINDOW AND WINDOWLESS) SAMPLING RIGS

    n Suitable for forming small diameter boreholes (~100 mm diameter) in most soil, excluding dense sand or gravel, or coarser soil

    n The tracked rigs can undertake standard penetration tests (SPT) and dynamic probing.

  • 09DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    Hand window sampler

    n The sample tubes are driven into the ground using a jackhammer

    n The hammer is usually powered by a hydraulic power pack (hydraulic breaker)

    n The sample tubes are then removed from the ground by a pair of hydraulic rams operated from the same power pack

    Trial pitting with mechanical excavator

    n The depths achievable depend on the excavation technique, plant used and ground conditions

    n Typical dimensions for JCB 3CX: height: ~3.0 m (cab), ~3.8 m (backhoe arm)*

    Width 2.35 m*

    Length 5.6 m

    Mass 77008400 kg

    *Dimensions are when backhoe and front bucket are in stowed positions

    HAND-HELD DYNAMIC (WINDOW AND WINDOWLESS) SAMPLING AND TRIAL PITTING

  • 10 DRILLING RIGS AND INVESTIGATION EQUIPMENT

    COMMON ROTARY CORING SYSTEMSC

    om

    par

    iso

    n o

    f co

    mm

    on

    ro

    tary

    co

    rin

    g s

    yste

    ms

    Barr

    elH

    ole

    di

    amet

    er (m

    m)

    Core

    OD

    st

    anda

    rd (m

    m)

    Core

    OD

    lin

    ered

    (mm

    )Ca

    sing

    Type

    OD

    (mm

    )ID

    (mm

    )W

    eigh

    t (k

    g)

    T2-7

    676

    .361

    .758

    .7H

    W11

    410

    225

    T2-8

    686

    .371

    .768

    .710

    1 m

    etric

    9889

    16

    HW

    F99

    .276

    .273

    .011

    6 m

    etric

    113

    104

    20

    T6-H

    99.2

    79.0

    76.0

    116

    met

    ric11

    310

    420

    HW

    AF

    99.5

    70.9

    68.7

    116

    met

    ric11

    310

    420

    T6-1

    0110

    1.3

    79.0

    76.0

    116

    met

    ric11

    310

    420

    T2-1

    0110

    1.3

    83.7

    80.7

    116

    met

    ric11

    310

    420

    412

    107.

    274

    .473

    .0PW

    139

    127

    39

    T6-1

    1611

    6.3

    93.0

    90.0

    PW13

    912

    739

    PWF

    120.

    692

    .187

    .0PW

    139

    127

    39

    T6-1

    3113

    1.0

    108.

    010

    5.0

    PW13

    912

    739

    SWF

    146.

    011

    2.8

    107.

    0SW

    168

    151

    47

    Geo

    bore

    -S14

    6.0

    n/a

    102.

    0G

    eobo

    re-S

    146

    n/a

    35

    Wei

    ghts

    are

    app

    roxi

    mat

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  • Soil sampling and in situ testing

  • 12 SOIL SAMPLING AND IN SITU TESTING

    SAMPLING CATEGORIES AND CLASSES(From BS EN 22475-1 and BS EN 1997-2)

    Category Definitions

    A

    Samples of quality class 1 or 2 can only be obtained by using category A sampling methods. The intention is to obtain samples in which no or only slight disturbance of the soil structure has occurred during the sampling procedure or in handling of the samples. The water content and the void ratio of the soil correspond to that in situ. No change in constituents or in the chemical composition of the soil has occurred. Certain unforeseen circumstances, such as varying of geological strata, can lead to lower sample quality

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