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Page 1: English Grammar: Advanced grammar and vocabulary quiz …
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NOTICEOFRIGHTS

Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyform,electronicorbyanyothermeans,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenconsentfromtheauthor.

Copyright©2019JacquelineMelvin

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Introduction

Ifyouarelookingforabookwithadifferencethenthisisthebookforyou.

AdvancedEnglishgrammarandvocabularyquizbookhasbeendevisedforEFLstudentswhohavereachedupperintermediatetoadvancedlevelofEnglish.

Thefirstpartofthebookisdesignedtotestyourknowledgeonmultiplemeaningwordsandwordsthatcauseconfusion.

Grammarstructuresarealsoincludedinquizformandclearexplanationscanbefoundintheanswerkeythatfollowseachexercise.

What’smore,thereisalsoa‘testyourselfonprepositions’sectionaswellasexercisesonconnectors.Modalauxiliaryverbsarealsodealtwithalongwithotherimportantgrammarpoints.Aphrasalverbsquizcompletesthebook.

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Tableofcontents

INTRODUCTION

MULTIPLEMEANINGWORDSEXERCISEONE

MULTIPLEMEANINGWORDSEXERCISETWO

MULTIPLEMEANINGWORDSEXERCISETHREE

MULTIPLEMEANINGWORDSEXERCISEFOUR

EXERCISEONE-ANSWERS

EXERCISETWO-ANSWERS

EXERCISETHREE-ANSWERS

EXERCISEFOUR-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISEONE

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISEONE-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISETWO

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CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISETWO-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISETHREE

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISETHREE-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISEFOUR

CONFUSINGWORDSEXERCISEFOUR-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISEFIVE

EXERCISEFIVE-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISESIX

EXERCISESIX-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISESEVEN

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISESEVEN-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISEEIGHT

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISEEIGHT-ANSWERS

CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISENINE

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CONFUSINGWORDS-EXERCISENINE

GRAMMARTESTONE

INDEFINITEPRONOUNS

GRAMMARTESTONE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWO

SINGULARORPLURAL

GRAMMARTESTTWOANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTHREE

COLLOCATIONSONE

GRAMMARTESTTHREE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTFOUR

VERBCOLLOCATIONSTWO

GRAMMARTESTFOUR-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTFIVE

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VERBCOLLOCATIONSTHREE

GRAMMARTESTFIVE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTSIX

COLLOCATIONSFOUR

GRAMMARTESTSIX-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTSEVEN

VERBCOLLOCATIONSFIVE

GRAMMARTESTSEVEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTEIGHT

COLLOCATIONSSIX

GRAMMARTESTEIGHT-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTNINE

COLLOCATIONSSEVEN

GRAMMARTESTNINE-ANSWERS

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GRAMMARTESTTEN

COLLOCATIONSEIGHT

GRAMMARTESTTEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTELEVEN

MODALAUXILIARYVERBSSEMIMODALS

GRAMMARTESTELEVEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWELVE

MODALAUXILIARYVERBS-PRESENTANDPASTONE

GRAMMARTESTTWELVE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTHIRTEEN

MODALAUXILIARYVERBS-PRESENTANDPASTTWO

GRAMMARTESTTHIRTEEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTFOURTEEN

WILLFORDEDUCTIONAND/ORPREDICTION

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GRAMMARTESTFOURTEEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTFIFTEEN

CONDITIONALS

GRAMMARTESTFIFTEEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTSIXTEEN

PASSIVESTRUCTURESONE

GRAMMARTESTSIXTEEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTSEVENTEEN

PASSIVESTRUCTURESTWO

GRAMMARTESTSEVENTEEN-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTEIGHTEEN

PASTTENSESONE

GRAMMARTESTEIGHTEEN-ANSWERS

PASTTENSESONE

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GRAMMARTESTNINETEEN

PASTTENSESTWO

GRAMMARTESTNINETEEN-ANSWERS

PASTTENSESTWO

GRAMMARTESTTWENTY

PERFECTIVEASPECT

GRAMMARTESTTWENTY-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYONE

REPORTEDSPEECH

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYONE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYTWO

FUTUREASPECT

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYTWO-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYTHREE

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CONNECTORS/CONJUNCTIONSONE

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYTHREE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYFOUR

CONNECTORS/CONJUNCTIONSTWO

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYFOUR-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYFIVE

PREPOSITIONSONE

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYFIVE-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYSIX

PREPOSITIONSTWO

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYSIX-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYSEVEN

PREPOSITIONSTHREE

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYSEVEN-ANSWERS

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GRAMMARTESTTWENTYEIGHT

PREPOSITIONSFOUR

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYEIGHT-ANSWERS

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYNINE

PREPOSITIONSFIVE

GRAMMARTESTTWENTYNINE-ANSWERS

TESTTHIRTY-PHRASALVERBS

PHRASALVERBS

TESTTHIRTY-ANSWERS

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Multiplemeaningwordsexerciseone

Thereisonewordonlythatfitsthegapsinthefollowingsentences1-12.Whichwordisit?

1.We_____haven’tfoundaflatalthoughwe’vebeenlookingforweeks.

2.Wouldyoulike_____orsparklingwaterwithyourmeal?

3.Canyoustay_____whileIcutyourfringe?IfyoukeepmovingIwon’tbeabletocutitstraight.

4.“_____life”isagenreofpaintingwherelifeliterallystands_____inarrangeddisplaysofobjects.

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_____life

5.DoesJohn_____liveinManchesterorhashemoved?

6.Eventhoughsheworksveryhard,she_____findsthetimetohelpothers.

7.Hewokeupsuddenlywhenheheardanoiseinthe_____ofthenight.

8.“_____watersrundeep”isanidiomaticexpressionwhichbasicallymeans–sometimesquietpeoplewhodonotsaymuchhavethedeepestthoughtsandturnouttobemuchmoreinterestingthanpeoplewhomakealotofnoise,thatis,theoneswhotalknon-stop.

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9.EventhoughIsleepninehoursanight,I’m_____tiredinthemorning.

10.Myjobisnotverywellpaidbut_____Iloveitallthesame.

11.I_____rememberthatoldhouseweusedtoliveinaschildren.

12.Hersoniseightyearsoldandhe_____can’treadorwrite.

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Multiplemeaningwordsexercisetwo

Thereisonewordonlythatfitsthegapsinthefollowingsentences1-20.Whichwordisit?

1.I’mnotsurewhatIwanttostudywhenIgotouniversity.Ihaven’tmadeupmy_____yet.

2.Ihopeyoudon’t_____ifIopenthewindow.It’sabithotinhere.

3.Canyou_____myseatwhileIgotothebar?

4.“Where’sJohn?”“He’slyingontheflooroutofhis_____afterdrinkingabottleofwhiskey.”

5.“Menssanaincorporesano”,isaLatinphrase,whichmeans,“ahealthy_____inahealthybody”.

6.It’sallinyour______isanidiomthatmeansthatsomethingisafigmentofyourimagination.

7.UriGellerwasfamousbecausehehadtheabilitytobendmetalobjectswithhis_____.

8.SorryIdidn’tphoneyoubutitcompletelyslippedmy_____.

9.I’vegotsomuchonmy______thesedaysthat*Idon’tknowifIamcomingorgoing.

*InEnglish,thephrase“Idon’tknowifI’mcomingorgoing”,meansthatyouhavenoideawhatyouaredoing.

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going”,meansthatyouhavenoideawhatyouaredoing.

10.She’sgother_____setongettingthatjob.Ihopeshegetsitotherwiseitwillbeahugedisappointment.

11.”_____overmatter”isanEnglishphrasewhichmeansthatyoucanuseyourmentalabilitytoinfluenceyourreality.Anothersayingwiththesamemeaningis,“wherethereisawill,thereisaway.”

12.Janeisaveryindecisiveperson.She’salwayschangingher_____abouteverything.

13.“_____yourlanguage”means“becarefulhowyouspeak”.Aphrasewiththesamemeaningis,“watchyourtongue”.

14.IfyouhavetravelledontheLondonunderground,youwillhavereadthenoticetellingpassengersto“_____thegap”whengettingonoroffthesubway.Thisisbasicallyawarningthatmeansyouneedtobecarefulnotfalldownintothespacebetweenthetrainandtheplatform.

15.LittleJohnnyalwaysfailshisexams.Thisismainlybecauseheletshis_____wander.He’sgotnoconcentrationwhatsoever.

16.Mynoseyneighbourisalwaysgossipingabouteveryone.Iwishshewouldjust_____herownbusinessinsteadofstickinghernoseineverybodyelse’slives.

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17.“Wouldyouliketeaorcoffee?”“Idon’t_____.I’llhavewhateveryouarehaving”.

18.Sincemyhusbandretired,he’sbeenboredoutofhis_____.Heisnotusedtohavingsomuchfreetime.

19.Shealwaysspeaksher_____.Shedoesn’tminceherwords.Shereallyshouldcounttotenbeforesheopenshermouthasonedayit’sgoingtogetherintotrouble.

20.Ican’tstopthinkingaboutmyexhusband.I’mgoingtohavetotrytogethimoutofmy_____.It’snoteasythoughafterthirtyyearsofmarriage.

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Multiplemeaningwordsexercisethree

Thereisonewordonlythatfitsthegapsinthefollowingsentences1-10.Whichwordisit?Wherethewordisaverb,youmayhavetousethepasttense.

1.Excuseme!Whatdoesthisword_____?

2.He’sa_____man.Heneverspendsanymoney.

3.IsaywhatI_____andI_____whatIsay.

4.I’msosorry.Ididn’t_____tohurtyou.Pleaseforgiveme.

5.I_____tobuybreadonthewayhomefromworkbutIcompletelyforgot.

6.Janehasn’tarrivedyet.Shewas_____tobeherehalfanhourago.Iwonderwhereshecanbe.

7.You’re_____toswitchoffyourmobilephonesandmodemsbeforegoingtobed.Itisn’tgoodforyoutoleavethemonduringthenight.

8.“Idon’tthinkweare_____tobetogether,”saidSandratoherboyfriend.“Weare*asdifferentaschalkandcheese.”

*Asdifferentaschalkandcheese=tobecompletelydifferentineveryway.

9.“Whatareyoudoinghere,”saidMrsRedfordtoher

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9.“Whatareyoudoinghere,”saidMrsRedfordtohersonassheenteredthehouse.“You’re_____tobeatschool.”

10.Theoldsaying“what’s_____tobe,willbe,”basicallymeansthatthereisnoescapefromdestiny.

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Multiplemeaningwordsexercisefour

Thereisonewordonlythatfitsthegapsinthefollowingsentences1-20.Whichwordisit?

1.“Okay,_____taken,”hesaid.(Thishasthesamemeaningas“okay,Iunderstand/Igetit.)

2.“Don’t_____atpeople,”saidMrsHarristoherson.“It’sveryrude.”

3.Attheendofacompanymeeting:“Let’sjustgooverthemain_____beforewe*callitaday,”saidthemanager.

4.Wehaveupgradedoursoftwaretoversionfour_____five(4.5).

5.The_____hasbrokenoffmypencil.DoyouhappentohaveasharpenersoIcansharpenit?

6.Can’tyoujustgettothe_____insteadofbeatingaboutthebush.

7.Whatyouaresayingiscompletelyirrelevanttothediscussionathand.It’sbesidethe_____.

8.Wellifyouwantmy_____ofview,Ithinkyoushouldscraptheidea.

9.LadislaoJoséBiroinventedtheball_____pen–alsoknownasthe‘biro’whichenteredproductionin1944.

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knownasthe‘biro’whichenteredproductionin1944.

10.I’mgoingtohavetomakea_____ofgettingupearlierinthemorning.IalwaysgetupatthelastmomentandendupnothavingthetimehavebreakfastbeforeIleaveforwork.

11.Anoldproverbtellsusthatthereisno_____incryingoverspiltmilk.What’sdoneisdoneandthere’snothingwecandotochangethesituation.

12.I’vereachedbreaking_____inmyjob.IfIdon’tleaveitIwillsoonlosemymind.

13.Thedetectivesneededsomefreshleadsto_____themintherightdirection.

14.Historywasnevermystrong_____whenIwasatschool.

15.Thatwasareallyvalid_____youmadeattoday’smeeting.We’lltakeitintoconsideration.

16.Thetwelve_____characterhasbecomethedefaultsizeindigitalwordprocessing.

17.Whenherhusband,whomsheloveddearly,lefther,shewasataveryvulnerable_____inherlife.

18.“Gene”means“asegmentofDNA”,locatedataparticular_____onachromosome.Thisiswhatdetermineshereditarycharacteristics.

19.Oneoftheseveralmeaningsof“singularity”isa

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19.Oneoftheseveralmeaningsof“singularity”isa_____whereallparallellinesmeet.

20.Thebankrobbersheldamemberofstaffatgun_____.

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Exerciseone-answers

1.Westillhaven’tfoundaflatalthoughwe’vebeenlookingforweeks.

2.Wouldyoulikestillorsparklingwaterwithyourmeal?

3.CanyoustaystillwhileIcutyourfringe?IfyoukeepmovingIwon’tbeabletocutitstraight.

4.“Stilllife”isagenreofpaintingwherelifeliterallystandsstillinarrangeddisplaysofobjects.

5.DoesJohnstillliveinManchesterorhashemoved?

6.Eventhoughsheworksveryhard,shestillfindsthetimetohelpothers.

7.Hewokeupsuddenlywhenheheardanoiseinthestillofthenight.

8.“Stillwatersrundeep”isanidiomaticexpressionwhichbasicallymeans–sometimesquietpeoplewhodonotsaymuchhavethedeepestthoughtsandturnouttobemuchmoreinterestingthanpeoplewhomakealotofnoise,thatis,theoneswhotalknon-stop.

9.EventhoughIsleepninehoursanight,I’mstilltiredinthemorning.

10.Myjobisnotverywellpaid*butstillIloveitallthesame.

11.Istillrememberthatoldhouseweusedtoliveinaschildren.

12.Hersoniseightyearsoldandhestillcan’treadorwrite.

‘Still’usedasanadjectivemeansthatsomethingorsomeoneismotionless/notmoving.

‘Still’asanadverbplacestheemphasisoncontinuity.

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Exercisetwo-answers

1.I’mnotsurewhatIwanttostudywhenIgotouniversity.Ihaven’tmadeupmymindyet.(Makeupone’smind=decide)

2.Ihopeyoudon’tmindifIopenthewindow.It’sabithotinhere.

3.CanyoumindmyseatwhileIgotothebar?(Canyoumindmyseat=canyoulookafterit,keepyoureyeonitforaperiodoftime)

4.“Where’sJohn?”“He’slyingontheflooroutofhismindafterdrinkingabottleofwhiskey.”(Tobeoutofyourmind=tobeonanotherplaneteitherduetotoomuchalcoholconsumptionordrugs.Itcanalsomean‘tobecrazy’)

5.“Menssanaincorporesano”,isaLatinphrase,whichmeans,“ahealthymindinahealthybody”.

6.It’sallinyourmindisanidiomthatmeansthatsomethingisafigmentofyourimagination.

7.UriGellerwasfamousbecausehehadtheabilitytobendmetalobjectswithhismind.

8.SorryIdidn’tphoneyoubutitcompletelyslippedmymind.(Ifsomethingslipsyourminditmeansyouforgetaboutit)

9.I’vegotsomuchonmymindthesedaysthat*Idon’tknowifIamcomingorgoing.(Tohavesomethingonyourmind=yourthoughtsarepreoccupiedwithsomething)

*InEnglish,thephrase“Idon’tknowifI’mcomingorgoing”,meansthatyouhavenoideawhatyouaredoing.

10.She’sgothermindsetongettingthatjob.Ihopeshegetsitotherwiseitwillbeahugedisappointment.(Tohaveone’smindsetonsomething=

11.“Mindovermatter”isanEnglishphrasewhichmeansthatyoucanuseyourmentalabilitytoinfluenceyourreality.Anothersayingwiththesamemeaningis,“wherethereisawill,thereisaway.”

12.Janeisaveryindecisiveperson.She’salwayschanginghermindabouteverything.(Tochangeone’smind=todecidenottodosomething

13.“Mindyourlanguage”means“becarefulhowyouspeak”.Aphrasewiththesamemeaningis,“watchyourtongue”.

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14.IfyouhavetravelledontheLondonunderground,youwillhavereadthenoticetellingpassengersto“mindthegap”whengettingonoroffthesubway.Thisisbasicallyawarningthatmeansyouneedtobecarefulnotfalldownintothespacebetweenthetrainandtheplatform.

15.LittleJohnnyalwaysfailshisexams.Thisismainlybecauseheletshismindwander.He’sgotnoconcentrationwhatsoever.

16.Mynoseyneighbourisalwaysgossipingabouteveryone.Iwishshewouldjustmindherownbusinessinsteadofstickinghernoseineverybodyelse’slives.

17.“Wouldyouliketeaorcoffee?”“Idon’tmind.I’llhavewhateveryouarehaving”.

18.Sincemyhusbandretired,he’sbeenboredoutofhismind.Heisnotusedtohavingsomuchfreetime.(Tobeboredoutofone’smind=tobesoboredthatyoufeelyoucouldbecomecrazy)

19.Shealwaysspeakshermind.Shedoesn’tminceherwords.Shereallyshouldcounttotenbeforesheopenshermouthasonedayit’sgoingtogetherintotrouble.

20.Ican’tstopthinkingaboutmyexhusband.I’mgoingtohavetotrytogethimoutofmymind.It’snoteasythoughafterthirtyyearsofmarriage.(Togetsomeoneorsomethingoutofyourmind=totrytoforget)

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Exercisethree-answers

1.Excuseme!Whatdoesthiswordmean?

2.He’sameanman.Heneverspendsanymoney.(Theadjective‘mean’=theoppositeofgenerous)

3.IsaywhatImeanandImeanwhatIsay.(This=IsaywhatIseriouslythinkandIamseriousaboutwhatIamsaying)

4.I’msosorry.Ididn’tmeantohurtyou.Pleaseforgiveme.(Tonotmeansomething=tonotdosomethingintentionally)

Thefollowingexamplesarethepasttenseoftheverbusedinnumbersoneandthree.

5.ImeanttobuybreadonthewayhomefromworkbutIcompletelyforgot.(ItwasmyplantobuybreadbutIforgot)

6.Janehasn’tarrivedyet.Shewasmeanttobeherehalfanhourago.Iwonderwhereshecanbe.(Shewasmeanttobehere=shewassupposedtobehere/itwasexpectedofhertobehere/meant+infinitive)

7.You’remeanttoswitchoffyourmobilephonesandmodemsbeforegoingtobed.Itisn’tgoodforyoutokeepthemonduringthenight.(Thishasasimilarmeaningto‘youshould’inthesenseof,it’sagoodidea,it’sasensiblethingtodo)

8.“Idon’tthinkwearemeanttobetogether,”saidSandratoherboyfriend.“Weare*asdifferentaschalkandcheese.”

*Asdifferentaschalkandcheese=tobecompletelydifferentineveryway.

9.“Whatareyoudoinghere,”saidMrsRedfordtohersonassheenteredthehouse.“You’remeanttobeatschool.”(Thesamemeaningasnumber6)

10.Theoldsaying“what’smeanttobe,willbe,”basicallymeansthatthereisnoescapefromdestiny.

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Exercisefour-answers

1.“Okay,pointtaken,”hesaid.Thishasthesamemeaningas“okay,Iunderstand/Igetit.”

2.“Don’tpointatpeople,”saidMrsHarristoherson.“It’sveryrude.”(Toindicatewithyourfinger)

3.Attheendofacompanymeeting:“Let’sjustgooverthemainpointsbeforewe*callitaday,”saidthemanager.

*Tocallitaday=tostopworkingfortheday.

4.Wehaveupgradedoursoftwaretoversionfourpointfive(4.5).

5.Thepointhasbrokenoffmypencil.DoyouhappentohaveasharpenersoIcansharpenit?

6.Can’tyoujustgettothepointinsteadof*beatingaboutthebush.

*‘Gettothepoint’hasthesamemeaningas‘don’tbeatabout/aroundthebush.’

7.Whatyouaresayingiscompletelyirrelevanttothediscussionathand.It’sbesidethepoint.

8.Wellifyouwantmypointofview,Ithinkyoushould*scraptheidea.(Mypointofview=myopinion)

*Toscrapanidea=tonotcontinuewithit/forgetaboutit/discardofit.

9.LadislaoJoséBiroinventedtheballpointpen–alsoknownasthe‘biro’whichenteredproductionin1944.

10.I’mgoingtohavetomakeapointofgettingupearlierinthemorning.IalwaysgetupatthelastmomentandendupnothavingthetimehavebreakfastbeforeIleaveforwork.(Makeapointofdoingsomething=makeaneffort)

11.Anoldproverbtellsusthatthereisnopointincryingoverspiltmilk.What’sdoneisdoneandthere’snothingwecandotochangethesituation.(‘Thereisnopointindoingsomething=itisawasteoftime)

12.I’vereachedbreakingpointinmyjob.IfIdon’tleaveitIwillsoonlosemymind.(‘Toreachbreakingpoint’=whenyoucan’ttakeanymoreofsomething)

13.Thedetectivesneededsomefreshleadstopointthemintherightdirection.(Topointthem=toindicatethem)

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14.HistorywasnevermystrongpointwhenIwasatschool.

15.Thatwasareallyvalidpointyoumadeattoday’smeeting.We’lltakeitintoconsideration.

16.Thetwelvepointcharacterhasbecomethedefaultsizeindigitalwordprocessing.

17.Whenherhusband,whomsheloveddearly,lefther,shewasataveryvulnerablepointinherlife.

18.“Gene”means“asegmentofDNA”,locatedataparticularpointonachromosome.Thisiswhatdetermineshereditarycharacteristics.

19.Oneoftheseveralmeaningsof“singularity”isapointwhereallparallellinesmeet.

20.Thebankrobbersheldamemberofstaffatgunpoint.

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Confusingwordsexerciseone

Choosethecorrectwordintheexercisethatfollows.Theanswerandexplanationscanbeaccessedintheanswersection.

1.Actuallyvs.currently

1.Weare_____hiringnewmanagerswhohaveavisionforthefuture.

2.“ThatboywhowaswithJanetyesterdaylookedreallylikeher.”“Well,_____he’shertwinbrother.That’swhy.Didn’tyouknow?”

3.“AreyoudoinganythingonSaturdaynight?”“Well_____,Iwasthinkingofgoingtothecinema.”

4.Weare_____relocatingourdistributioncentrefromEnglandtoIndia.Themoveisexpectedtosavethousandsonlabourcosts.

5.“Idon’treallylikeAlan.He’ssostandoffish.”“He’s_____areallydecentguyonceyougettoknowhim.”

2.Advicevs.advise

1.Mydentist_____metogetmywisdomteethextracted.

2.Ifyouwantmy_____,Ithinkyoushouldacceptthejob.Itwouldbeagreatopportunityforyou.

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job.Itwouldbeagreatopportunityforyou.

3.Anoldsayingtellsusnottogiveanyone_____unlessthepersonasksforit.

3.Affectvs.effect

1.Working18hoursadayhasseriously_____myhealth.

2.Physicalactivityhasaprotective_____againstcardiovasculardisease.

3.Mostmedicineshaveside_____.

4.Ourthoughts,feelingsandbehaviourcan_____ourhealth.

5.Ourthoughts,feelingsandbehaviourcanhavean_____onourhealth.

4.Affectivevs.effective

1.Thetreatmentwasnot_____soIwillhavetotrysomethingelse.

2.Bipolar,alsoknownasclinicaldepression,isan_____disorder.

3.Chocolateisknowntobean_____moodup-lifter.

4.Ifyouwanttoproducean_____essay,youmustfirstofallpickatopicyouwanttowriteaboutandthenoutlineyourthoughtsinalogicalsequenceofevents.

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outlineyourthoughtsinalogicalsequenceofevents.

5.Allreadyvs.already

1.I’veseenthatfilm_____.

2.“Areyou_____togo?”“Yesweare.”

3.She’s_____doneherhomeworksoshecangooutwithherfriends.

6.Alltogethervs.altogether

1.Let’ssing________.

2.________thisyearIhaveearned£30,000betweenmyfulltimejobandmyparttimeone.

7.Allwaysvs.always

1.Wetried_____possiblebutnothingseemstowork.

2.I_____getuplateonSundays.

3.Dogsaresuperiortomanin_____.

4.Thecustomercareserviceisheretoassistyouin_____possible.

5.I’m_____lateforwork.Itwon’tbelonguntilI’msackedifIdon’tstartgettingupearlier.

8.Anybodyvs.anybody

1.Ourjeanshavebeentailoredtofit_____,beitfat,thin,

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tallorshort.

2.Isthere_____inthebathroom?Thelight’sonbutnobodyanswerswhenIknockonthedoor.

3._____thatisfoundundergoesforensictesting.

9.Anymorevs.anymore

1.I’vebecomeavegetariansoIdon’teatmeat_____.

2.Idon’tbuyclothes_____becauseIdon’tneed_____clothes.I’vegotenoughclothestolastmethreelifetimes.

10.Anytimevs.anytime

1.Youcanvisitme_____youwant.

2.ThesedaysIamsobusythatIdon’thave_____toironmyclothes.

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Confusingwordsexerciseone-answers

1.Actuallyvs.currently

1.Wearecurrentlyhiringnewmanagerswhohaveavisionforthefuture.

2.“ThatboywhowaswithJanetyesterdaylookedreallylikeher.”“Wellactually,he’shertwinbrother.That’swhy.Didn’tyouknow?”

3.“AreyoudoinganythingonSaturdaynight?”“Wellactually,Iwasthinkingofgoingtothecinema.”

4.WearecurrentlyrelocatingourdistributioncentrefromEnglandtoIndia.Themoveisexpectedtosavethousandsonlabourcosts.

5.“Idon’treallylikeAlan.He’ssostandoffish.”“He’sactuallyareallydecentguyonceyougettoknowhim.”

Note

Actually=tobehonest/totellyouthetruth

Currently=inthisperiodoftime

2.Advicevs.advise

1.Pleaseadviseusassoonaspossibleshouldyouwishtocancelyourappointment.

2.Ifyouwantmyadvice,Ithinkyoushouldacceptthejob.Itwouldbeagreatopportunityforyou.

3.Anoldsayingtellsusnottogiveanyoneadviceunlessthepersonasksforit.

4.Thedoctoradvisedmetotakeplentyofrest.

Note

Advice=thenoun

Advise=theverb

3.Affectvs.effect

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1.Working18hoursadayhasseriouslyaffectedmyhealth.

2.Physicalactivityhasaprotectiveeffectagainstcardiovasculardisease.(Outcome)

3.Mostmedicineshavesideeffects.

4.Ourthoughts,feelingsandbehaviourcanaffectourhealth.

5.Ourthoughts,feelingsandbehaviourcanhaveaneffectonourhealth.

Note

Although"affect"and"effect"arebothnounsandverbs,"affect"isusedineverydayspeechmainlyasaverbwhile"effect"isusedmainlyasanoun.

"Affect"=toinfluence

"Effect"=tobetheoutcome

4.Affectivevs.effective

1.Thetreatmentwasnoteffective.Iwillhavetotrysomethingelse.

2.Bipolar,whichisalsoknownasclinicaldepression,isanaffectivedisorder.

3.Chocolateisknowntobeaneffectivemoodup-lifter.

4.Ifyouwanttoproduceaneffectiveessay,youmustfirstofallpickatopicyouwanttowriteaboutandthenoutlineyourthoughtsinalogicalorder.

Thesearetheadjectiveswhichderivefromthenounsandverbs"affect"and"effect".

5.Allreadyvs.already

1.I’veseenthatfilmalready.

2.“Areyouallreadytogo?”“Yesweare.”

3.She’salreadydoneherhomeworksoshecangooutwithherfriendsifshewants,saidMaggie’smothertoMaggie’sfather.

Note

"Allready"=completelyready/prepared."All"givesemphasistotheadjective"ready".

"Already"=anadverbwhichmeanspriortonoworpriortoaspecifiedtime.It

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"Already"=anadverbwhichmeanspriortonoworpriortoaspecifiedtime.Itcanalsodenotesurpriseatsomethingoccurringearlierthanexpected.E.g.“Areyougoingalready?Ithoughtyouweregoingtostayfordinner.”

6.Alltogethervs.altogether

1.Let’ssingalltogether.

2.AltogetherthisyearIhaveearned£30,000betweenmyfulltimejobandmyparttimeone.

Note

"Alltogether"=everyoneatthesametime

"Altogether"=intotal

7.Allwaysvs.always

1.Wetried1allwayspossiblebutnothingseemstowork.(Everymethod)

2.IalwaysgetuplateonSundays.

3.Dogsaresuperiortomanin2allways.(Ineveryaspect)

4.Thecustomercareserviceisheretoassistyouin2allwayspossible.

5.I’malwayslateforwork.Itwon’tbelonguntilI’msackedifIdon’tstartgettingupearlier.

Note

"Allways"=1everymethod/2ineveryaspect

"Always"=adverboffrequency=100%ofthetime.Italsomeans"forever".E.g.“Iwillalwaysloveyou.”(Iwillloveyouforever)

8.Anybodyvs.anybody

1.Ourjeanshavebeentailoredtofitanybody,beitfat,thin,tallorshort.

2.Isthereanybodyinthebathroom?Thelight’sonbutnobodyanswerswhenIknockonthedoor.

3.Anybodythatisfoundundergoesforensictesting.

Note

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Note

Whenwrittenastwowords,"any"isanundefinedpronoun/unspecificwhichreferstoanundefined/nonspecificnumberoramount."Any"modifiesthenounwhichfollowsit.Itsingularizesallphysicalbodiesatrandom.ItmeansorbodyAorbodyBorbodyCorbodyDetc.

"Anybody"asonewordisusedinquestionsandnegativesandissynonymouswith‘anyone’andindicatesanundefined/nonspecificrandomperson,orpersonA,B,C,Detc.

9.Anymorevs.anymore

1.I’vebecomeavegetariansoIdon’teatmeatanymore.

2.Idon’tbuyclothes1anymorebecauseIdon’tneed2anymoreclothes.I’vegotenoughclothestolastmethreelifetimes.

Note

"Anymore"asonewordisatemporaladverb.Temporaladverbsmodifytime."Anymore"hasthesamemeaningas"nolonger".Itisusedwithanegativeandreferstosomethinginthepastthatdoesn’texistnow.Inexamplenumber1,theadverb"anymore"modifiestheverb‘eat’.IatemeatinthepastbutnowIdon’t.Examplenumber2.1,isthesameasexample1andmeansthatinthepastIboughtclothesbutnowIdon’t.

Example2.2.When"anymore"isusedastwowords,"any"isamodifierof"more,"and"more"isareferencetosomethingelsethatfollowsconsistingofanounoranounphrase."Any"determinesanindefiniteamount/anondefinedquantityofsomethingwhenusedwithout"more".Whenusedwith"more"Itreferstoanadditionalundefinedquantityofsomething.

Wouldyoulikeanytea?(Anundefinedquantityoftea)

Wouldyoulikeanymoretea?(Anadditionalundefinedquantityoftea)

10.Anytimevs.anytime

1.Youcanvisitmeanytimeyouwant.

2.ThesedaysIamsobusythatIdon’thaveanytimetoironmyclothes.

Note

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"Anytime"writtenastwowords="any"asanundeterminedpronoun+thenoun"time".Itreferstoanundefinedquantityoftimeinthequestionandinthenegativeitrefersto"notime".E.g.Idon’thaveanytimetoironmyclothes=Ihavenotimetoironmyclothes.

"Anytime"writtenasoneword=anondefinedrandomtime.

Page 41: English Grammar: Advanced grammar and vocabulary quiz …

Confusingwordsexercisetwo

1.Anywayvs.anyway

1.IfIcanhelpyouin_____Iwill.

2.Mymumdidn’twantmetostudylawbutIstudiedit_____.

3.ThereisnoevidencetosuggestthatapersonwithanIQof170isin_____morelikelytoachieveagreaterimpactintheirfieldthanapersonwithanIQof130.

4.“Isthere_____totellwheneggshave*goneoff?”“Yes,puttheminabasinfulofcoldwaterandiftheyfloattothetopthey’restillfresh.Iftheysinktothebottom,they’vegoneoff.”

*Togooff=tonolongerbefreshforconsumption.

5.“I’msorryIcan’thelpyou.”“Don’tworry.Thanks_____.

6.WhatwayshouldIgotogettotherailwaystation?Youcango_____fromhere.Alltheroadsleadtothestation.

2.Besidevs.besides

1.Whatdoyoudoinyourfreetime_____playingtennis?

2.Whereisthecat?It’soverthere_____thedoor.

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2.Whereisthecat?It’soverthere_____thedoor.

3.Comparedtovs.comparedwith

1.Salesfell1.2%compared________lastyear.

2.Hecomparedthecolourofherlips_____aredrose.

4.Complimentvs.complement

1.Thecolourgreenreally_____youreyes.Youshouldweargreenmoreoften.

2.JohnandMaryreally_____eachother.She’squitealivelypersonwhereashe’sreallyquietandlaid-back.

3.Myboss_____meonhowwellImanagedtheproject.

4.Mybrother’sfriendisalwayspayingme_____.Lastnighthetoldmethatmyhairwasbeautiful.

5.Composedofvs.composedbyvs.comprise

1.Thecompanyis_____highlytrained,experiencedpeople.

2.AMinuetandTrioinGmajorwas_____Mozartwhenhewasjustfiveyearsold.Itwashisfirstdocumentedcomposition.

3.Atomsare_____threemainparts:protons,neutronsandelectrons.

4.Thecardiovascularsystem_____theheartandthe

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4.Thecardiovascularsystem_____theheartandthevascularnetwork.

5Thatwhich_____parts,isinneedofitspartsinordertoexist.

6.Scotland_____approximately5millionpeople.

6.Consistofvs.consistin

1.Theonlytruewisdom_____knowingthatyouknownothing.-Socrates

2.Ournewteam_____sixpeople.

3.Faith_____believingwhenitisbeyondthepowerofreasontobelieve.-Voltaire

4.Mynewjob_____dealingwithmembersofthepublic.

5.“Trueglory_____doingwhatdeservestobewritten,inwritingwhatdeservestoberead,andinsolivingastomaketheworldhappierandbetterforourlivinginit.”-PlinytheElder

6.'Thewholeartofgovernment_____theartofbeinghonest.'-ThomasJefferson

7.Ourlittletown_____asupermarket,abakery,afruitshop,abutcher’s,twolargeparks,apolicestationandapub.

8.Theexperienceofpersonalizedmarketing_____

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8.Theexperienceofpersonalizedmarketing_____reachingouttoyourclientbaseinawaythatcaterstoeachperson'sprofile.

9.Shehasaveryunhealthydietwhich_____fastfood,cocacola,chocolateandcakes.

7.Continualvs.continuous

1.Afterfivehoursof_____gameplayingontheinternet,theboycomplainedofaterribleheadache.

2.Hewhosleepsin_____noiseisawakenedbysilence.-WilliamDeanHowells

3.Sincewemovedintoournewhouseinthevicinityoftheairport,we’vebeensufferingfromlackofsleep.The_____noisefromtheplaneshascompletelydisruptedoursleeppattern.

4.The_____barkingofourneighbour’sdogis*drivingmeupthewall.

*Drive(someone)upthewall=causetobecomecrazy

8.Continuallyvs.continuously

1.Ithasbeenraining_____foroverthreedays.

2.Nowadaysitisbecomingmoreimportantforcompaniesto_____evolveiftheywishtoremaininnovative,competitiveandrelevant.

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9.Convincevs.persuade

1.Hefailedto_____thecourtofhisinnocence.

2.I’mtryingto_____mumtobuymeacarbutshewon’tlistentome.

3.Afterweeksoftryingto_____mumtobuymeacar,Ifinally_____herofthebenefits,suchasgivingheralifttowherevershewantstogo,seeingthatshecannotdrive.

4.I’vebeentryingto_____thebankmanagertogivemealoanbuttonoavail.

5.Theiradvertisementisintendedto_____consumerstopurchasetheirproduct.

6.She’stryingto_____herselfthatherboyfriendlovesheralthoughweallknowhedoesn’t.

7.Mywifeistryingto_____metobecomevegetarian.

8.Thewisemanmustbe_____beforehecanbe_____.

9.Fewarethosewhocan_____without_____whileabundantarethosewho,inorderto_____,must_____.

10.Deceitfulvs.deceptive

1.Thepictureonthatchocolatecakeboxisvery_____.Itshowsacakethicklycoveredinchocolatewheninrealityitonlyhasathinscrapingofchocolateonit.

2.Looksare_____.

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2.Looksare_____.

3._____advertisingoccurswhenareasonableconsumerismisledbyanadvertisingclaim.Thisisalsoknownas"misleading"advertising.

4.Sincetheonsetofinternet,_____websitesarebecomingmoreandmorefrequent.The_____peoplewhocreatesuchsites,areunscrupulousbeingswhowillstopatnothingtogetyoutopartwithyourhardearnedcash.

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Confusingwordsexercisetwo-answers

1.Anywayvs.anyway

1.IfIcanhelpyouinanywayIwill.

2.Mymumdidn’twantmetostudylawbutIstudieditanyway.

3.ThereisnoevidencetosuggestthatapersonwithanIQof170isinanywaymorelikelytoachieveagreaterimpactintheirfieldthanapersonwithanIQof130.

4.“Isthereanywaytotellwheneggshave*goneoff?”“Yes,puttheminabasinfulofcoldwaterandiftheysinktothetopthey’restillfresh.Iftheyfloattothetop,they’ve*goneoff.”

*Togooff=tonolongerbefreshforconsumption.

5.“I’msorryIcan’thelpyou.”“Don’tworry.Thanksanyway.”

6.WhatwayshouldIgotogettotherailwaystation?Youcangoanywayfromhere.Alltheroadsleadtothestation.

Note

"Anyway"asonewordindicatesthatthespeakerhastheintentiontodosomethingdespiteadviceorawarningnottodoit.Itissynonymouswith"nonetheless"and"regardless".

"Anyway"canbeusedatthebeginningofasentencetoresumeaconversationafterbeinginterrupted/returntowhatonewaspreviouslytalkingabout.E.g."Anyway,whatwerewesayingbeforeJohninterruptedus?"

"Anyway"astwowords-"any"isanundeterminedpronounthatmodifiesthenoun"way"andindicates"inwhatevermanner","bywhatevermeans""whatevermethod".

2.Besidevs.besides

1.Whatdoyoudoinyourfreetimebesidesplayingtennis?

2.Whereisthecat?It’sovertherebesidethedoor.

Note

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"Beside"=nextto

"Besides"=inadditionto

3.Comparedtovs.comparedwith

1.Salesfell1.2%comparedwithlastyear.

2.Hecomparedthecolourofherlipstoaredrose.(Comparingtwothingsfromdifferentcategoriesthereforemakingafigurativecomparison)

Note

Sadly,fewpeoplepaymuchattentiontothesesubtle,finedistinctionsnowadaysandseemtousetheminterchangeably.

"Compare+to"=tohighlighttwosimilaritiesbetweendissimilarthings.

"Comparedwith"=tocomparelikewithlike/comparetwothingswhichfallunderthesamecategory.

4.Complimentvs.complement

1.Thecolourgreenreallycomplementsyoureyes.Youshouldweargreenmoreoften.

2.JohnandMaryreallycomplementeachother.She’squitealivelypersonwhereashe’sreallyquietandlaid-back.

3.MybosscomplimentedmeonhowwellImanagedtheproject.

4.Mybrother’sfriendisalwayspayingmecompliments.Lastnighthetoldmethatmyhairwasbeautiful.(Noun)

Note

Both"compliment"and"complement"functionasnounsandverbs.

"Compliment",tocomplimentsomeoneonsomething=topraise.Topayacomplimenttosomeoneistomakeanicecomment,expressyouradmiration.

"Complement"istocompleteorenhancesomethingorsomeoneelse.

5.Composedofvs.composedbyvs.comprise

1.Thecompanyiscomposedofhighlytrained,experiencedpeople.

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2.AMinuetandTrioinGmajorwascomposedbyMozartwhenhewasjustfiveyearsold.Itwashisfirstdocumentedcomposition.

3.Atomsarecomposedofthreemainparts:protons,neutronsandelectrons.

4.Thecardiovascularsystemiscomposedoftheheartandthevascularnetwork.

5.Thatwhichiscomposedofpartsisinneedofitspartsinordertoexist.

6.Scotlandcomprisesapproximately5millionpeople.

Note

"Comprise"=include

"Composedof"=madeupof

"Composedby"=istodowithmusicoroperaandsuchlike.Amusiciancomposesmusic.Theuseoftheverb‘be’+thepastparticipleoftheverb+thepreposition‘of’areanindicationofthepassiveform.

Activeform=theverb‘compose’withoutthepreposition‘by’.

E.g.Mozartcomposed‘AMinuetandTrioinGmajor’.

6.Consistofvs.consistin

1.Theonlytruewisdomconsistsinknowingthatyouknownothing.(Socrates)

2.Ournewteamconsistsofsixpeople.

3.Faithconsistsinbelievingwhenitisbeyondthepowerofreasontobelieve(Voltaire)

4.Mynewjobconsistsindealingwithmembersofthepublic.(Thekeyelement/feature)

5.“Truegloryconsistsindoingwhatdeservestobewritten,inwritingwhatdeservestoberead,andinsolivingastomaketheworldhappierandbetterforourlivinginit.”

―PlinytheElder

6.ThomasJefferson—'Thewholeartofgovernmentconsistsintheartofbeinghonest.'

7.Ourlittletownconsistsofasupermarket,abakery,afruitshop,abutcher’s,twolargeparks,apolicestationandapub.

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8.Theexperienceofpersonalizedmarketingconsistsinreachingouttoyourclientbaseinawaythatcaterstoeachperson'sprofile.

9.Shehasaveryunhealthydietwhichconsistsoffastfood,cocacola,chocolateandcakes.

Note

"Consistsof"+alistofphysicalcomponents

"Consistin"=thekeyelement/themainfeature

7.Continualvs.continuous

1.Afterfivehoursofcontinuousgameplayingontheinternet,theboycomplainedofaterribleheadache.(Non-stop)

2.Hewhosleepsincontinualnoiseisawakenedbysilence.-WilliamDeanHowells

3.Sincewemovedintoournewhouseinthevicinityoftheairport,we’vebeensufferingfromlackofsleep.Thecontinualnoisefromtheplaneshascompletelydisruptedoursleeppattern.

4.Thecontinualbarkingofourneighbour’sdogis*drivingmeupthewall.

*Drive(someone)upthewall=causetobecomecrazy

Note

Itisbecomingmoreandmorecommontoheartheadjectives"continual"and"continuous"beingusedassynonyms–however,thereisasubtledifferencewhichshouldbetakennoteof.Thesamecanbesaidfortheadverbs,"continually"and"continuously".

Bothadjectivesrefertoduration.

"Continuous"impliesdurationwithnointerruption.

"Continual"indicatesdurationthatcontinuesoveralongperiodoftime,butwithintervalsofinterruption/somethingthatisrepetitive.

8.Continuallyvs.continuously

1.Ithasbeenrainingcontinuouslyforoverthreedays.

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2.Nowadaysitisbecomingmoreimportantforcompaniestocontinuallyevolveiftheywanttoremaininnovative,competitiveandrelevant.

9.Convincevs.persuade

1.Hefailedtoconvincethecourtofhisinnocence.

2.I’mtryingtopersuademumtobuymeacarbutshewon’tlistentome.

3.Afterweeksoftryingtopersuademumtobuymeacar,Ifinallyconvincedherofthebenefits,suchas*givingheralifttowherevershewantstogo,seeingthatshecannotdrive.

4.I’vebeentryingtopersuadethebankmanagertogivemealoantonoavail.

5.Theiradvertisementisintendedtopersuadeconsumerstopurchasetheirproduct.

6.She’stryingtoconvinceherselfthatherboyfriendlovesheralthoughweallknowhedoesn’t.

7.Mywifeistryingtopersuademetobecomevegetarian.

8.Thewisemanmustbeconvincedbeforehecanbepersuaded.

9.Fewarethosewhocanconvincewithoutpersuadingwhileabundantarethosewho,inordertoconvince,mustpersuade.

Note

Thoughtheirmeaningsmayberelated,‘persuade’and‘convince’arebynomeanssynonymousassomedictionariesmightleadyoutobelieve.Manyoftenconfoundtheirmeanings.

‘Topersuade’isthewillandpracticeofcoaxingothers,byusingaclearmethod,toobtainwhatonewants-theuseofeffectiveverbalskillstoinducesomeonetodosomething.

Keepinmindthat-Persuasionappealstotheheartwhileconviction(toconvince)appealstothehead.

1.Convince=causetobelieve‘toconvince’istheendresultofsuccessfulpersuasion.

2.Tobeconvinced/convinceoneself=tostronglybelievesomethingtobetruee.g.He’sconvincedhisgirlfriendischeatingonhimbutit’sallinhismind.

10.Deceitfulvs.deceptive

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10.Deceitfulvs.deceptive

1.Thepictureonthatchocolatecakeboxisverydeceptive.Itshowsacakethicklycoveredinchocolatewheninrealityitonlyhasathinscrapingofchocolateonit.

2.Looksaredeceptive.

3.Deceptiveadvertisingoccurswhenareasonableconsumerismisledbyanadvertisingclaim.Thisisalsoknownas"misleading"advertising.

4.Sincetheonsetofinternet,deceptivewebsitesarebecomingmoreandmorefrequent.Thosedeceitfulpeoplewhocreatesuchsites,areunscrupulousbeingswhowillstopatnothingtogetyoutopartwithyourhard-earnedcash.

Note

Atfirstglance,theseseemtobeperfectsynonyms.Whenusedinsentenceshowever,youwillfindthat"deceitful"isalmostalwaysusedwhendescribingaperson’scharacterwhereas"deceptive"indicatesanattempttofalselyleadapersontobelievesomethingtobetrueoruntruebygivingfalseinformation,lackofsufficientinformation,concealmentofthetruth,orbyusingemotionallanguageorimagesorsomekindofmanipulationforpersonalgain.Usuallya"deceitful"personuses"deceptive"measurestoobtainwhatheorshewants.Theseadjectivesbothderivefromtheverb"deceive".

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Confusingwordsexercisethree

1.Economicvs.economical

1.Smalldieselcarsare_____torun.

2.Hehadtoclosedownhisshopdueto_____issues.

3.It’smore_____toputyourwashingmachineonatnight.Thiscanloweryourelectricitybill.

4.It’smore_____todoyourshoppinginalargehypermarketthaninasmallgrocerystore.

5._____growthhasbecomeatoppriorityfortheStatessincethe2008financialcrisis.

2.Electricalvs.electric

1.Thatnew_____storestockssomereallyinexpensive_____appliances.I’mthinkingofgettinganewwashingmachinefromit.Isawoneataknockdownprice.

2.That_____fireIboughtiscostingafortunetorun.MyelectricitybillisskyhighsinceIstartedusingit.3.“Doyouhaveagascookeroran_____cooker?”“Ihaveagascooker.Iusedtohaveand_____onebutitwastooexpensivetorun.”

3.Enquirevs.inquire

1.Mynewdoctor_____aboutmymedicalhistory.

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1.Mynewdoctor_____aboutmymedicalhistory.

2.Theprosecutor_____astothewhereaboutsofthedefendantatthetimeoftheallegedkilling.

4.Enquiryvs.inquiry

1.Thepolicemadedoortodoor_____afteroneofourneighbourswasfounddeadinthecourtyard.

2.General_____abouttraintimesandsuchlikecanbemadeattheinformationdeskatthetrainstation.

5.Especiallyvs.specially

1.Imadethiscake_____foryou.

2.Thecarisa_____designedmodel.

3.Iloveanimals-_____dogs.

4.Thedogsare_____trainedtofindhumanremains.

5.Thehotelhas_____adaptedroomsforguestswithdisabilities.

6.Ourrestauranthasa_____preparedmenuforvegetarians.

7.Ilovecocacola_____whentheweather’sreallyhot.

8.Theairporthas_____designatedsmokingareas.

6.Everybodyvs.everybody

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1._____isdifferentsoavoidcomparingyourbodytothatofyourfriends.

2._____laughedwhenthecomediantoldthejoke.Itwassofunny.

7.Everydayvs.everyday

1._____Igotoworkbytrain.

2.My_____routineisratherboring.

8.Historicvs.historical

1.Itwasa________eventwhenNeilArmstronglandedonthemoon.

2.Therearecountless________monumentsinRome,manyofwhichcanbefoundinthe________centreofthecity.

3.TheassassinationofAbrahamLincolnisa________event

4.The‘TBTF’(Toobigtofail)2008financialmeltdownisa________event.

5.“Apocalypto”isamongthetop________moviesofalltime.

6.LeoTolstoy’s“WarandPeace”isa________novel.

9.Howevervs.however

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1._____didyoumanagetofinishtheprojectinsuchashortspaceoftime?

2._____muchItrytolearnJapanese,I’mjustnotable.

3.IknowIdidn’tgetgoodgradesatschool;_____,itdidn'tmeanthatIdidn'thavethepotentialtobecomeanentrepreneur,whichiswhatIamtoday.

10.Lievs.lay

1.Ialways_____inbedforabouthalfanhourbeforeIgetup.

2.Whydidyou_____tome?Youarenotatruthfulman.

3.He_____thebookonthetablebeforeleavingtheroom.

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Confusingwordsexercisethree-answers

1.Economicvs.economical

Thesearebothadjectivesbutwhatisthedifferencebetweenthem?

1.Smalldieselcarsareeconomicaltorun.

2.Hehadtoclosedownhisshopduetoeconomicissues.

3.It’smoreeconomicaltoputyourwashingmachineonatnight.Thiscanloweryourelectricitybill.

4.It’smoreeconomicaltodoyourshoppinginalargehypermarketthaninasmallgrocerystore.

5.EconomicgrowthhasbecomeatoppriorityfortheStatessincethe2008financialcrisis.

Note

"Economic"talksaboutmoney

"Economical"=savemoney/notwasteit

2.Electricalvs.electric

Thesearealsobothadjectivesbutwhatisthedifferencebetweenthem?

1.Thatnewelectricalstorestockssomereallyinexpensiveelectricalappliances.I’mthinkingofgettinganewwashingmachinefromit.Isawoneataknockdownprice.

2.ThatelectricfireIboughtiscostingafortunetorun.MyelectricitybillisskyhighsinceIstartedusingit.

3.“Doyouhaveagascookeroranelectriccooker?”“Ihaveagascooker.Iusedtohaveandelectriconebutitwastooexpensivetorun.”

Note

"Electric"=somethingthatrunsonelectricity.

"Electric"isalsousedmetaphorically;theatmosphereatthefootballmatchwaselectric.

"Electrical"=relatedtoelectricity

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"Electrical"=relatedtoelectricity

3.Enquirevs.inquire

1.Thepolicemadedoortodoorinquiriesafteroneofourneighbourswasfounddeadinthecourtyard.

2.Generalenquiriesabouttraintimesandsuchlikecanbemadeattheinformationdeskatthetrainstation.

Note

Boththeseverbshavethesameunderlyingmeaning.Theybothbasicallymean"ask".

"Enquire"and"enquiry"areusedforthegeneralsenseof"ask",and"inquire"and"inquiry"aremorecommonlyusedwhenreferringtoaformalinvestigationalthoughintheUSitismorecommontouseonly"inquire"and"inquiry"forboththegeneraluseandalsotheformal.

4.Enquiryvs.inquiry

1.Thepolicemadedoortodoorinquiriesafteroneofourneighbourswasfounddeadinthecourtyard.

2.Generalenquiriesabouttraintimesandsuchlikecanbemadeattheinformationdeskatthetrainstation.

Note

Seeexplanationinnumber3.

5.Especiallyvs.specially

1.Imadethiscakeespeciallyforyou.

2.Thecarisaspeciallydesignedmodel.

3.Iloveanimals-especiallydogs.

4.Thedogsarespeciallytrainedtofindhumanremains.

5.Thehotelhasspeciallyadaptedroomsforguestswithdisabilities.

6.Ourrestauranthasaspeciallypreparedmenuforvegetarians.

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7.Ilovecocacolaespeciallywhentheweather’sreallyhot.

8.Theairporthasspeciallydesignatedsmokingareas.

Note

Thesetwoadverbsarebeginningtobeusedinterchangeablywhichisapitybecausetheydonotmeanthesamething.

“Especially”=aboveall/particularly–usedtoemphasizeoneperson/thingorgroupofpeopleorthings/situationsinparticular.E.g.I’mgoodatlanguages,especiallyFrench.

“Specially”=foradistinctpurpose.

“Specially”isusedinhighfrequencywiththeverbs,designed,created,made,trainedandprepared.

Especiallyisusedalotwith“nouns”,“adjectives+nouns”,andwith“when”,“in”,and“for”.

6.Everybodyvs.everybody

1.Everybodyisdifferentsoavoidcomparingyourbodytothatofyourfriends.

2.Everybodylaughedwhenthecomediantoldthejoke.Itwassofunny.

Note

"Everybody"=eachindividualbody

"Everybody"=everyperson,synonymouswith"everyone".

7.Everydayvs.everyday

1.EverydayIgotoworkbytrain.

2.Myeverydayroutineisratherboring.Adjective

Note

"Everyday"=anadverbialphrasemeaning“eachday”.

"Everyday"=anadjective-somethingdoneonadailybasis.

8.Historicvs.historical

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1.ItwasahistoriceventwhenNeilArmstronglandedonthemoon.

2.TherearecountlesshistoricalmonumentsinRome,manyofwhichcanbefoundinthehistoriccentreofthecity.

3.TheassassinationofAbrahamLincolnisahistoricevent

4.The‘TBTF’(Toobigtofail)2008financialmeltdownisahistoricalevent.

5.“Apocalypto”isamongthetophistoricalmoviesofalltime.

6.LeoTolstoy’s“WarandPeace”isahistoricalnovel.

Note

Historic=importantinhistory;aneventthatwillcontinuetobeimportantforeverduetotheeffectsonsociety/somethingthatwillgointohistorybooks.

Historical=reflectingthepast/setinthepastfornovels,dramasorfilms–thesedonotenterhistorybooks.

9.Howevervs.however

1.Howeverdidyoumanagetofinishtheprojectinsuchashortspaceoftime?

2.HowevermuchItrytolearnJapanese,I’mjustnotable.

3.IknowIdidn’tgetgoodgradesatschool;however,itdidn'tmeanthatIdidn'thavethepotentialtobecomeanentrepreneur,whichiswhatIamtoday.’

Note

How+ever=theinterrogativepronoun‘how’followedby‘ever’whichisusedforemphasis.E.g.Howdidyoumanage?Howeverdidyoumanage?Thestressisontheemphatic‘ever’.

Innumbertwo,“however”,whenusedatthebeginningofasentenceisanadverbandnotanadverbialconjunction.

Inexamplenumberthree,“however”isanadverbialconjunction.

10.Lievs.lay

1.IalwayslieinbedforabouthalfanhourbeforeIgetup.

2.Whydidyoulietome?Youarenotatruthfulman.

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3.Helaythebookonthetablebeforeleavingtheroom.

Note

Innumberone,“lie”isanirregularverb-lie/lay/lain–itmeanstoplaceyourself/orremaininahorizontalposition.

Innumbertwo“lie”isaregularverbbutwiththesameinfinitiveasnumberone–lie/lied/lied–itmeanstospeakuntruths.

Innumberthree“lay”isanirregulartransitiveverbwhichcannotbeusedwithoutanobject-lay/laid/laidandmeanstoplacesomethingonsomething.

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Confusingwordsexercisefour

1.Maybevs.maybe

1.That_____Johnatthedoor.Hesaidhe*mightpoproundthismorning.

2.AreyougoingtothepartyonSaturday?_____.Ihaven’tdecidedyet.

*Popround=payquickvisittosomeone

2.Nobodyvs.nobody

1.Amanwaschargedwithmurderafterhisneighbourwentmissing.Although_____waseverfound,circumstantialevidenceagainsttheman,includingcell-phonerecords,websearches,surveillancephotoimagesandpurchaseofacid,waspresentedbyprosecutors.

2._____knowsanythingabouthim.He’sareservedman.Hekeepshimselftohimself.

3.Overtimevs.overtime

1.Myhusbanddoesalotof_____inhisjob.

2.Weenrichourservicesyearlysotheyimprove_____.

4.Practisevs.practice

1.IfyouwanttolearnEnglishoranyotherlanguageforthatmatter,youneedto_____asmuchasyoucan.

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thatmatter,youneedto_____asmuchasyoucan.

2.Withalotof_____,youcanlearnanything.Asthesayinggoes,_____makesperfect.

5.Principlevs.principal

1.Dishonestyisagainstmy_____.

2.The_____wouldliketoseeyouinherofficeafterschooltoday.

6.Raisevs.rise

1.Prices_____allthetimebutsalariesseemtostaythesame.

2.Thegovernmenthasannounceditsintentionto_____taxesinthenearfuture.

3.Thegovernmenthasdecidedto_____theminimumwage.

4.She_____fromherchairandwalkedouttheroom.

7.Sometimevs.sometimesvs.sometime

1.Let’smeetforacoffee_____nextweek.

2.I_____forgetwhatIamdoing.IthinkIhavegotatouchofdementia.

3.It’lltakemequite_____tofinishthisassignment.

8.Stationaryvs.stationery

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8.Stationaryvs.stationery

1.We’llhavetoordersomenew_____.We’rebeginningtorunoutofpens,pencils,paperclips,envelopes,andpaperforthephotocopier.

2._____objectsoutsideofamovingtrainappeartobeinmotionwhenviewedfromwithinthetrain.

3.Themainbenefitofusinga_____bikeforphysicalactivityisthatyouwillbeabletoperformacardiovascularworkoutwithlowimpactonallyourjoints.

9.Whatevervs.whatever

1._____happenedtothatoldwatchgrandpagaveme?I’vesearchedeverywhereandIcannotfindit.

2._____youdo,don’ttellhimwhatIsaid.It’sasecret.

3.We’lldo_____youwant;aslongasyousignthecontract.

10.Whoevervs.whoever

1.Mysisteristheonlypersoninthefamily_____usesthehomephone.Alltherestofususeourmobiles.

2.“Someone’satthedoor.”“_____itis,tellthemI’mnotathome.Idon’twanttospeaktoanyone.”

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Confusingwordsexercisefour-answers

1.Maybevs.maybe

1.ThatmaybeJohnatthedoor.Hesaidhemight*poproundthismorning.

2.AreyougoingtothepartyonSaturday?Maybe!Ihaven’tdecidedyet.

*Popround=paysomeoneaquickvisit.

Note

Innumberone,“may”isamodalauxiliaryverb,usedtomodifytheinfinitiveverbwhichfollowsit;inthiscase“be”–itexpressespossibility.

Innumbertwo“maybe”isanadverbwhichissynonymouswith“perhaps”.Aswith“maybe”,itexpressespossibility.

2.Nobodyvs.nobody

1.Amanwaschargedwithmurderafterhisneighbourwentmissing.Althoughnobodywaseverfound,circumstantialevidenceagainsttheman,includingcell-phonerecords,websearches,surveillancephotoimagesandpurchaseofacid,waspresentedbyprosecutors.

2.Nobodyknowsanythingaboutme.Ikeepmyselftomyself.

Note

Innumberone,“nobody”=theabsenceofabody/acorpse

Innumbertwo“nobody”isanindefinitepronounwhichmeans“notevenoneperson”andissynonymouswith“noone”.

Particularattentionshouldbeconsideredwhenpronouncing“nobody”and“nobody”.

“Nobody”hasthestressonbothwords,whilewith“nobody”,thestressisonthefirstsyllableandthe“o”in“body”takesontheextremelyweak“schwa”sound.

3.Overtimevs.overtime

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1.Myhusbanddoesalotofovertimeinhisjob.

2.Weenrichourservicesyearlysotheyimproveovertime.

Innumberone,“overtime”isacompoundnounwhichmeans,“extraworkinghours”.

Innumbertwo,“overtime”isanadverbialphrasewhichmeans”graduallyinthecourseoftime/withthepassingoftime”.

4.Practisevs.practice

1.IfyouwanttolearnEnglishoranyotherlanguageforthatmatter,youneedtopractiseasmuchasyoucan.

2.Withalotofpractice,youcanlearnanything.

Note

“Practise”istheverb,while“practice”isthenoun.

5.Principlevs.principal

1.Dishonestyisagainstmyprinciples.

2.Theprincipalwouldliketoseeyouinherofficeafterschooltoday.

Note

“Principle”=concepts/abeliefthatyouvalue.

“Principal”=people/themainperson/theheadofaschoolororganisation.

6.Raisevs.rise

1.Pricesriseallthetimebutsalariesseemtostaythesame.

2.Thegovernmenthasannounceditsintentiontoraisetaxesinthenearfuture.

3.Thegovernmenthasdecidedtoraisetheminimumwage.

4.Sherosefromherchairandwalkedouttheroom.

Note

Bothverbsmeantomoveinanupwarddirection.

‘Raise’isatransitiveverbthereforeanobjectmustfollowit,whereaswiththe

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‘Raise’isatransitiveverbthereforeanobjectmustfollowit,whereaswiththeverb‘rise’,noobjectisrequired.

(Somebody)raises(something)orinthepassivestructure,(something)israisedby(someone).Youcannotsayforexample,‘Iraise’inisolation.Youneedtostate‘what’youraise.E.g.Iraisemyworkerssalariesonceayear.

Innumberfour‘rose’,thepasttenseof‘rise’,meanstostandup.Itcanalsomeantogetup.E.g.Iriseearlyeverymorning.(Igetupearlyeverymorning).

7.Sometimevs.sometimevs.sometime

1.Let’smeetforacoffeesometimenextweek.

2.IsometimesforgetwhatIamdoing.IthinkIhavegotatouchofdementia.

3.It’lltakemequitesometimetofinishthisassignment.

Note

Innumberone,‘sometime’isusedtorefertoanindefiniterandommoment.

Innumbertwo,‘sometimes’isanadverboffrequencymeaning‘occasionally’.

Innumberthree,‘some’isusedasanadjectivetodescribeanamountoftime,usuallyquitealot.Theuseof‘quite’intensifies‘some’.

8.Stationaryvs.stationery

1.We’llhavetoordersomenewstationery.We’rebeginningtorunoutofpens,pencils,paperclips,envelopes,andpaperforthephotocopier.

2.Stationaryobjectsoutsideofamovingtrainappeartobeinmotionwhenviewedfromwithinthetrain.

3.Themainbenefitofusingastationarybikeforphysicalactivityisthatyouwillbeabletoperformacardiovascularworkoutwithlowimpactonallyourjoints.

Note

Thesetwowordsarehomophones,thatis,theyhaveexactlythesamepronunciationbutdifferentspellings.

Innumberone,thenoun‘stationery’isthecollectivenameformaterialsusedforwritingsuchaspens,pencils,rubbers,paperetc.

Innumberstwoandthree,theadjective‘stationary’means‘motionless’,thatis,notmovingandcanalsorefertoafixed,unmovableobject.

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notmovingandcanalsorefertoafixed,unmovableobject.

9.Whatevervs.whatever

1.Whateverhappenedtothatoldwatchgrandpagaveme?I’vesearchedeverywhereandIcannotfindit.

2.Whateveryoudo,don’ttellhimwhatIsaid.It’sasecret.

3.We’lldowhateveryouwant;aslongasyousignthecontract.

Note

What+ever=theinterrogativepronoun‘what’followedbytheadverb‘ever’-usedforemphasis.E.g.Whathappened?Whateverhappened?Thestressisontheemphatic‘ever’.

Innumbertwo,therelativepronoun‘whatever’,means‘nomatterwhat’.

Innumberthree,‘whatever’,means‘anything.

10.Whoevervs.whoever

1.Mysisteristheonlypersoninthefamilywhoeverusesthehomephone.Alltherestofususeourmobiles.

2.“Someone’satthedoor.”“Whoeveritis,tellthemI’mnotathome.Idon’twanttospeaktoanyone.”

Note

Who+ever=theinterrogativepronoun‘who’followedbytheadverb‘ever’-usedforemphasis.E.g.mysisteristheonlypersoninthefamilywhousesthephone.Placetheemphatic‘ever’after‘who’toemphasisethefact.Thestressisontheemphatic‘ever’.

Innumbertwo,therelativepronoun‘whoever’,means‘nomatterwho’.

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Confusingwords-exercisefive

Putthemostsuitableofthefollowingthreewordsintothegaps.

A.flawB.faultyC.defect

1.Thisnewmobilephoneis_____.I’mgoingtotakeitbacktotheshoptomorrow.

2.There’sa_____inyourtheory.

3.A_____internetconnectionissomethingthatcandriveyouroundthebend.

4.Softwareengineerswereworkingroundtheclockaftera_____databasescriptbroughtthecompanytoitsknees.

5.Acompanywasorderedbyajudgetopaycompensationtopatientswho’dhad_____anddangeroushipimplantsurgery.

6.Ourwebsitehasasecurity_____.

7.Iwasbornwithaneye_____butluckilyhastyintervention,fromatopeyesurgeonscorrectedit.

8.Althoughofalowerquality,opensourcedcodewassuggestedtohavefewer_____thanproprietarycode.

9.A_____inthesystemcanslowdownyourcomputer.

10.AbridgeintheStatescollapseddueto_____

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10.AbridgeintheStatescollapseddueto_____engineering.

11.Althoughshemadeavalidpoint,there’sa_____inherlogic.

12.Afterwepurchasedwhatappearedtobethehomeofourdreams,wediscoveredmanyhidden_____.

13.Holidaymakerswereleftwaitingforalmosttwentyfourhoursinanairportdepartureloungeaftertheirplanewasleftgroundedwhena_____wasdiscoveredintheaircrafts’engine.

14.Amanufacturing_____occurswhenaproductfailstomeetitsownmanufacturingspecifications.

15.Jealousyisacharacter_____,-afear-basedemotion-thatusuallyleadstoassumptionsthataredestructive.

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Exercisefive-answers

1.Thisnewmobilephoneisfaulty.I’mgoingtotakeitbacktotheshoptomorrow.

2.There’saflawinyourtheory.

3.Afaultyinternetconnectionissomethingthatcandriveyouroundthebend.

4.Softwareengineerswere*workingroundtheclockafterafaultydatabasescriptbroughtthecompanytoitsknees.

*Workroundtheclock=workalldayandallnight

5.Acompanywasorderedbyajudgetopaycompensationtopatientswho’dhadfaultyanddangeroushipimplantsurgery.

6.Ourwebsitehassecurityflaws.

7.Iwasbornwithaneyedefectbutluckilyhastyintervention,fromatopeyesurgeon,correctedit.

8.Althoughofalowerquality,opensourcedcodewassuggestedtohavefewerdefectsthanproprietarycode.

9.Aflawinthesystemcanslowdownyourcomputer.

10.AbridgeintheStatescollapsedduetofaultyengineering.

11.Althoughshemadeavalidpoint,there’saflawinherlogic.

12.Afterwepurchasedwhatappearedtobethehomeofourdreams,wediscoveredmanyhiddendefects.

13.Holidaymakerswereleftwaitingforalmosttwentyfourhoursinanairportdepartureloungeaftertheirplanewasleftgroundedwhenaflawwasdiscoveredintheaircrafts’engine.

14.Amanufacturingdefectoccurswhenaproductfailstomeetitsownmanufacturingspecifications.

15.Jealousyisacharacterflaw-afear-basedemotionthatusuallyleadstoassumptionsthataredestructive.

Note

‘Faulty’isanadjectivemeaning‘defective’,‘imperfect’.

‘Flaw’isanounandmeans,weakness,defect,error,fallacy.

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‘Flaw’isanounandmeans,weakness,defect,error,fallacy.

Ifanargumentisnotconvincingthenthereisa‘flaw’init.Itisalsocommontousetheadjective‘flawed’for,arguments,theories,reasoningandlogic.

‘Defect’-isanounandmeans‘imperfection’causinghinderedfunctionalityorfailuretomeettheexpectedspecifications.Alsocommonistheadjective‘defective’.

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Confusingwords-exercisesix

Putthemostsuitableofthefollowingfourwordsintothegapsintheexercisebelow.

A.stenchB.scentC.odourD.aroma

1.Duetothelackofrainfallallsummer,therewasanawful_____comingfromthesewer.

2.It’swonderfultowalkaroundthebotanicgardensand*takeinthebeautiful_____ofalltheflowersandplants.

3.Thetoilet’sallblockedup.We’llhaveto*callouttheplumber.The_____istoomuchtobear.

4.IusedtolivenotfarfromacoffeefactoryandeverytimeIpassedit,thewonderful_____ofcoffeewaftedthroughtheair.

5.Ifyourshoes*giveoffabad_____,thensprinklingtheinsideswithsomebicarbonateofsodashouldabsorbtheoffensivesmell.

6.Ilovethe_____offreshlybakedbread.

7.Whensweatmixeswithbacteriaontheskin,itcanresultinbody_____.

8.The_____oftherottenmeathitmeasIopenedthefridgedoor.I’dbeenonholidayfortwoweeksandhadforgottentothrowthemincepiesoutbeforeIleft.

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forgottentothrowthemincepiesoutbeforeIleft.

9.Thelovely_____ofthebasilsaucewhettedourappetiteasthewaiterplacedthedishesofpastaonourtable.

10.Ilovewalkingpasttheperfumerystoreandinhalingthesweet_____ofperfume.

11.Cruciferousvegetablessuchascabbage,broccoliandbrusselsproutsareimportantforourhealth.Thedownsideisthatthey*giveoffthemostawful_____whilstbeingcooked.Thisisduetotheirbeingrichinsulphur.

12.I’mjustgoingtopoursomebleachdownthekitchensink.There’sabad_____comingfromit.

13.Ihadtoholdmybreathfortheentiretyofthedrivethroughthecountrylane,whenthe_____ofhorsemanurehitusonwhatwasclassifiedasBritain’shottestdayinmorethanadecade.

14.Usingtheirextraordinarysenseofsmell,cadaverdogsareableto*pickupthe_____ofhumanremains.

15.There’salwaysanunderlying_____ofcigarsmokecomingfrommyfather’sstudy.

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Exercisesix-answers

Allofthefollowingnounscanbereplacedwiththegenericnoun‘smell’,addinganadjectivetogivemoreemphasistothemeaning.

Stench=averybad/foulsmell.Commonsynonymsare‘stink’and‘pong’.

Scentandaroma=apleasantsmell.

Odour=eitherapleasantorunpleasantsmell,dependingonthecontext.

1.Duetothelackofrainfallallsummer,therewasanawfulstenchcomingfromthesewer.

2.It’swonderfultowalkaroundthebotanicgardensand*takeinthebeautifulscentofalltheflowersandplants.

*Takein=inhale/absorb

3.Thetoilet’sallblockedup.We’llhaveto*callouttheplumber.Thestenchistoomuchtobear.

*Callout=requestavisitfromaspecialist

4.IusedtolivenotfarfromacoffeefactoryandeverytimeIpassedit,thewonderfularomaofcoffeewaftedthroughtheair.

5.Ifyourshoes*giveoffabadodour,thensprinklingtheinsideswithsomebicarbonateofsodashouldabsorbtheoffensivesmell.

*Giveoff=omit

6.Ilovethearomaoffreshlybakedbread.

7.Whensweatmixeswithbacteriaontheskin,itcanresultinbodyodour.

8.ThestenchoftherottenmeathitmeasIopenedthefridgedoor.I’dbeenonholidayfortwoweeksandhadforgottentothrowthemincepiesoutbeforeIleft.

9.Thelovelyscentofthebasilsaucewhettedourappetiteasthewaiterplacedthedishesofpastaonourtable.

10.Ilovewalkingpasttheperfumerystoreandinhalingthesweetscentofperfume.

11.Cruciferousvegetablessuchascabbage,broccoliandbrusselsproutsareimportantforourhealth.Thedownsideisthatthey*giveoffthemostawful

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stenchwhilstbeingcooked.Thisisduetotheirbeingrichinsulphur.

*Giveoff=emit

12.I’mjustgoingtopoursomebleachdownthekitchensink.There’sabadodourcomingfromit.

13.Ihadtoholdmybreathfortheentiretyofthedrivethroughthecountrylane,whenthestenchofhorsemanurehitmeonwhatwasclassifiedasBritain’shottestdayinmorethanadecade.

14.Usingtheirextraordinarysenseofsmell,cadaverdogsareableto*pickupthescentofhumanremains.

*Pickup=perceivewiththesenses

15.There’salwaysanunderlyingaromaofcigarsmokecomingfrommyfather’sstudy.

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Confusingwords-exerciseseven

Putthemostsuitableofthefollowingfouradjectivesintothegapsintheexercisebelow.

A.strongB.resilientC.toughD.durable

1.“Waiter!Thismeatistoo_____.Italmostbrokemytooth.Iaskedfortendermeat.”

2.Janeisvery_____.Afterherdivorceshewasableto*getonwithherlifeandnotfallintoadepression.

3.Thatgroupofteenagerswhostandaroundthestreetcornerarea_____lot.

4.‘Whenthegoinggets_____,the_____getgoing’,isanEnglishexpressionwhichmeans,whenlifegetshard,it’sthe_____peoplewhoareabletosurvive.

5.Thesebootsarereally_____and_____totherain.That’sfourwintersI’vewornthemandthey’restillingoodcondition.

6.Thisteaistoo_____.Howmanyteabagsdidyouputinit?

7.MySonyVAIOcomputerhasprovedtobeextremely_____.Ithaslastedfourteenyears.Ijustwishtheyhadn’tdiscontinuedthemasI’dlovetobeabletobuyanotherone.

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8.Areyou_____tochange?How_____areyouwhenfacedwithlife’schallengesanddifficulties?

9.Youneedtobe_____whenlifehitsyouinthefacewithyetanotherproblem.

10.There’sa_____linkbetweenreadingandbeingsuccessfulinlife.

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Confusingwords-exerciseseven-answers

1.“Waiter!Thismeatistootough.Italmostbrokemytooth.Iaskedfortendermeat.”

2.Janeisveryresilient.Afterherdivorceshewasableto*getonwithherlifeandnotfallintoadepression.

*Getonwith=continue

3.Thatgroupofteenagerswhostandaroundthestreetcornerareatoughlot.

4.‘Whenthegoinggetstough,thetoughgetgoing’,isanEnglishexpressionwhichmeans,whenlifegetshard,it’sthestrongpeoplewhoareabletosurvive.

5.Thesebootsarereallytoughandresilienttotherain.That’sfourwintersI’vewornthemandthey’restillingoodcondition.

6.Thisteaistoostrong.Howmanyteabagsdidyouputinit?

7.MySonyVAIOcomputerhasprovedtobeextremelydurable.Ithaslastedfourteenyears.Ijustwishtheyhadn’tdiscontinuedthemasI’dlovetobeabletobuyanotherone.

8.Areyouresilienttochange?Howtoughareyouwhenfacedwithlife’schallengesanddifficulties?

9.Youneedtobestrongwhenlifehitsyouinthefacewithyetanotherproblem.

10.There’sastronglinkbetweenreadingandbeingsuccessfulinlife.

Note

Tough(whenreferringtocharacter)=1Apersonofstrongcharacter-positivemeaning.2Arowdythug–negativemeaning.Tough(whenreferringtoobjects)=noteasilybroken.Tough(whenreferringtoasituation)=difficult

Durable=stayingoodconditionlastingforalongtimeevenafterconstantuse.

Resilient(whenreferringtostrengthofcharacter)=topossesstheabilitytobounceback,returntoyournormalself,inlifewhenfacedwithtribulations.

Resilient(whenreferringtoobjects)=abletowithstandheavydutyuseovertime.

Strongistheoppositeof‘weak’.

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Confusingwords-exerciseeight

Putthemostsuitableofthefollowingthreeadverbsintothegapsintheexercisebelow.

A.thoroughlyB.fullyC.wholly

1.I_____enjoyedmyselfatChristine’sbirthdaypartylastnight.

2.We_____understandyourconcerns.

3.I_____agreewithwhatyouaresaying.

4.Myauntis_____involvedincharitywork.

5.Yourgoodswillbetransported_____bysea.

6.Mymother_____cleansthehouseeverySaturdaymorning.

7.Myhusbandis_____committedtohiswork.

8.We_____discussedtheissuebeforereachingadecision.

9.Don’tunplugmycomputeryet.I’mwaitingforthebatterytobe_____charged.

10.WehadagreattimeontheGreekislands.We_____exploredthemfromoneendtotheother.

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Confusingwords-exerciseeight-answers

1.IthoroughlyenjoyedmyselfatChristine’sbirthdaypartylastnight.

2.Wefullyunderstandyourconcerns.

3.Iwhollyagreewithwhatyouaresaying.

4.Myauntisfullyinvolvedincharitywork.

5.Yourgoodswillbetransportedwhollybysea.

6.MymotherthoroughlycleansthehouseeverySaturdaymorning.

7.Myhusbandisfullycommittedtohiswork.

8.Wethoroughlydiscussedtheissuebeforereachingadecision.

9.Don’tunplugmycomputeryet.I’mwaitingforthebatterytobefullycharged.

10.WehadagreattimeontheGreekislands.Wethoroughlyexploredthemfromoneendtotheother.

Note

Whilethesethreeadverbsarevariantsofoneanother,eachofthemisusedtomodifydifferentverbs/adjectives.

Thoroughly=deeplyandcompletely.Usedmostlywiththefollowingverbs:

Accept,abide,analyse,appreciate,approve,believe,check,clean,deserve,detest,discuss,enjoy,examine,explain,explore,illustrate,inspect,investigate,master,persuade,research,search,study,recommend,repent,respect,review,test,understand,wash.

Fully=completely.Usedmostlywiththefollowingverbsandtheircorrespondingadjectives:

Accept,accepted(adj),appreciate,charge(forbatteries),commit,committed(adj)cooked(adj)dependdependant(adj)develop,develop(adj),dressed,(fullydressed/clothed=notpartiallydressed),engage(tobefullyengaged(adj)inyourwork,abook,adiscussionetc.),explore,focus,focused(adj)intact,integrate,integrated(adj),implement,implement(adj)involve,involved(adj)load,loaded(adj)operate/operable,

Wholly=totally,ineveryrespect,andistheoppositeofpartially.

Usedmainlywith:agree,disagree,regretamongothers.

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Usedmainlywith:agree,disagree,regretamongothers.

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Confusingwords-exercisenine

1.Fantasyvs.imagination

1.Tobeanovelist,youreallyneedtohaveavivid_____.

2._____isavisualexperiencecomingfromwithin.

3.Don’tbelieveawordshesays.Shelivesina_____world.

4.Creationbeginswith_____.

5.Thoseso-called‘reality’showsonTVarenothingmorethan_____.

6.Manyoftheyoung,andnot-so-young,areaddictedto_____computergames,wheretheycanescapetherealityofeverydaylife.

2.Publicityvs.advertisement

1.I’mlookingatthe_____inthenewspaper.Ineedtofindajob.

2.Theroyalweddingreceivedalotof_____.Visibility

3.Weneedtothinkofagood_____stunttopromoteourproducts.

3.Weddingvs.marriage

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1.MaryandJimaregettingmarried.They’veinvitedustotheir_____.

2.AfteryearsofwhatJanetdefinedas‘the_____fromhell,’shefinallywentaheadwithdivorceproceedings.

3.Myparentshavealwayshadaveryhappy_____.Theyveryrarelyargue,andifso,it’salwaysabouttrivialmatters.

4.Eldervs.older

1.Johnismy_____brother.He’sthreeyearsmysenior.

2.“Whoisthe_____ofthetwins?”“Michael.He’s_____thanPaulbyfiveminutes.”

5.Clothsvs.clothes

1.Iboughtacoupleofnewclothstodaytocleanthekitchen.Theoldonesarecompletelywornout.

2.Putonyourclothesoryou’llbelateforschool.

6.Emigratevs.immigrate

1.We_____toCanadawhenIwastenyearsold.(Arrivalinanothercountry)

2.We_____fromEnglandtoCanada.(Departurefromyourcountryoforigintobecomeresidentinanothercountry)

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7.Sensiblevs.sensitive

1.You’reoverly_____,”saidmybrother,whenhesawmecryingoverthedeadspider.

2.It’salways_____tobegintomakeprovisionsforapensionstartingfromayoungage.

3.We’reluckytohavesucha_____daughter.Shewouldneverdoanythingstupid.

4.Ihavetoweardarkglassesasmyeyesareso_____todaylight.

8.Highvs.tall

1.Ican’treachthetopshelf.It’stoo_____.Getmetheladderplease.

2.Theoldoaktreestands_____atthefootofthegarden.

3.Myfatherisa_____man.He’s1.98m.

4.WhatIlikeaboutmygardenisthatitissurroundedbyavery_____wall.Itgivesmealotofprivacy.

5.Theplaneflew_____inthesky.

9.Farthervs.further

1.Mynewhouseis_____fromthestationthanmyoldhouse.

2.Shouldyouneedany_____information,pleasedonot

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2.Shouldyouneedany_____information,pleasedonothesitatetogetintouch.

10.Whethervs.weather

1.I’mtiredofthisawful_____.It’sbeenrainingnon-stopforweeksonend.

2.“_____youlikeitornot,youaregoingtoschooltomorrow,”saidTracytoherdaughterwho,asusual,wantedyetanotherdayoffschooltolazearoundthehouse.

3.Idon’tknow_____tophonehimornot.

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Confusingwords-exercisenine

1.Fantasyvs.imagination

1.Tobeanovelist,youreallyneedtohaveavividimagination.(Theflowofthoughtsfromthemind)

2.Imaginationisavisualexperiencecomingfromwithin.

3.Don’tbelieveawordshesays.Shelivesinafantasyworld.(Makebelief,unreal,figmentoftheimagination)

4.Creationbeginswithimagination.(Theflowofthoughts)

5.Thoseso-called‘reality’showsonTVarenothingmorethanfantasy.(Makebelief,unreal,constructionoffalseimages)

6.Manyoftheyoung,andnot-so-young,areaddictedtofantasycomputergames,wheretheycanescapetherealityofeverydaylife.(Makebelief,unreal)

2.Publicityvs.advertisement

1.I’mlookingattheadvertisementsinthenewspaper.Ineedtofindajob.(

2.Theroyalweddingreceivedalotofpublicity.(Visibility)

3.Weneedtothinkofagoodpublicitystunttopromoteourproducts.

3.Weddingvs.marriage

1.MaryandJimaregettingmarried.They’veinvitedustotheirwedding.

2.AfteryearsofwhatJanetdefinedas‘themarriagefromhell,’shefinallywentaheadwithdivorceproceedings.

3.Myparentshavealwayshadaveryhappymarriage.Theyveryrarelyargue,andifso,it’salwaysabouttrivialmatters.

4.Eldervs.older

1.Johnismyelderbrother.He’sthreeyearsmysenior.

2.“Whoistheelderofthetwins?”“Michael.He’solderthanPaulbyfive

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minutes.”

5.Clothsvs.clothes

1.Iboughtacoupleofnewclothstodaytocleanthekitchen.Theoldonesarecompletelywornout.

2.Putonyourclothesoryou’llbelateforschool.

6.Emigratevs.immigrate

1.WeimmigratedtoCanadawhenIwastenyearsold.(Arrivalinanothercountry)

2.WeemigratedfromEnglandtoCanada.(Departurefromyourcountryoforigintobecomeresidentinanothercountry)

7.Sensiblevs.sensitive

1.You’reoverlysensitive,”saidmybrother,whenhesawmecryingoverthedeadspider.

2.It’salwayssensibletobegintomakeprovisionsforapensionstartingfromayoungage.

3.We’reluckytohavesuchasensibledaughter.Shewouldneverdoanythingstupid.

4.Ihavetoweardarkglassesasmyeyesaresosensitivetothesun.

8.Highvs.tall

1.Ican’treachthetopshelf.It’stoohigh.Getmetheladderplease.

2.Theoldoaktreestandstallatthefootofthegarden.

3.Myfatherisatallboy.He’s1.98m.

4.WhatIlikeaboutmygardenisthatitissurroundedbyaveryhighwall.Itgivesmealotofprivacy.

5.Theplaneflewhighinthesky.

Note

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‘Tall’and‘high’createconfusion.

Usetheadjectivetall’todescribe‘measurement’fromthebottomtothetopinaverticalposition.

Use‘tall’foraperson.Theoppositeofatallpersonisa‘short’personwhereastheoppositeof‘high’is‘low’.

Use‘tall’forabuildingwhenitisnarrowinheight,oratree.

Mountainscanbedescribedashighbutnottall,andawall,suchasagardenwall,isdescribedashighandnottall.Wallsandmountainarewideandnotlongandnarrowinheight.

9.Farthervs.further

1.Mynewhouseisfarther/furtherfromthestationthanmyoldhouse.

2.Shouldyouneedanyfurtherinformation,pleasedonothesitatetogetintouch.

Note

‘Farther’and‘further’arebothcomparativeformsoftheadjective‘far’,sobothcanbeusedinexamplenumberone.Inexamplenumbertwohowever,only‘further’canbeusedasitdoesnotimplydistance.

10.Whethervs.weather

1.I’mtiredofthisawfulweather.It’sbeenrainingnon-stopforweeksonend.

2.“Whetheryoulikeitornot,youaregoingtoschooltomorrow,”saidTracytoherdaughterwho,asusual,wantedyetanotherdayoffschooltolazearoundthehouse.

3.Idon’tknowwhethertophonehimornot.

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Grammartestone

Indefinitepronouns

Fillthegapswiththecorrectanswers.

1.________rangthedoorbellthismorningbutwhenIopenedthedoortherewas________there.

a)nobody/somebodyb)somebody/nobodyc)anybody/somebody

2.Isearched________formykeystodaybuttheywere________tobeseen.

a)somewhere/anywhereb)anywhere/notc)everywhere/nowhere

3.A:“Didyoumeet________interestingatthepartylastnight?”

B:“YesIdidasamatteroffact.Imet________wholivednextdoortomewhenIwasachild.”

a)someone/anyoneb)anyone/no-onec)anyone/someone

4.Would________likeapieceofcake?

a)anyoneb)someone

5.“Does________knowhowtospell‘Mississippi’?”

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saidtheEnglishteachertothechildren.Therewassilenceintheclass.________replied.

a)somebody/anybodyb)somebody/nobodyc)anybody/nobody

6.“Wouldyouliketogotothebeachorthemountains?”

“________youwant.Oroneortheother.Ilikethemboth.”

a)somewhereb)anywherec)nowhere

7.There’s________wrongwithmymobilephone.It’sbeenactingstrangely.Perhapsithasreachedtheendofitsnaturallife.

a)somethingb)anythingc)nothing

8.Letmetakealookatyourphone.Ican’tfind________wrongwithit.Switchitoffandthenswitchitbackonagainanditshouldgobacktonormal.

a)somethingb)anythingc)nothing

9.I’veswitcheditoffandbackonagainandit’sgonebacktonormal.Youwereright.Therewas________wrongwithitafterall.Ihadn’tswitcheditoffinoverthreeweekssothatwouldhavebeenwhyitwasactingsostrangely.

a)somethingb)anythingc)nothing

10.IhopeIcanfind________whowillaccompanyme

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10.IhopeIcanfind________whowillaccompanymetotheairporttopickupmyparents.Mycarisn’tworking.

a)anyoneb)someonec)no-one

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Grammartestone-answers

1.SomebodyrangthedoorbellthismorningbutwhenIopenedthedoortherewasnobodythere.

2.Isearchedeverywhereformykeystodaybuttheywerenowheretobeseen.

3.A:“Didyoumeetanyoneinterestingatthepartylastnight?”

B:“YesIdidasamatteroffact.ImetsomeonewholivednextdoortomewhenIwasachild.”

4.Wouldanyonelikeapieceofcake?

5.“Doesanybodyknowhowtospell‘Mississippi’?”saidtheEnglishteachertothechildren.Therewassilenceintheclass.Nobodyreplied.

6.“Wouldyouliketogotothebeachorthemountains?”

“Anywhereyouwant.Oroneortheother.Ilikethemboth.”

7.There’ssomethingwrongwithmymobilephone.It’sbeenactingstrangely.Perhapsithasreachedtheendofitsnaturallife.

8.Letmetakealookatyourphone.Ican’tfindanythingwrongwithit.Switchitoffandthenswitchitbackonagainanditshouldgobacktonormal.

9.I’veswitcheditoffandbackonagainandit’sgonebacktonormal.Youwereright.Therewassomethingwrongwithitafterall.Ihadn’tswitcheditoffinoverthreeweekssothatwouldhavebeenwhyitwasactingsostrangely.

10.IhopeIcanfindsomeonewhowillaccompanymetotheairporttopickupmyparents.Mycarisn’tworking.

Note

Thefollowingindefinitepronounsaretreatedassingularsubjectsthereforetakesingularverbs.

Anyone,anybody,anything

Everyone,everybody,everything

Someone,somebody,something

Noone,nobody,nothing

Each,eitherandneither

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Grammartesttwo

Singularorplural

Fillthegapsbelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Everybodyinourbuilding________acar;however,nobody________amotorbike.

a)has/hasb)have/havec)have/has

2.________agaragethough.

a)everybodydoesn’thaveb)noteverybodyhasc)noteverybodyhave

3.Eachofthem________awardedamedalfortheirfootballskills.

a)wasb)werec)havebeen

4.Nobody________theanswer.

a)knowb)knows

5.Atthebusstop:“WhatbuscanIgettothecitycentre?”“Allofthem________tothecentre.”

a)goesb)go

6.Twentydollars______allitcost.

a)wereb)was

Someonenow________inthatoldfarmhouse.

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Someonenow________inthatoldfarmhouse.

a)liveb)lives

7.________tenthousandprotestersareexpectedattonight'spresidentialdebate.

a)asmanyasb)asmuchas

8.How________doyouearnperannuminyournewjob?

a)manyb)muchc)often

9.Theparcelhasn’tarrivedyet.Threeweeks________alongtimeforaparceltoarrive.Ihopeithasn’tgonemissingorbeenstolen.

a)isb)arec)havebeen

10.Theboardofdirectors________currentlystandingforreelection.

a)isb)are

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Grammartesttwoanswers

1.Everybodyinourbuildinghasacar;however,nobodyhasamotorbike.

2.Noteverybodyhasagaragethough.

3.Eachofthemwasawardedamedalfortheirfootballskills.

4.Nobodyknowstheanswer.

5.Atthebusstop:“WhatbuscanIgettothecitycentre?”“Allofthemgotothecentre.”

6.Twentydollarswasallitcost.(Seenasaunitandnotasindividualdollars)

Someonenowlivesinthatoldfarmhouse.

7.Asmanyastenthousandprotestersareexpectedattonight'spresidentialdebate.(‘Protesters’ispluralandcountabletherefore–as‘many’as’iscorrect.

8.Howmuchdoyouearnperannuminyournewjob?(Earn,refersto‘money’andthisnounisuncountable)

9.Theparcelhasn’tarrivedyet.Threeweeksisalongtimeforaparceltoarrive.Ihopeithasn’tgonemissingorbeenstolen.(Seenasathree-weekunitandnotindividualweeks)

10.Theboardofdirectorsiscurrentlystandingforre-election.(Referstotheboard)

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Grammartestthree

Collocationsone

Fillthegapsbelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.TheBritishappear________morewinethaneverbefore

a)thataredrinkingb)todrinkc)tobedrinking

2.Shewasdelighted________theinvitationtoourwedding.

a)acceptingb)toacceptedc)toaccept

3.Thevillaindenied________anythingtodowiththerobbery.

a)tohaveb)havingc)hehas

4.However,heconfessedto________thecar.

a)stealb)stealingc)hestole

5.Itisforbidden________photographsinthemuseum.

a)takingb)takec)totake

6.Ithurts________howbadlyhetreatedme.

a)torememberb)rememberingc)remember

7.Imagine________thelottery.Itwouldbefantastic.Icanonlydream.

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canonlydream.

a)towinb)winningc)win

8.Theyinvitedus________onholidaywiththem.

a)gob)togoc)going

9.Mynewmanagerialpositioninthecompanyinvolves________extremelydifficultdecisions.

a)takeb)totakec)taking

10.Hemanaged________theassignmentjustintime.

a)tofinishb)finishc)finishing

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Grammartestthree-answers

1.TheBritishappeartobedrinkingmorewinethaneverbefore

Progressive–TheBritisharedrinkingmorewinethanever=apresentongoingfact

TheBritishappeartobedrinking=itseemstheyaredrinkingmorewinethanever.

2.Shewasdelightedtoaccepttheinvitationtoourwedding.(Mostadjectivesarefollowedbytheinfinitive)

3.Thevillaindeniedhavinganythingtodowiththerobbery.

4.However,heconfessedtostealingthecar.

5.Itisforbiddentotakephotographsinthemuseum.

6.Ithurtstorememberhowbadlyhetreatedme.

7.Imaginewinningthelottery.Itwouldbefantastic.Icanonlydream.

8.Theyinvitedustogoonholidaywiththem.

9.Mynewmanagerialpositioninthecompanyinvolvestakingextremelydifficultdecisions.

10.Hemanagedtofinishtheassignmentjustintime.

Note

Innumbersthreeandfour,wecaneitherusethegerundortheperfectiveformwiththeverbs‘deny’and‘confess’.Theperfectiveformalwaysindicatescompletion,whereas,thegerund,dependingoncontextandspecificverbs,canmeancompletionbutattimesstillongoinginthepresent.

Hedeniedhavinganythingtodowiththerobbery.Hereit’sclearthattherobberyhappenedinthepast.

Hedeniedhavinghadanythingtodowiththerobbery.Therobberyhappenedinthepast.Bothversionsarepossible.Itusuallydependsonastylisticchoice.

Heconfessedtostealingthecar.Inthepasthestolethecar.It’sclear.

Heconfessedtohavingstolenthecar.Inthepast.It’sclear.

Examplesof‘deny+gerund’and‘confess+gerund’whensomethingisnotinthepastbutongoingnow.

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thepastbutongoingnow.

Hedeniedbeingmywife’slover.Nowheismywife’slover.

Heconfessedtobeingmywife’slover.Nowheismywife’slover.

Perfectiveaspect

Hedeniedhavingbeenmywife’slover.Completion.Heisnotmywife’sloveranymore.

Heconfessedtohavingbeenmywife’slover.Completion.Heisnotmywife’sloveranymore.

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Grammartestfour

Verbcollocationstwo

Fillthegapsbelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Wouldyoumind________meyourpenforasecond?

a)tolendb)lendc)lending

2.Hedoesn’tmind________us.Infacthesayshewillgladlydoso.

a)tohelpb)helpingc)help

3.Thepoliceorderedtherobbers________theirhandsintheair.

a)putb)puttingc)toput

4.Thechildrenpretended________asleep.Theyarealwaysplayingsillylittlegamesonme.

a)tobeb)beingc)be

5.Herefused________myadvice.

a)tolistenb)listenc)tolistento

6.Ijustcouldn’tresist________thatnewcar.

a)tobuyb)buyingc)tobuy

7.TodayIspentsomuchtime________theshopsfora

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birthdaypresentformymother.

a)tosearchb)searchingc)search

8.Theysuggested________re-sittheexam.

a)tomeb)Ic)me

9.Theburglarthreatened________meifIdidn’tshowhimwheremyjewellerywashidden.

a)killingb)tokillc)kill

10.Thebosswishes________toyouinhisoffice.

a)tospeakb)speakingc)speak

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Grammartestfour-answers

1.Wouldyoumindlendingmeyourpenforasecond?

2.Hedoesn’tmindhelpingus.Infacthesayshewillgladlydoso.

3.Thepoliceorderedtherobberstoputtheirhandsintheair.

4.Thechildrenpretendedtobeasleep.Theyarealwaysplayingsillylittlegamesonme.

5.Herefusedtolistentomyadvice.

6.Ijustcouldn’tresistbuyingthatnewcar.

7.TodayIspentsomuchtimesearchingtheshopsforabirthdaypresentformymother.

8.TheysuggestedIre-sittheexam.

9.TheburglarthreatenedtokillmeifIdidn’tshowhimwheremyjewellerywashidden.

10.Thebosswishestospeaktoyouinhisoffice.

Note

Theverb‘suggest’isfollowedbythegerundformoftheverbwhenwedonotfocusontheperson/sreceivingthesuggestion.Ifwementionthereceiverofthesuggestion,weneedtousethebareinfinitivewithouttheto

Thereisnodifferenceinmeaninginthefollowingexamples.

1.HesuggestedIgototheconcert.

2.HesuggestedIwenttotheconcert.

3.HesuggestedthatIgototheconcert(that)isoptional

4.Hesuggestedgoingtotheconcert.

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Grammartestfive

Verbcollocationsthree

Completethegapsbelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Themotherwarnedheryoungson________nearthehotstove.

a)togob)todon’tgoc)nottogo

2.Shealwaysgoestothemarket________freshfish.

a)forbuyingb)tobuyc)fortobuy

3.Everybodystopped________whenthedirectorenteredtheroom.

a)talkingb)totalkc)talk

4.Weregret________youthatyourapplicationforthejobhasbeenturneddown.

a)informingb)informc)toinform

5.Isorelyregret_____tobeadoctor.

a)Ididn’tstudyb)nottohavestudiedc)nothavingstudied

6.“Iremember________thatmansomewherebeforebutIcan’tforthelifeofmerememberwhereorwhen.Maybeitwillcomebacktome.”“Yes,you’reright.He

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doeslookfamiliaralsotome.”

a)toseeb)seeingc)Isaw

7.“Didyouremember________themeatoutofthefreezerthismorning?”“Ohno!Icompletelyforgot.There’snothingfordinner.Let’sphonetheChinesetakeaway.”

a)takingb)totakec)youtook

8.Youaren’tallowed________photosinthemuseum

a)takingb)totakec)fortaked)totaking

9.Wehope________enoughmoneybythetimeChristmascomes.

a)tohavesavedb)savingc)ofhavesaved

10.Wehope________anewcarsoon.Thisonehasseenbetterdays.

a)buyb)tobuyc)buying

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Grammartestfive-answers

1.Themotherwarnedheryoungsonnottogonearthehotstove.

2.Shealwaysgoestothemarkettobuyfreshfish.

3.Everybodystoppedtalkingwhenthedirectorenteredtheroom.

4.Weregrettoinformyouthatyourapplicationforthejobhasbeenturneddown.

5.Isorelyregretnothavingstudiedtobeadoctor.

6.“IrememberseeingthatmansomewherebeforebutIcan’tforthelifeofmerememberwhereorwhen.Maybeitwillcomebacktome.”“Yes,you’reright.Hedoeslookfamiliaralsotome.”

7.“Didyouremembertotakethemeatoutofthefreezerthismorning?”“Ohno!Icompletelyforgot.There’snothingfordinner.Let’sphonetheChinesetakeaway.”

8.Youaren’tallowedtotakephotosinthemuseum

9.WehopetohavesavedenoughmoneybythetimeChristmascomes.

10.Wehopetobuyanewcarsoon.Thisonehasseenbetterdays.

Note

Stoptalking=nottalkinganymore

Stoptotalk=stopforamomenttotalk

Regret+infinitive=aformalway,mainlyinformalwrittencorrespondence,tosay‘sorry’.

Regretcanbeusedwiththegerundortheperfectiveaspect.

Regretnotstudying/regretnothavingstudied.However,youneedtobecareful,assometimes‘regret+gerund’doesnotalwaysmeaninthepast.Itdependsonwhichverbyouuseandalsowhichcontext.E.g.Iregretnotwearingmynewdress,couldmeannow,thatisifyouarriveatameetingwithyouroldjeansonandeveryoneelseisdressedinsmartclothes,oritcanmeaninthepast,againdependingoncontext.E.g.Iregretnotwearingmynewdresstothemeetingyesterday.Withtheperfectiveaspect,italwaysmeans‘completion’,inthepast.

Innumbernine,‘hope+perfectiveaspect’=acompletedactionatafuturetime.

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time.

Rememberseeing,‘remember+gerund’=Irecallinmymindsomethingthathappenedinthepast.

Remembertosee,remember+infinitive’=don’tforget(inthefuture)todosomething.

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Grammartestsix

Collocationsfour

Fillthegapsineachsentencebelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Ihate________youbutI’velostthatbookyoulentme.

a)totellb)oftellc)tell

2.Ireallyhate________upearlyinthemorning.Iamdefinitelynotamorningperson.

a)gettingb)togetc)get

3.Ican’tstand________anythingtodo.Iliketokeepmyselfbusy.

a)tonothaveb)nothavingc)todon’thave

4.Wehaven’tgotenoughtime________thedeadline.

a)fortomeetb)tomeetc)formeet

5.Hewaskeen________thecollegecourse.

a)tostartb)startingc)onstart

6.Iamverykeen________.Ispendmostofmytimeatthelocalswimmingbaths.

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a)toswimb)onswimmingc)swimming

7.Saraarrivedlateattheconcertandmissed________thegroupsingherfavouritesong

a)hearb)tohearc)hearing

8.SinceImovedtothecityIreallymiss________forlongwalksalongthecountrylanes.

a)goingb)togoc)go

9.We’llphoneBillwhenwefinish________ourdinner.

a)toeatb)eatingc)eat

10.Weareplanning________toNewYorkforChristmas.

a)gob)togoc)going

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Grammartestsix-answers

1.IhatetotellyoubutI’velostthatbookyoulentme.

2.Ireallyhategettingupearlyinthemorning.Iamdefinitelynotamorningperson.

3.Ican’tstandnothavinganythingtodo.Iliketokeepmyselfbusy.

4.Wehaven’tgotenoughtimetomeetthedeadline.

5.Hewaskeentostartthecollegecourse.

6.Iamverykeenonswimming.Ispendmostofmytimeatthelocalswimmingbaths.

7.Saraarrivedlateattheconcertandmissedhearingthegroupsingherfavouritesong.

8.SinceImovedtothecityIreallymissgoingforlongwalksalongthecountrylanes.

9.We’llphoneBillwhenwefinisheatingourdinner.

10.WeareplanningtogotoNewYorkforChristmas.

Note

Hate+infinitive=ononeoccasiononly

Hate+gerund=always

Innumberfour,‘time’isanounandusuallynounsarefollowedbytheinfinitiveoftheverb

Keen+infinitive=eager

Keenon+gerund,theprepositionforcesthegerund.‘Tobekeenondoingsomething’=tolikeverymuch.

Miss+gerundinnumberseven,=arrivetoolateforsomething

Miss+gerundinnumbereight=havenostalgiaforsomethingorsomeone

Innumbertenwecansay,‘plantogo’orplanongoing’,asalways,theprepositionforcesthegerund.

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Grammartestseven

Verbcollocationsfive

Fillthegapsineachsentencebelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Hedidn’tintend________youcry.He’sagoodperson.

a)tomakeb)makingc)make

2.Hepostponed________toLondonbecausehehadtoomuchworktofinish.

a)togob)goingc)togo

3.Whydosomeoftheworld’srichestpeoplenotretire?________toworkprovidesstructureandmeaningintheirlives.

a)tocontinueb)continuingc)continue

4.Thereisnotmuchtheycandothat________peoplefromabusingthesystem.

a)tostopb)tostopc)willstop

5.Thereisnotmuchtheycando________peoplefromabusingthesystem.

a)tostopb)thatstopsc)willstop

6.Hetriedtopreventme________outwithmyfriends.

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6.Hetriedtopreventme________outwithmyfriends.Hisjealousyhasnolimits.

a)togob)goingc)fromgoing

7.Ivolunteered________myfathercleanthegarage.

a)helpb)tohelpc)inhelping

8.________yournewcomputer,firstremoveitsprotectivewrapping.

a)settingupb)tosetupc)setdownd)tosetdown

9.Ireallydread________toworktomorrowafterthatbigargumentIhadwithmyboss.

a)togob)goingc)go

10.Heseems________alotlately.Ihopeheisn’till.

a)tobesleepingb)tosleepc)oftosleep

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Grammartestseven-answers

1.Hedidn’tintendtomakeyoucry.He’sagoodperson.

2.HepostponedgoingtoLondonbecausehehadtoomuchworktofinish.

3.Whydosomeoftheworld’srichestpeoplenotretire?Continuingtoworkprovidesstructureandmeaningintheirlives.

4.Thereisnotmuchtheycandothatwillstoppeoplefromabusingthesystem.

5.Thereisnotmuchtheycandotostoppeoplefromabusingthesystem.

6.Hetriedtopreventmefromgoingoutwithmyfriends.Hisjealousyhasnolimits.

7.Ivolunteeredtohelpmyfathercleanthegarage.

8.Tosetupyournewcomputer,firstremoveitsprotectivewrapping.

9.IreallydreadgoingtoworktomorrowafterthatbigargumentIhadwithmyboss.

10.Heseemstobesleepingalotlately.Ihopeheisn’till.

Innumberten,theprogressiveformisused.Heissleepingalotlately=afact.Heseemstobesleepingalotlately,=wehavethisimpression.

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Grammartesteight

Collocationssix

Fillthegapsineachsentencebelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.There’snopoint________Johntocomewithus.Healwayssaysno.

a)toaskb)inaskingc)toasking

2.Hewasafool________acceptthejob.Itcamewithsomanybenefitsincludingacompanycar.

a)nottob)tonotc)todon’td)ofnot

3.It’sawasteoftime________him________comehomesolate.Heneverlistens.

a)tell/tonotb)totell/todon’tc)telling/notto

4.It’snouse________Sally.Sheneveranswersthephone.

a)tophoneb)phoningc)phone

5.Wehavenointention________tohimafterwhathedid.

a)tospeakb)ofspeakingc)fortospeak

6.It’stimeyou________.

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a)gob)togoc)wentd)going

7.It’stime________

a)togob)wegoc)going

8.BørgeOuslandfromNorway,wasthefirstperson________soloandunsupportedtotheNorthPolein1994.

a)towalkb)walkedc)walking

9.Myneighbourisverylucky________somuchmoney.

a)tohavebeenwonb)tohavewonc)havingwon

10.Hecomplainsallthetimeabouthisjobwithoutrealisingjusthowveryluckyheis________one.

a)havingb)tohavec)tobehaving

Page 116: English Grammar: Advanced grammar and vocabulary quiz …

Grammartesteight-answers

1.There’snopointinaskingJohntocomewithus.Healwayssaysno.

2.Hewasafoolnottoacceptthejob.Itcamewithsomanybenefitsincludingacompanycar.

3.It’sawasteoftimetellinghimnottocomehomesolate.Heneverlistens.

4.It’snousephoningSally.Sheneveranswersthephone.

5.Wehavenointentionofspeakingtohimafterwhathedid.

6.It’stimeyouwent.time+pasttenseofverb/time+subject+infinitiveofverb

7.It’stimetogo.

8.BørgeOuslandfromNorway,wasthefirstpersontowalksoloandunsupportedtotheNorthPolein1994.

9.Myneighbourisveryluckytohavewonsomuchmoney.

10.Hecomplainsallthetimeabouthisjobwithoutrealisingjusthowveryluckyheistohaveone.

Note

Innumbersix,‘time+pasttense’denotesacertainurgency.Emphasisisputonthesubject,inthiscase,‘you’.

Innumberseven,‘time+infinitive’isacasualreminderwithnourgencyinthevoiceofthespeaker.

Innumbereight,usenoun+infinitive.

Innumbernine,theperfectiveaspectimpliesacompletedaction.

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Grammartestnine

Collocationsseven

Fillthegapsineachsentencebelowwiththecorrectanswers.

1.Thethought________foranotherthirtyyearsmakesmefeelsodepressed.

a)toworkb)ofworkc)ofworking

2.Beforetakingyourdrivingtest,itisimportant________.

a)practisingb)thatyouwillhavepractisedc)tohavepractised

3.Iamveryexcited________thisopportunity________withyourcompany.

a)for/toworkb)about/toworkc)with/ofwork

4.Iwish________anotherlanguagethenIwouldhavemorejobopportunities.

a)tospeakb)Icouldspeakc)wouldspeak

5.Wehadabsolutelynoideahowtousetheprogramuntilthetechnician________

a)explainedusitb)explainedtousitc)explaineditto

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us

6.Hetreatsme________ababy.

a)asifIwereb)likeIwasc)as

7.He________belate.Thatistypicalofhim.He’snevereverarrivedontime.

a)isboundb)isboundtoc)boundto(wearecertainofthis)

8.It’sverycoldoutside.I________ratherwe________outtonight.Let’sjuststayathome.

a)had/didn’tgob)would/notgoc)would/didn’tgod)had/wenotgo

9.It’stime________.Thelastbusisintenminutes’time.

a)weleaveb)weleftc)wegod)weshouldgo

Thepasttensegivestheideaofsomethingmoreurgent

10.“Let’smeetforacoffee.”“When?”“________youlike.”

a)sometimeb)anytimec)anytime

________thatifyou

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Grammartestnine-answers

1.Thethoughtofworkingforanotherthirtyyearsmakesmefeelsodepressed.

2.Beforetakingyourdrivingtest,itisimportanttohavepractised.

3.Iamveryexcitedaboutthisopportunitytoworkwithyourcompany.

4.IwishIcouldspeakanotherlanguagethenIwouldhavemorejobopportunities.

5.Wehadabsolutelynoideahowtousetheprogramuntilthetechnicianexplainedittous.

6.HetreatsmeasifIwereababy.

7.Heisboundtobelate.Thatistypicalofhim.He’snevereverarrivedontime.

8.It’sverycoldoutside.Iwouldratherwedidn’tgoouttonight.Let’sjuststayathome.

9.It’stimeweleft.Thelastbusisintenminutes’time.

10.“Let’smeetforacoffee.”“When?”“Anytimeyoulike.”

Note

Innumbertwo,theperfectiveaspectdenotescompletion.

Compare:It’simportanttopractise,anongoingaction/fact.It’simportanttohavepracticed,acompletedaction.

Innumberfour,wish+pasttense,isusedforapresentwish.Wish+pastperfect,isusedforapastwish.

Innumberseven,theuseof‘tobeboundto+bareinfinitive’=todeducethisasacertainty,possiblybecauseheisalwayslate/tohavestrongreasontobelievesomethingwillhappen.

Again,asseenpreviously,theuseof‘time+subject+pasttense’,givestheideaofurgency.

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Grammartestten

Collocationseight

Fillthegapsineachofthefollowingsentenceswithoneofthefollowing.

a)howeverb)wheneverc)whateverd)wherevere)whicheverf)whatsoever

1.“Thedoorbellisringing.Ifit’sforme,tell______itis,I’mout.I’mnotinthemoodtotalktoanyone.”

2.________Ifeelsad,Ialwaysputonmyfavouritemusic.Itcheersmeup.

3.________Igo,IalwaysseemtomeetMartin.I’msurehe’sstalkingme.

4.________youdo,don’ttelldadIborrowedhiscarorhe’llkillme.

5.________muchItry,Ican’tseemtoloseanyweight________.

6.HegetshoundedbyPaparazzi________hegoes.

7.Whatdaydoyouwanttomeetnextweek?”________.Idon’tmind.I’mfreeeveryday.

8.“Noyoucan’thavebothcakes,”saidmother.“Take________oneyoupreferandleavetheotheroneforyourbrother.”

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brother.”

9.“Ifyouaregoingtobelateforanyreason________,phonemeandletmeknow,”saidBelinda’smother.

10.________badheis,heisstillmysonandIwillalwayslovehim.

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Grammartestten-answers

1.“Thedoorbellisringing.Ifit’sforme,tellwhoeveritis,I’mout.I’mnotinthemoodtotalktoanyone.”

2.WheneverIfeelsad,Ialwaysputonmyfavouritemusic.Itcheersmeup.

3.WhereverIgo,IalwaysseemtomeetMartin.I’msurehe’sstalkingme.

4.Whateveryoudo,don’ttelldadIborrowedhiscarorhe’llkillme.

5.HowevermuchItry,Ican’tseemtoloseanyweightwhatsoever.

6.HegetshoundedbyPaparazziwhereverhegoes.

7.Whatdaydoyouwanttomeetnextweek?”Whenever.Idon’tmind.I’mfreeeveryday.

8.“Noyoucan’thavebothcakes,”saidmother.“Takewhicheveroneyoupreferandleavetheotheroneforyourbrother.”

9.“Ifyouaregoingtobelateforanyreasonwhatsoever,phonemeandletmeknow,”saidBelinda’smother.

10.Howeverbadheis,heisstillmysonandIwillalwayslovehim.

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Grammartesteleven

Modalauxiliaryverbssemimodals

Gooverthegrammarrulesbelowbeforedoingtheexercisethatfollows

Use‘should+bareinfinitiveoftheverb’whengivingadviceormakingsuggestionsaboutthepresentorthefuture

Example–thepresent

PersonA:“I’vegotaterribleheadache.”

PersonB:“Youshouldtakeanaspirin.”

Example–thefuture

PersonA:“I’vegotajobinterviewnextweek.”

PersonB:“Youshoulddresssmartlyandarrivepunctual.”

Use‘shouldn’t/shouldnot’+bareinfinitiveoftheverbwhenadvisingagainstdoingsomething.

Example:Youshouldn’tlistentoMandy’sadvice.She’sgotnoknowledgeonthesubject.

Whengivingadviceormakingasuggestionaboutthepastweuse‘shouldhave+pastparticiple’.

PersonA:“Ihadaterribleheadachelastnight.Icouldn’t

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PersonA:“Ihadaterribleheadachelastnight.Icouldn’tsleepallnight.”

PersonB:“Youshouldhavetakenanaspirin.”

Wealsouse‘should+bareinfinitive’whenexpressinglikelihood–whatisexpected-aboutthepresentorthefuture.

Example:-present

PersonA:“Alexshouldbeintheofficebynow.It’snineo’clockandthat’swhattimehestartswork.”

PersonB:“OkaythenI’llphonetheofficenow.He’slefthisbriefcaseathomeandit’sfullofimportantdocuments.”

Example:future

PersonA:“Thebusshouldbehereinabouttenminutes.”

PersonB:“Iknow.Ilookedonmymobilephoneapp.It’sbeenheldupduetoanaccident.”

Anotherexample:

PersonA:“Youshouldgetthejob.You’vegotalltherightqualifications.”

PersonB:“YesIknowbutIdon’thaveanyexperience.Here’shoping.”

Pasttense

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Pasttense

PersonA:“Thebusislate.Itshouldhavebeenheretenminutesago.”(Thiswasexpected)

PersonB:“There’sprobablybeenanaccident.”

Shouldbe+gerund

Use‘shouldbe+gerund’whenthesubjectisexpected,usuallyasanobligation,tobedoingsomethingnow.

Mothertoson:“WhatareyoudoingwatchingTV?Youshouldbestudyingforyourexam.”

Usesofmust+bareinfinitive

Obligationfromthespeaker:

Examples:ImustremembertopostthisletterwhenI’mout.

“Youmuststopthisbadbehaviour,”saidMrsRankintoherson.

Deduction,whenyoupresumesomethingtobethecase

ItmustbeveryhotinRome,”

Tounderlinestrongnecessity

Dogsmustbewalkedatleasttwiceaday.

Strongrecommendation

Thenegativemustn’t=atallcosts,don’tdosomething.It

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Thenegativemustn’t=atallcosts,don’tdosomething.Itisforbidden

Noticeinthepark:Youmustn’ttreadontheflowerbeds.

‘Must’,whenusedforobligationandnotdeduction,hasthesamepasttenseas’haveto’,thatis,‘hadto’.

‘Must’isusedtoexpressobligationfromthespeaker,while‘haveto’expressesexternalobligation.

‘Haveto’comesundertheumbrellaof‘semi-modals’

Fillthegapsinthefollowingexercisewith‘haveto/don’thavemust/mustn’tshould/shouldn’t

1.Drivingat30milesperhourinthecityiscompulsory.

You____________driveat30milesanhourinthecity.

2.It’snotagoodideatolieonthebeachwithoutapplyingsunscreen.

You____________lieonthebeachwithoutapplyingsunscreen.

3.Inmylineofworkit’snecessarytobekindtotheclients.

You___________bekindtotheclientsinmylineofwork.

4.WecanwearwhatwewanttoworkonFridays.It’snotnecessarytodressinformalclothes.

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We__________wearformalclothestotheofficeonFridays.

5.“Don’ttalkwithyourmouthfull.It’sbadmannerstodoso.”saidSandratoheryoungchild.“Ifyouwanttosaysomethingthenwaituntilyou’veswallowedyourfood.”

6.“You___________talkwithyourmouthfull,”saidSandratoheryoungchild.“It’sbadmannerstodoso.”

7.“I’msotiredallthetime.”“You__________gotobedearlierinsteadofwatchingvideosuntilallhoursinthemorning.”

8.I__________remembertoturnoffthegasbeforeIgoout.I’malwaysleavingiton.

9.I__________doalotofovertimethisweeksoIwill__________stayintheofficeuntillate.We’vegotabackloadofworktofinishbeforenextFriday.

10.We__________gotoschooltomorrow.It’saholiday.

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Grammartesteleven-answers

1.Drivingat30milesperhourinthecityiscompulsory.

Youmustdriveat30milesanhourinthecity.

2.It’snotagoodideatolieonthebeachwithoutapplyingsunscreen.

Youshouldn’tlieonthebeachwithoutapplyingsunscreen.

3.Inmylineofworkit’snecessarytobekindtotheclients.

Youhavetobekindtotheclientsinmylineofwork.

4.WecanwearwhatwewanttoworkonFridays.It’snotnecessarytodressinformalclothes.

Wedon’thavetowearformalclothestotheofficeonFridays.

5.“Don’ttalkwithyourmouthfull.It’sbadmannerstodoso.”saidSandratoheryoungchild.“Ifyouwanttosaysomethingthenwaituntilyou’veswallowedyourfood.”

6.“Youmustn’ttalkwithyourmouthfull,”saidSandratoheryoungchild.“It’sbadmannerstodoso.”

7.“I’msotiredallthetime.”“Youshouldgotobedearlierinsteadofwatchingvideosuntilallhoursinthemorning.”

8.ImustremembertoturnoffthegasbeforeIgoout.I’malwaysleavingiton.

9.IhavetodoalotofovertimethisweeksoIwillhavetostayintheofficeuntillate.We’vegotabackloadofworktofinishbeforenextFriday.

10.Wedon’thavetogotoschooltomorrow.It’saholiday.

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Grammartesttwelve

Modalauxiliaryverbs-presentandpastone

Changethefollowingsentencesintothepast.Usetheadverbsoftimeinbrackets.

Example:Icanplaythepiano.(WhenIwassixyearsold)

IcouldplaythepianowhenIwassixyearsold.

Icancomewithyoutotheconcert.(Lastnight)

Icouldhavecomewithyoutotheconcertlastnight.

1.HecanspeakEnglishextremelywell.(Bytheageoffive)

________________________________________________

2.Youcantellthatyouareinaverygoodmood.(Thismorning)

________________________________________________

3.Mumcan’tmovebecauseshe’sbrokenherleg.(Yesterday)

________________________________________________

4.Wecan’tgotoLondon.We’reworking.(Lastweek)

________________________________________________

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________________________________________________

5.Imustgo.It’slate.(Thismorning)

________________________________________________

6.Who’sthatringingthedoorbell?Itmustbethecourier.Iorderedapairofshoesonline.(Anhourago)

________________________________________________

7.Thatcan’tbeJimdrivingpast.He’sinItaly.(Lastnight)

________________________________________________

8.Thephone’sringing.ItmightbeJanephoning.(Amomentago)

________________________________________________

9.Someone’soutsidecallingyourname.ItmaybeJane.Thedoorbellisn’tworking.(Fiveminutesago)

________________________________________________

10.It’spossiblethatmessageyouaccidentallydeletedwasfromTommy.(Afewminutesago)

________________________________________________

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Grammartesttwelve-answers

1.BytheageoffivehecouldspeakEnglishextremelywell.(Pasttenseof‘can’for‘ability’)

2.Youcouldtellthatyouwereinaverygoodmoodthismorning.

3.Mumcouldn’tmovebecauseshehadbrokenherlegthedaybefore.

4.Wecouldn’tgotoLondonlastweek.Wewereworking.(Lastweek)

5.Ihadtogothismorning.Itwaslate.(‘Must’forobligationhasthesamepasttenseas‘haveto’,thatis‘hadto’)

6.Whowasthatringingthedoorbellanhourago?Itmusthavebeenthecourier.Iorderedapairofshoesonline.(‘Must’usedasamodalverbof‘deduction’whichtaketheperfectivewhenplacedinthepasttense/’musthavebeen’implies‘tohavestrongreasontobelievesomething’,similarto‘it’sboundtobe,’asseeninthepreviousexercise)

7.Thatcouldn’thavebeenJimdrivingpastlastnight.He’sinItaly.(‘Can’t’initsmodalauxiliaryofdeductionform,becomes‘couldn’thave+pastparticle,(theperfectiveaspect)whendeducingthatsomethingishighlyunlikely)

8.Thephonewasringingamomentago.ItmighthavebeenJanephoning.(‘Might’usedasamodalauxiliaryofdeduction,becomes‘mighthave+pastparticle’toexpresspastpossibility)

9.Someonewasoutsidecallingyournamefiveminutesago.ItmayhavebeenJane.Thedoorbellisn’tworking.(‘May’usedasamodalauxiliaryofdeduction,becomes‘mayhave+pastparticle’toexpresspastpossibility.It’susedasamoreformalversionof‘might’)

10.Thatmessageyouaccidentallydeletedafewminutesagomight/mayhavebeenfromTommy.Thesameasnumbernine.

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Grammartestthirteen

Modalauxiliaryverbs-presentandpasttwo

1.Ireally________togonow.It’sgettinglate.Thelastbusleavesinaboutfifteenminutes.

a)shouldb)oughtc)must

2.Sally’slateagain.She________herehalfanhourago.

a)oughttobeb)shouldhavebeenc)oughthavebeen

3.You________herfacewhenshefoundoutherhusbandhadalreadybeenmarried-notoncebutthreetimes.

a)shouldhaveseenb)oughthaveseenc)oughttoseen

4.“WhydoyouthinkJanedidn’tphonemeyesterday?”“Idon’tknowbutshe________yournumber.”

a)mightforgetb)mighthaveforgottenc)wouldhaveforgot

5.Ididn’tthinkit________yesterdaybutitdid.Theweatherforecastsaidit________sunny.

a)rained/isb)wasraining/willbec)wouldhaverained/wouldbe

6.IreallywishI________Brianwhenhewasdismissed

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6.IreallywishI________BrianwhenhewasdismissedfromthehospitalbutunfortunatelyIwasonholidayatthetime.

a)couldhelpedb)wouldhavehelpedc)couldhavehelped

7.Weought________thetelephonebillbynow.It’sthe10thAugustanditwasduetoarriveonthe4th.

a)havereceivedb)receivedc)tohavereceived

8.“You________feedtheanimals,”saidthezookeepertolittleJohnny,whowasofferingthebearapieceofhischocolate.“Didn’tyouseethesign?Itsays,‘pleasedonotfeedtheanimals’.”

a)don’thavetob)youshouldn’tc)mustn’t

9.Icouldn’tgotoworkyesterdaybecauseI________gotothedoctor’s.Ifeltreallyill.

a)shouldhavegoneb)hadtoc)wasmeantto

10.ThedoctortoldmeI________totakethismedicineforsevendays.

a)shouldb)mustb)have

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Grammartestthirteen-answers

1.Ireallyoughttogonow.It’sgettinglate.Thelastbusleavesinaboutfifteenminutes.(‘Ought’istheonlyonewhichrequiresthepreposition‘to’afterit)

2.Sally’slateagain.Sheshouldhavebeenherehalfanhourago.(‘Shouldhavebeen’isthepasttenseof‘shouldbe’andinthiscontext,itimpliesexpectation.Itwasexpectedofhertobeherehalfanhourago)

3.Youshouldhaveseenherfacewhenshefoundoutherhusbandhadalreadybeenmarried-notoncebutthreetimes.(Unlikenumber2,‘shouldhave+pastparticiple’intheabovecontext,denotessurpriseorshock,itissimilarto‘Iwishyouhadseenherface)

4.“WhydoyouthinkJanedidn’tphonemeyesterday?”“Idon’tknowbutshemighthaveforgottenyournumber.”(‘mighthave+pastparticiple’means‘itispossiblethatsomethinghappenedinthepast.Inthiscase,itmeans,‘it’spossiblethatsheforgotyournumber)

5.Ididn’tthinkitwouldhaverainedyesterdaybutitdid.Theweatherforecastsaiditwouldbesunny.(Ididn’tthinkitwouldhaverained=Ididn’texpectittorain/’wouldbe’isthepasttenseof‘willbe’)

6.IreallywishIcouldhavehelpedBrianwhenhewasdismissedfromthehospitalbutunfortunatelyIwasonholidayatthetime.(IwishIcouldhavehelped=Iwishithadbeenpossibleformetohelphim)

7.Weoughttohavereceivedthetelephonebillbynow.It’sthe10thAugustanditwasduetoarriveonthe4th.(Weoughttohavereceived=itwasexpectedthatwereceivedthebillbeforenoworupuntilnow)

8.“Youmustn’tfeedtheanimals,”saidthezookeepertolittleJohnny,whowasofferingthebearapieceofhischocolate.“Didn’tyouseethesign?Itsays,‘pleasedonotfeedtheanimals’.”(‘Mustn’t’,inthisexample,impliesstrongobligationnottodosomething,whereas‘don’thaveto’means,‘it’snotnecessarybutyoucanifyouwant’,and‘shouldn’t’meansthat‘itisnotrecommended)

9.Icouldn’tgotoworkyesterdaybecauseIhadtogotothedoctor’s.Ifeltreallyill.(‘Hadto’means,obligation,whereas‘shouldhavegone,’meansIdidn’tgobutitwouldhavebeenagoodideatogo,’and‘wasmeanttogo,’meansitwasexpectedofmetogobutIdidn’tgo)

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10.ThedoctortoldmeIhavetotakethismedicineforsevendays.(‘Haveto’isusedforobligation)

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Grammartestfourteen

Willfordeductionand/orprediction

Changethefollowingsentencesusingeither‘will’or‘won’t’(inthepastorpresent)andanyothernecessarywordsomittingthewordsinitalics.

Example:ThatisprobablyJohnatthedoor.

Answer:ThatwillbeJohnatthedoor.(Ipresumethistobethecase/Iseeitasbeinghighlyprobable)

1.Heislikelytobeinatrafficjam.

2.Iguessheforgotaboutourappointment.

3.Mum’snotathome.She’smostcertainlyatthedentist’s.

4.Idon’texpecttopassmyexams.Ihaven’thadtimetostudy.

5.Hedoesn’tspeakEnglishverywellsohemostcertainlydidn’tunderstandthedirectionsyougavehim.

6.It’shighlyunlikelythatJamesspoketoKarensorudely.Shealwaysexaggerates.

7.Ireallydon’texpecthimtoarriveontime.

8.“Leonardisnotansweringhisphone.”“Isuspecthe

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leftitathome.He’salwaysforgettingtotakeitwithhim.”

9.IsawPeter’scaroutside.It’sallsmashedup.Ireckonhecrashedit.Isawhimdrivingattopspeedlastnight.

10.There’ssmokecomingoutofthenext-doorneighbour’skitchenwindow.Inallprobabilityhe’sburnthisdinneragain.

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Grammartestfourteen-answers

1.Hewillbeinatrafficjam.

2.He’llhaveforgottenaboutourappointment.

3.Mum’snotathome.She’llbeatthedentist’s.

4.Iwon’tpassmyexams.Ihaven’thadtimetostudy.

5.Hedoesn’tspeakEnglishverywellsohewon’thaveunderstoodthedirectionsyougavehim.

6.Jameswon’thavespokentoKarensorudely.Shealwaysexaggerates.

7.Hewon’tarriveontime.

8.“Leonardisnotansweringhisphone.”“He’llhaveleftitathome.He’salwaysforgettingtotakeitwithhim.”

9.IsawPeter’scaroutside.It’sallsmashedup.He’llhavecrashedit.Isawhimdrivingattopspeedlastnight.

10.There’ssmokecomingoutofthenext-doorneighbour’skitchenwindow.He’llhaveburnthisdinneragain.

Note

Thefutureperfectsimple,‘will+have+been’,isusedasa‘presentprediction/assumptionforsomethingalreadycompleted’,innumberstwo,five,six,eight,nineandten.Thistenseisalsousedtoindicatecompletionatafuturetime.E.g.AttheendoftheyearIwillhavesavedenoughmoneytogoonholiday.

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Grammartestfifteen

Conditionals

1.Ifyouhadn’ttoldhershewouldnever________.

a)haveknownb)knewc)hadknown

2.Hemight________hisexamifhe________intostudylastnight.

a)havepassed/hadstayedb)havepast/stayedc)passed/hadstayed

3.You’dbetterbringinthewashingincase________whenweareout.

a)itwillrainb)itrainsc)ofitraining

4.Ihaven’tgotajobsoIcan’tgoonholidaythisyear.IfIhadajobI________goonholiday.

a)willb)couldc)may

5.IwishIhadnevergoneoutlastnight.IwastedsomuchmoneythatIcan’taffordtospend.IfI________out,Iwouldn’t________somuchmoney.

a)didn’tgo/havewastedb)hadn’tgone/hadwastedc)hadn’tgone/havewasted

6.IfI________inyourshoes,Iwouldhaveacceptedthe

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job.Itwastheopportunityofalifetime.Youwerereallysillytohaveturneditdown.

a)hadbeenb)weretobec)was

7.I________calledyoulastnightifmyphone________.

a)would/wasworkingb)wouldhave/workedc)wouldhave/hadbeenworking.

8.IshouldneverhavespokentoJohnlikethat.Nowhe’snottalkingtomeanymore.

IfI________toJohnlikethat,he________tome.

a)didn’tspeak/stilltalkb)hadn’tspoken/wouldstillbetalkingc)hadn’tspoken/wouldhavetalkedtome.

9.It’sapitywecouldn’tmeetwhenyoucametoLondonbutIwasabroadonbusiness.IfI________abroadonbusiness,we________whenyoucametoLondon.

a)wasn’t/shouldhavemetb)hadn’tbeen/wouldmeetc)hadn’tbeen/couldhavemet

10.Mumissorryshedidn’tanswerthephonebutshewassleepingatthetime.Ifmum________she________thephone.

a)wasn’tsleeping/couldanswerb)hadn’tslept/wouldanswerc)hadn’tbeensleeping/wouldhaveanswered

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Grammartestfifteen-answers

1.Ifyouhadn’ttoldhershewouldneverhaveknown.

2.Hemighthavepassedhisexamifhehadstayedintostudylastnight.

3.You’dbetterbringinthewashingincaseitrainswhenweareout.

4.Ihaven’tgotajobsoIcan’tgoonholidaythisyear.IfIhadajobIcouldgoonholiday.

5.IwishIhadnevergoneoutlastnight.IwastedsomuchmoneythatIcan’taffordtospend.IfIhadn’tgoneout,Iwouldn’thavewastedsomuchmoney.

6.IfIhadbeeninyourshoes,Iwouldhaveacceptedthejob.Itwastheopportunityofalifetime.Youwerereallysillytohaveturneditdown.

7.Iwouldhavecalledyoulastnightifmyphonehadbeenworking.

8.IshouldneverhavespokentoJohnlikethat.Nowhe’snottalkingtomeanymore.

IfIhadn’tspokentoJohnlikethat,hewouldstillbetalkingtome.

9.It’sapitywecouldn’tmeetwhenyoucametoLondonbutIwasabroadonbusiness.IfIhadn’tbeenabroadonbusiness,wecouldhavemetwhenyoucametoLondon.

10.Mumissorryshedidn’tanswerthephonebutshewassleepingatthetime.Ifmumhadn’tbeensleepingshewouldhaveansweredthephone.

Note

Mostoftheexamplesaboveareinthethirdconditional.If+subject+pastperfect(forthecondition)subject+would+presentperfect(fortheresultofthecondition)

Besides,would+presentperfectfortheresultofthecondition,themodals,might,may,andcouldcanbeusedtoexpressdifferentlevelsofpossibility.‘Would’inthethirdconditionalexpressescertaintywhilemight,may,andcould,expresssimilarlevelsofpossibility.

Numberthree–youhadbetterbringinthewashingincaseitrains,issimilarinstructuretothefirstcondition,withthepresentsimpleontheresultofthecondition.Thisexpressesafuturepossibility.

Numberfourisanexampleofthesecondconditional,thehypotheticalcondition.

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Numberfourisanexampleofthesecondconditional,thehypotheticalcondition.If+subject+pastsimple(forthecondition)would/might/may/could+infinitive(fortheresultofthecondition)

Innumberseven,theresultoftheconditionisinthepastperfectcontinuousandnotthepastperfectsimple.Thisisbecausewereferbacktothecontinuoustense,‘myphonewasn’tworking’.

Numbereightisanexampleofthemixedconditional,thatis,whentheconditionisinthepastbuttheresultisinthepresent.Themixedconditionalisascommonlyusedastheotherconditionals.

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Grammartestsixteen

Passivestructuresone

1.Vandalssetthehouseonfire.Luckilytheydidn’tdomuchdamagetoit.Thefiremenwereonthesceneinsecondsflat.Luckilynodamage________thehouse.

a)wasdoneb)isdonec)wasdoneto

2.Mostofhisbooks________intodifferentlanguages.

a)weretranslateb)havebeentranslatedc)havetranslated

3.ThefirstFIFAworldcup______inUruguayinJuly1930.

a)wasplayedb)wasbeingplayedc)hasbeenplayed

4.ThebinmenwereemptyingthebinswhenIwentoutthismorning.Thebins______whenIwokeupthismorning.

a)wereemptiedb)isbeingemptiedc)werebeingemptied

5.Themeeting______tolastthewholeafternoon.

a)willbeexpectedb)isexpectedc)expects

6.Don’tgointothelivingroomasit________atthemoment.

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moment.

a)isbeingpaintedb)ispaintedc)isbeenpainted

7.A:“Dotheyallowsmokingintheconferenceroom?”

B:“No,smoking________.”

a)doesn’tallowedb)isn’tallowedc)hasn’tbeenallowed

8.We’llneedtofindanotherroute;themainroad________forrepairs.

a)isclosedb)closedc)beclosed

9.InSwitzerlandmorethanonelanguage________.

a)arespokeb)arespokenc)isspoken

A:“Whodoesthecleaninginyourhouse?”

10.B:“It________byacleaningladywhocomesinthreetimesaweek.

a)isbeingdoneb)isdonec)isdid

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Grammartestsixteen-answers

1.Vandalssetthehouseonfire.Luckilytheydidn’tdomuchdamagetoit.Thefiremenwereonthesceneinsecondsflat.Luckilynodamagenodamagewasdonethehouse.Pastsimplepassive

2.Mostofhisbookshavebeentranslatedintodifferentlanguages.Presentperfectpassive

3.ThefirstFIFAworldcupwasplayedinUruguayinJuly1930.Pastsimplepassive

4.ThebinmenwereemptyingthebinswhenIwentoutthismorning.ThebinswerebeingemptiedwhenIwokeupthismorning.Pastcontinuouspassive(noneedtoadd‘bythebinmen’asitisunderstoodthatonlythebinmenemptythebinsonthestreet)

5.Themeetingisexpectedtolastthewholeafternoon.Presentsimplepassive(Active–weexpectthemeetingtolastthewholeafternoon)

6.Don’tgointothelivingroomasitisbeingpaintedatthemoment.Presentcontinuouspassive

7.A:“Dotheyallowsmokingintheconferenceroom?”

B:“No,smokingisnotallowed.”Presentsimplepassive

8.We’llneedtofindanotherroute;themainroadisclosedforrepairs.Presentsimplepassive

9.InSwitzerlandmorethanonelanguageisspoken.Presentsimplepassive

A:“Whodoesthecleaninginyourhouse?”

10.B:“Itisdonebyacleaningladywhocomesinthreetimesaweek.Presentsimplepassive

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Grammartestseventeen

Passivestructurestwo

1.A:“Whataretheydoingtotheoldchurchinthetownsquare?”

B:“It________.

a)isrenovatedb)isbeingrenovatedc)willrenovate

2.A:Thatviewinthephotographisamazing.Where________?

a)isittookb)wasittakenc)hasitbeentaken

3.Wecanstopthesearchparty.Themissingman________just________.

a)is/foundb)has/beenfoundc)was/found

4.He________afewmomentsagobythemountainrescueteam.

a)hasbeenfoundb)wasbeenfoundc)wasfound

5.Scientistssaythatglobaltemperaturescouldriseby6Cbytheendofthecentury.It________thatglobaltemperaturescouldriseby6Cbytheendofthecentury.

a)saysb)issaidb)issaying

6.Thepolicesawhimdrivingalongthemotorwayattopspeed.He________alongthemotorwayattopspeed.

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speed.He________alongthemotorwayattopspeed.

a)wasdrivenb)wasseendrivingc)wasseentodrive

7.Thegatecrashersspoiledtheparty.Theparty________bythegatecrashers.

a)hadspoiledb)wasspoiledc)isspoiled

8.There’snowashingupliquidleft.They’veuseditallup.Allthewashingupliquid________up.

a)wasusedb)hasbeenusedc)isused

9.SomepeopleoncesaidthattheNormanConquestbroughtaboutchangesinallphasesofEnglishlife.TheNormanConquestisthought________aboutchangesinallphasesofEnglishlife.

a)tohavebroughtb)tohavebeenbroughtc)tobring

10.IthinkIhavebeenstungbyabee.

a)amstingedb)havebeenstungc)isbeenstung

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Grammartestseventeen-answers

1.A:“Whataretheydoingtotheoldchurchinthetownsquare?”

B:“Itisbeingrenovated.Presentcontinuouspassive

2.A:Thatviewinthephotographisamazing.Wherewasittaken?Pastsimplepassive

3.Wecanstopthesearchparty.Themissingmanhasjustbeenfound.Presentperfectpassive

4.Hewasfoundafewmomentsagobythemountainrescueteam.Pastsimplepassive

5.Scientistssaythatglobaltemperaturescouldriseby6Cbytheendofthecentury.Itissaidthatglobaltemperaturescouldriseby6Cbytheendofthecentury.Presentsimplepassive

6.Thepolicesawhimdrivingalongthemotorwayattopspeed.Hewasseendrivingalongthemotorwayattopspeed.Pastcontinuouspassive

7.Thegatecrashersspoiledtheparty.Thepartywasspoiledbythegatecrashers.Pastsimplepassive

8.There’snowashingupliquidleft.They’veuseditallup.Allthewashingupliquidhasbeenusedup.Presentperfectpassive

9.SomepeopleoncesaidthattheNormanConquestbroughtaboutchangesinallphasesofEnglishlife.TheNormanConquestisthoughttohavebroughtaboutchangesinallphasesofEnglishlife.Withthepasttense/pastparticipleverb‘thought’use‘thoughttobring’forapresentfact/thoughttohavebrought’foranythingoccurringbeforethepresentmoment.

10.IthinkIhavebeenstungbyabee.Presentperfectpassive

Note

Therearenoexamplesofthepresentperfectcontinuous/pastperfectcontinuousorfutureperfectcontinuouspassivesduetothefactthattheydon’texistinthepassivestructure.

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Grammartesteighteen

Pasttensesone

1.Itisnotcertainwhyshe________theexam.

a)didfailb)failedc)wasfailed

2.Bythetimethepolicearrived,theburglars________outthewarehouse.

a)clearedb)wereclearingc)hadcleared

3.Thequestion________attheannualmeeting

a)wasrisenb)wasraisedc)wasrose

4.Thechairman________tohisfeetattheendofthemeeting.

a)raisedb)rosec)wasraised

5.Beforetheygotmarried,they________togetherforseveralyears.

a)havelivedb)werelivingc)hadbeenliving

6.Itwasthefirsttimeshe________ever________abroad.

a)was/beenb)had/wentc)had/been

7.Wewaitedandwaitedbutby7o’clocktheystill________.Thatwaswhenwedecidedtogotothetheatre

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________.Thatwaswhenwedecidedtogotothetheatrewithoutthem.

a)didn’tarriveb)hadn’tarrivedc)weren’tarrived

8.I________himanemailaboutaweekagobuthestill________ityet.

a)havesent/hasn’tansweredb)wrote/didn’tanswerc)sent/hasn’tanswered

9.Nobody________theburglarasheleftthemansionwiththepricelesspaintings.Hecameandwentinthedarknessofthenight.

a)seenb)saw...c)hadseen

10.Shewascertainshe________himsomewherebefore.Hisfacewassofamiliar.

a)sawb)hadseenc)didn’tsee

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Grammartesteighteen-answers

Pasttensesone

1.Itisnotcertainwhyshefailedtheexam.

2.Bythetimethepolicearrived,theburglarshadclearedoutthewarehouse.Pastperfectsimpleindicatingthatsomethingwasalreadycompleted/donepriortoanotherpastaction/occurrence.‘Bythetime’isusedveryoftenwiththepastperfectsimple/continuous.

3.Thequestionwasraisedattheannualmeeting.Pastsimplepassive.Youraiseaquestionandraisedisthepasttenseandalsothepastparticipleoftheregularverb‘raise’.

4.Thechairmanrosetohisfeetattheendofthemeeting.Pastsimple.’Rose’isthepasttenseoftheirregularverb‘rise’.Complicationsoccurwithnonnativesastotheusageof‘rise/rose/risen’and‘raise/raised/raised’.(Rise/rose/risen-intransitiveirregularverb-itdoesn’thaveanobject).Weuse“rise”toindicatemotioninanupwarddirection.“Raise”isatransitiveregularverb.Youneedtouseitwithanobject.Youraise‘something’butyoucannot‘rise’something.Raisemeansto‘elevate/liftup’.

5.Beforetheygotmarried,theyhadbeenlivingtogetherforseveralyears.Pastperfectcontinuousisusedtoindicatesomethinginprogressuptoaspecificmomentinthepast.Normallyusedwithacontrastingpasttensetoshowtimeshifts,i.e.‘beforetheygotmarried.’

6.Itwasthefirsttimeshehadeverbeenabroad.Pastperfectsimpleindicatesanactionoroccurrencethathappenspriortoanotheractionoroccurrence.

7.Wewaitedandwaitedbutby7o’clocktheystillhadn’tarrived.Thatwaswhenwedecidedtogotothetheatrewithoutthem.Thesameasnumbersix.

8.Isenthimanemailaboutaweekagobuthestillhasn’tansweredityet.Pastsimple,finishedpast+presentperfect,connectspasttopresentwhenusedwith‘for’,‘since’orinthenegative‘yet’.

9.Nobodysawtheburglarasheleftthemansionwiththepricelesspaintings.Hecameandwentinthedarknessofthenight.Pastsimple,referringtofinishedpast.

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10.Shewascertainshehadseenhimsomewherebefore.Hisfacewassofamiliar.Pastperfectsimple.Shewascertain(inthepast)thatpriortothatmoment,shedidnotseehim.

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Grammartestnineteen

Pasttensestwo

1.She________nobodyaboutherboyfriend’scriminalrecord.Shefelttooembarrassed.

a)toldb)tellsc)didn’ttell

2.Yesterdayatthistimeit________fromtheheavens.

a)waspouredb)waspouringc)poured

3.She________athim,wonderingwhereshe________him.

a)looked/metb)waslooking/hadmetc)looked/met

4.A:“Wedidn’tknowLiz________backtoLondon.”

B:“Ohdidn’tyou!She________backaboutamonthago.”

a)moved/hadmovedb)hadmoved/movedc)wasmoving/moved

5.A:“Whodidyourmotherspeaktowhenshephonedthebank?”

B:“I’venoidea________to.”

a)whodidshespeakb)whoshespokec)whoshe’sspoken

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6.A:“WhatdidyoudolastSunday?”

B:“Ican’trememberwhat________.Ohnowithascomebacktome.IwenttothelakewithBob.”

a)didIdob)Idonec)Idid

7.Ididn’tknowthatyourbrother________toworkinthestates.Whendidhego?

a)hadgoneb)wasgonec)went

8.IspoketotheMrsJonesyesterdayforthefirsttimeever;beforethat,I________herbysight.

a)haveonlyknownb)onlyknewc)Iwasonlyknowing

9.Thewoman________whentheambulancearrived.Luckilytheymanagedtostabiliseheruntiltheygothertothehospital.Sheisnowsaidtobeinastablecondition.

a)diedb)haddiedc)wasdying

10.Myfatherwascaughtinaterriblestormonhiswayhomefromtheofficelastnight.Atonepointhereallythoughthe________hiswaybutluckilyhemanagedtogetbackontrack.

a)lostb)hadlostc)was

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Grammartestnineteen-answers

Pasttensestwo

1.Shetoldnobodyaboutherboyfriend’scriminalrecord.Shefelttooembarrassed.‘Shetoldnobody’isthesameas‘shedidn’ttellanybody’.CommonerrorsoccurwhenstudentsofEnglishsay,‘shedidn’ttellnobody’whichwouldmeanhavetheoppositemeaningastwonegativesmakeapositive.

2.Yesterdayatthistimeitwaspouringfromtheheavens.Pastcontinuoustoindicate‘anactionthatwasinprogressataspecificmomentinthepast.‘Itwaspouringfromtheheavens’means‘itwasrainingveryheavily.

3.Shewaslookingathim,wonderingwhereshehadmethim.Pastcontinuousisusedbecausetheactof‘looking’continuedforaperiod,eveniftheperiodwasonlyforafewmoments,alsotheactof‘wondering’lastforashortperiodoftime.Thepastperfectisusedasitindicatesshemethimpriortothatpastmomentoflookingathim.

4.A:“Wedidn’tknowLizhadmovedbacktoLondon.”Pastperfectisusedbecauseinthatpastmoment,wedidn’tknowthatshemovedbacktoLondonpriortothemomentofnotknowing.

B:“Ohdidn’tyou!Shemovedbackaboutamonthago.”Pastsimpletoindicatetheactionisfinished.

5.A:“Whodidyourmotherspeaktowhenshephonedthebank?”

B:“I’venoideawhoshespoketo.”Pasttenseasit’sunderstoodshephonedthebankinthepast.

6.A:“WhatdidyoudolastSunday?”

B:“Ican’trememberwhatIdid.Ohnowithascomebacktome.IwenttothelakewithBob.”Pastsimpleisusedasitindicatesaspecificfinishedtime,thatis,lastSunday.

7.Ididn’tknowthatyourbrotherhadgonetoworkinthestates.Whendidhego?Pastperfectisusedtoindicatethatpriortothemomentofnotknowing,thebrotherwenttothestates.Pastperfectshowsthatoneactionoccurredpriortoanother.

8.IspoketotheMrsJonesyesterdayforthefirsttimeever;beforethat,Ionly

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knewherbysight.Pastsimpleisusedbecauseitwasapastfactandnotanactionthatoccurredpriortoanother,thereforethepastperfectcannotbeusedinthisexample.

9.Thewomanwasdyingwhentheambulancearrived.Luckilytheymanagedtostabiliseheruntiltheygothertothehospital.Sheisnowsaidtobeinastablecondition.Pastcontinuousisusedastheactionofdyingwasinprogressataspecificmomentinthepast,thatis,whentheambulancearrived.

10.Myfatherwascaughtinaterriblestormonhiswayhomefromtheofficelastnight.Atonepointhereallythoughthehadlosthiswaybutluckilyhemanagedtogetbackontrack.Pastperfectisusedtoindicatethatpriortogettingbackontrack(inthepast)hethoughthewaslost.

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Grammartesttwenty

Perfectiveaspect

1.Overtheyearswe________hugeadvancesintechnology.

a)hadseenb)sawc)haveseen

2.Don’taskhimwhatItalianfoodtasteslike.He________it.

a)hasn’tnevertriedb)hasnevertriedc)hedidn’ttry

3.You’reneverontime.Thisistheseventhtimeyou________latethismonth

a)wereb)hadbeenc)havebeen

4.I________tocontactyouallafternoon.Where________?

a)havebeentrying/haveyoubeenb)amtrying/wereyouc)havebeentrying/youbeen

5.Whenshefinallyappearedlatelastnight,mum________tocontactherforovertenhours.

a)wastryingb)hadtriedc)hadbeentrying

6.I________himanemailaboutaweekagobuthestill________ityet.

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a)havesent/hasn’tansweredb)wrote/didn’tanswerc)sent/hasn’tanswered

7.I________myglasses.________themanywhere?

a)havelost/haveyouseenb)lost/haveyousawc)havebeenlosing/haveyouseen

8.Themanwhowasinjuredintheroadaccident________forhislifesincelastFriday.

a)hasfoughtb)foughtc)hasbeenfighting

9.Whenthedoctorsfinallygavehimtheall-clear,he________forhislifeforalmostamonth.

a)wasfightingb)hehadbeenfightingc)wasbeenfought

10.Policesaythatabreathalyzerrevealedthatthemanwhocausedtheaccident________.He________arrested.

a)wasdrinking/wasb)drank/isc)hadbeendrinking/hasbeen

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Grammartesttwenty-answers

1.Overtheyearswehaveseenhugeadvancesintechnology.Presentperfectindicatingfromthepastuntilthepresent.

2.Don’taskhimwhatItalianfoodtasteslike.Hehasnevertriedit.Sameasnumberone

3.You’reneverontime.Thisistheseventhtimeyouhavebeenlatethismonth.Sameasnumberoneandtwo.

4.Ihavebeentryingtocontactyouallafternoon.Wherehaveyoubeen?Presentperfectcontinuous,indicatinganactioninprogressfrompasttopresent+presentperfectsimpleindicatingfrompastuntilnow.

5.Whenshefinallyappearedlatelastnight,mumhadbeentryingtocontactherforovertenhours.Pastperfectcontinuousindicatingthatpriortoherappearing,inthepast,mumcontinuedtotrytomakecontactwithherupuntilthatpastmoment.

6.Isenthimanemailaboutaweekagobuthestillhasn’tansweredityet.Pastsimple,timeindicator‘aweekago’thereforeafinishedpast+thepresentperfectsimpleindicatingfromamomentinthepastuntilnow.

7.Ihavelostmyglasses.Haveyouseenthemanywhere?Twousesofthepresentperfectsimpletoindicate‘anytimeupuntilnow’withoutspecifyingexactlywhen.

8.ThemanwhowasinjuredintheroadaccidenthasbeenfightingforhislifesincelastFriday.Thepresentperfectcontinuousisusedtoindicatethatthe‘fighting’startedinthepastandcontinueduptothepresentandwillpossiblycontinueintothefuture.

9.Whenthedoctorsfinallygavehimtheall-clear,hehadbeenfightingforhislifeforamonth.Thepastperfectcontinuousisusedtoindicatethat‘thefightingforhislife’startedatapastmomentandcontinuedupuntilalaterpastmoment.

10.Policesaythatabreathalyzerrevealedthatthemanwhocausedtheaccidenthadbeendrinking.Hehasbeenarrested.Thepastperfectcontinuousisusedtoindicatethatthe‘drinking’startedinthepastandcontinuedupuntilshortlybeforealaterpastmoment,whilethepresentperfectpassiveisusedinthesecondsentencetoindicatethatthearresthappenedbeforenow,withoutspecifyingexactlywhen.Whenthepastperfectcontinuousisusedwithoutforor

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since,itsignifiesanactioninprogressuntilshortlybeforealaterpastoccurrence.Whenusedwithforandsince,itindicatesuntilalaterpastmoment.

Seetimelinesonnextpageforclarification

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9.Hehadbeenfightingforhislifeforamonth.

T

10.Thebreathalyserrevealedthatthemanhadbeendrinking.

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Grammartesttwentyone

Reportedspeech

1.Iaskedmyneighbours________somuchnoiselateatnight.Icannevergetagoodnight’ssleep.

a)todon’tmakeb)nottomakec)notmaked)notmaking

2.They________themeetingisn’tuntiltomorrow.Wethoughtit________thisafternoon.

a)toldtome/isb)toldme/wasc)saidme/wasd)toldthat/was

3.“Theshopwillbeclosingsoon,”announcedthemanageroverthetannoysystem.Themanagerannouncedthattheshop________soon.

a)willcloseb)wouldclosec)wouldbeclosing

4.“Thecat’sfaceisallcut,”saiddadtomysister.“It’llprobablyhavebeenfightingwiththecatnextdoor,”repliedmysister.Dadtoldmysisterthatthecat’sface________allcut,andsherepliedthatit________withthecatnextdoor.

a)is/willprobablyhavefoughtb)was/hadprobablyfoughtc)was/hadprobablybeenfighting

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5.“Doasyouplease,”hesaidtohertheothernightwhenshewasactinglikeaspoiltchild.Hetoldher________.

a)doasshepleasesb)todoasshepleasesc)todoasshepleased

6.“Willyouhelpmeshiftthisheavybox?”askedmybrother.Mybrotheraskedmeif________himshiftthatheavybox.

a)forhelpb)Iwouldhelpc)tohelp

7.“Don’tcheatintheexam,”saidtheteacher.Theteacherwarned________intheexam.

a)thatwedon’tcheat…b)ustonotcheatc)usnottocheat

8.It’sbeginningtogetdark.Imustgo,”saidBill.Billsaidthatit________togetdarkandthatandthathe________go.

a)wasbeginning/hadtob)isbeginning/mustc)wasbeginning/must

9.“Itwillbefreezingtomorrow,”saidtheweathermanonTV.Theweathermansaidit________freezingthenextday.

a)willbeb)wouldbec)isgoingtobe

10.“I’vebeenhereforoveraweekandIstillhaven’tseenBuckinghamPalace,”saidTonywhowasholidaying

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seenBuckinghamPalace,”saidTonywhowasholidayinginLondon.Tonysaidhe________foroveraweekandhe________BuckinghamPalace.

a)washere/wasstilltoseeb)hasbeenthere/stillhadn’tseenc)hadbeenthere/stillhadn’tseen

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Grammartesttwentyone-answers

1.Iaskedmyneighboursnottomakesomuchnoiselateatnight.Icannevergetagoodnight’ssleep.

2.Theytoldmethemeetingisn’tuntiltomorrow.Wethoughtitwasthisafternoon.

3.“Theshopwillbeclosingsoon,”announcedthemanageroverthetannoysystem.Themanagerannouncedthattheshopwouldbeclosingsoon.

4.“Thecat’sfaceisallcut,”saiddadtomysister.“It’llprobablyhavebeenfightingwiththecatnextdoor,”repliedmysister.Dadtoldmysisterthatthecat’sfacewasallcut,andsherepliedthatithadprobablybeenfightingwiththecatnextdoor.

5.“Doasyouplease,”hesaidtohertheothernightwhenshewasactinglikeaspoiltchild.Hetoldhertodoasshepleased.

6.“Willyouhelpmeshiftthisheavybox?”askedmybrother.MybrotheraskedmeifIwouldhimshiftthatheavybox.

7.“Don’tcheatintheexam,”saidtheteacher.Theteacherwarnedusnottocheatintheexam.

8.8.It’sbeginningtogetdark.Imustgo,”saidBill.Billsaidthatitwasbeginningtogetdarkandthatandthathehadtogo.(Themodalauxiliaryverbsnormallydonotmovebackatenseinreportedspeech,butwhen‘must’isusedforpersonalobligation,ittakesthepasttenseofthesemi-modal,‘haveto’,whichis‘hadto’)

9.“Itwillbefreezingtomorrow,”saidtheweathermanonTV.Theweathermansaiditwouldbefreezingthenextday.‘Will’becomes‘would’inreportedspeech.

10.“I’vebeenhereforoveraweekandIstillhaven’tseenBuckinghamPalace,”saidTonywhowasholidayinginLondon.Tonysaidhehadbeenthereforoveraweekandhestillhadn’tseenBuckinghamPalace.

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Grammartesttwentytwo

Futureaspect

1.SheshouldpassherEnglishexamaslongasshe________and________panic.

a)willstaycalm/notb)isstaying/willnotc)stayscalm/doesn’t.

2.Canyousendmeamessageassoonasyou________home?

a)willgetb)aregettingc)willhavegotd)get

3.SorryIcan’tmeetyouonSaturday.I________aparty.It’smy40thbirthday.

a)‘mgoingtohaveb)havec)‘mhavingd)willhave

Innumberfourtherearetwopossibilities

4.Theweatherforecastsaysthatlateronthisafternoonit________.

a)‘ssnowingb)‘sgoingtosnowc)itwillsnowd)willhavesnowed.

5.You________anywhereuntilyourmother________back.

a)won’tgo/willgetb)‘renotgoing/getsc)willgo/is

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getting

6.How________totheairport.Don’tworry.I’msuresomeone________alift.

a)willIarrive/willgiveb)amIgoingtoget/willgiveyouc)willIget/isgivingyoud)willIget/willgiveyou

Innumberseventherearethreepossiblechoicesalthoughoneisbetterthantheothersinthegivencontext.

7.I’vejustfoundoutthatI’vewonaholidayfortwointheCaribbean.I________mymum.Shehasn’thadaholidayinyears.

a)‘mtakingb)willtakec)‘mgoingtotaked)willtotake

8.Idon’tknowwhenI________himbutwhenI________I________himyournewmobilenumber.

a)willsee/do/willgiveb)tosee/seehim/givec)see/seehim/willgive

9.Tomorrowbetween4pmand5.30,I________myEnglishexam.

a)willsitb)willbesittingd)willhavesat

10.Nextyearmymother________French.

a)islearningb)isgoingtolearnc)willbelearning

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Grammartesttwentytwo-answers

1.SheshouldpassherEnglishexamaslongasshestayscalmanddoesn’tpanic.(After‘aslongas’whichmeans‘onconditionthat/provided’,usethepresentsimple,evenifitisforafuturemeaning)

2.Canyousendmeamessageassoonasyougethome?(After‘assoonas’,usethepresentsimple,evenifitisforafuturemeaning)

3.SorryIcan’tmeetyouonSaturday.Iamhavingaparty.It’smy40thbirthday.(Thepresentcontinuousisthemostnaturalchoiceasitisusedforarrangementsalreadymade.‘Goingtohave’indicatesthatthisiswhatyouhavedecidedtodo,althoughitdoesn’tnecessarilymeanthatthearrangementshavebeenmade)

4.Theweatherforecastsaysthatlateronthisafternoonitwillsnow/it’sgoingtosnow.(‘Will’and‘goingto’havetheirseparateusesbutoverlapwhenpredicting.Bothcanbeusedalthoughwhenmakingpredictions,‘goingto’carriesmoreweight)

5.Youarenotgoinganywhereuntilyourmothergetsback.

6.HowamIgoingtoget/willIgettotheairport.Don’tworry.I’msuresomeonewillgiveyoualift.

7.I’vejustfoundoutthatI’vewonaholidayfortwointheCaribbean.Iamgoingtotake/amtaking/willtakemymum.Shehasn’thadaholidayinyears.(Thechoiceofwhichofthethreetousealldependsonaspect,although‘I’mgoingtotake’mymumisthebestchoiceseeingthattherewasnoprearrangement,whichisthecasewhenusingthepresentcontinuous’forthefuture,asin,‘I’mtakingmymum.’‘Iwilltakemymum’canalsobeusedasitimpliesthatyoudecidedthereandthen,inthatprecisemoment,totakeyourmum.)

8.Idon’tknowwhenIwillseehimbutwhenIdoIwillgivehimyournewmobilenumber.

9.Tomorrowbetween4pmand5.30,IwillbesittingmyEnglishexam.(Futureprogressiveforsomethingthatwillbeinprogressatafuturemomentorbetweenanytwogiventimesinthefuture)

10.NextyearmymotherisgoingtolearnFrench.(‘Isgoingtolearn,’thisis

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whatsheintendstodo.Weusethe‘presentcontinuous’forthenearfutureandnotthedistant,sointhisexampleitcannotbeused)

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Grammartesttwentythree

Connectors/conjunctionsone

1.________itwasrainingveryheavily,shestilltookthedogforawalk.Nothingholdsherback.

a)evenifb)eventhoughc)despite

2._______studyingformonths,Istillfailedallmyexams.

a)Despiteb)Neverthelessc)Eventhough

3.Ididn’tstudy________IthinkI’llfailthetest.

a)thereforeb)andc)unlessd)but

4.Manyjobsrequirethatyouhaveauniversitydegree;insomejobs,________,experienceiswhatisrequiredthemost.

a)thereforeb)howeverc)nonethelessd)though

5.________itwasmydayoff,Isleptuntil10am.

a)althoughb)becausec)therefored)eventhough

6.Iamtall,_______mybrotherandsisterarequiteshort.

a)becauseb)inspiteofc)whereas

7.________Janetwasthebestinherclassatmath,she

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7.________Janetwasthebestinherclassatmath,shewasawardedaprizeattheendoftheschoolterm.

a)Sinceb)Thoughc)So

8.________historyishisbestsubject,heisalsogoodatgeography.

a)sinceb)whilec)becaused)unless

9.Iwanttobecomeanartist;________Iworkespeciallyhardinmyartclasses.

a)howeverb)whilec)therefore

10.I’llgoshoppingwithyou_______wearebackhomebysixo’clock.

a)asfarasb)soasc)provided

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Grammartesttwentythree-answers

1.Eventhoughitwasrainingveryheavily,shestilltookthedogforawalk.Nothingholdsherback.‘Eventhough’=despitethefactthat...

2.Despitestudyingformonths,Istillfailedallmyexams.Use‘despite’+gerund

3.Ididn’tstudythereforeIthinkI’llfailthetest.‘Therefore’=forthisreason

4.Manyjobsrequirethatyouhaveauniversitydegree;insomejobs,however,experienceiswhatisrequiredthemost.

5.Becauseitwasmydayoff,Isleptuntil10am.

6.Iamtall,whereasmybrotherandsisterarequiteshort.‘Whereas’introducesacontrast

7.SinceJanetwasthebestinherclassatmath,shewasawardedaprizeattheendoftheschoolterm.‘Since’=giventhefactthat

8.Whilehistoryishisbestsubject,heisalsogoodatgeography.Similarto‘although’

9.Iwanttobecomeanartist;thereforeIworkespeciallyhardinmyartclasses.‘Therefore’=forthisreason

10.I’llgoshoppingwithyouprovidedwearebackhomebysixo’clock.‘Provided’=ontheconditionthat...

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Grammartesttwentyfour

Connectors/conjunctionstwo

1._______hardItry,Istillcan’tseemtoloseanyweight.

a)asmuchasb)althoughc)however

2.Itwasverycold,_______Ikeptmyjacketon.

a)becauseb)therefore)however

3.Ican’tguaranteeI’llbeabletomeetyou,________Iwilltrymybest.

a)butb)soc)because

4.________ourteamlostthematch,itwasstillagreatgame.

a)thereforeb)althoughc)sod)but

5.Poorpeoplefromruralareasaremigratingtothecitiestofindwork

and________thecirclesofslumhousinginmanysuburbsaregrowing

larger.

a)consequentlyb)asc)whereas

6.________Idon’tlikeIndianfood,Ireallyenjoyedthe

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6.________Idon’tlikeIndianfood,IreallyenjoyedthePakorawehadatJane’shouselastnight.

a)Inspiteofb)althoughc)however

7.________notstudying,shestillpassedtheexam.

a)althoughb)asc)despite

8.________muchIeat,Ineverputonweight.

a)inspiteofb)howeverc)regardless

9.Imissedthetrainbut________,Istillarrivedontime.

a)consequentlyb)neverthelessc)inspiteof

10.Thecountryofresidenceofanindividualhastherighttotaxincome________thecountryinwhichthetaxarises.‘Irrespectiveof’=regardlessof/despite’

a)despiteb)irrespectiveofc)asaconsequence

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Grammartesttwentyfour-answers

1.HoweverhardItry,Istillcan’tseemtoloseanyweight.‘However’usedinthiscontext,=nomatterhowmuch,despitehowmuch,inspiteofhowmuch

2.Itwasverycold,thereforeIkeptmyjacketon.‘Therefore’indicates,‘forthereasonstatedpreviously’

3.Ican’tguaranteeI’llbeabletomeetyou,butIwilltrymybest.

4.Althoughourteamlostthematch,itwasstillagreatgame.Thisisthesameas‘despitethefactthatourteamlostthematch…/eventhoughourteamlostthematch…

5.Poorpeoplefromruralareasaremigratingtothecitiestofindwork

andconsequentlythecirclesofslumhousinginmanysuburbsaregrowing

larger.Thisisthesameas,andasaconsequence/asaresult/becauseofthis

6.AlthoughIdon’tlikeIndianfood,IreallyenjoyedthePakorawehadatJane’shouselastnight.Otherwaystosaythis,InspiteofthefactthatIdon’tlikeIndianfood../eventhoughIdon’tlikeIndianfood/despitenotlikingIndianfood

7.Despitenotstudying,shestillpassedtheexam.Thiscanbeexpressedas,Inspiteofthefactshedidn’tstudy.../althoughshedidn’tstudy.../eventhoughshedidn’tstudy

8.HowevermuchIeat,Ineverputonweight.Thisisthesameas,Inspiteofhowmuch/regardlessofhowmuch/itdoesn’tmatterhowmuch

9.Imissedthetrainbutnevertheless,Istillarrivedontime.‘Nonetheless’canbeusedinthesamewayas‘nevertheless’,andmeans,althoughImissedthetrain,Istillarrivedontime/despitemissingthetrain.../inspiteofmissingthetrain/regardlessofthefactthatImissedthetrain.

10.Thecountryofresidenceofanindividualhastherighttotaxincomeirrespectiveofthecountryinwhichthetaxarises.‘Irrespectiveof’=regardlessof/despite’

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Grammartesttwentyfive

Prepositionsone

1.Hehasneverbeenabroadbefore.Heisafraid________flying.

2.Ourneighbourisenvious______ournewcar.Shehasn’tsleptsincewegotit.

3.“Iwentonholidaylastweek?”“Didyoureally?Whodidyougowith?”“Nobody;Iwent________myown.”

4.Motherwassoabsorbed______readingthenovelthatshedidn’tnoticeourarrival.

5.Iwasgrateful______himforspeakingthetruth.

6.Scotlandisfamous______itswhiskey

7.Myfatherdoesn’tapprove________mynewboyfriend.

8.Myhusbandisgoing________abusinesstripnextweek.

9.Thepicturesofthehoteldidn’tcorrespond______thereality.

10.Iworkforalargecompany.I’mincharge________thesalesdepartment.

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Grammartesttwentyfive-answers

1.Hehasneverbeenabroadbefore.Heisafraidofflying.

2.Ourneighbourisenviousofournewcar.Shehasn’tsleptsincewegotit.

3.“Iwentonholidaylastweek?”“Didyoureally?Whodidyougowith?”“Nobody;Iwentonmyown.”

4.Motherwassoabsorbedinreadingthenovelthatshedidn’tnoticeourarrival.

5.Iwasgratefultohimforspeakingthetruth.

6.Scotlandisfamousforitswhiskey

7.Myfatherdoesn’tapproveofmynewboyfriend.

8.Myhusbandisgoingonabusinesstripnextweek.

9.Thepicturesofthehoteldidn’tcorrespondtothereality.

10.Iworkforalargecompany.I’minchargeofthesalesdepartment.

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Grammartesttwentysix

Prepositionstwo

1.Manypeoplenowadaysareaddicted________theinternet.

2.Mymotherisalwaysattentive________detail.

3.Shegotthejobasthenannybecausesheisverygood________children.

4.He’sverygood________maths.Itwashisfavouritesubjectwhenhewasatschool.

5.Heiscapable______beinganexcellentstudent.

6.Ifeelconfident______thefutureofourcountry.

7.Sadly,Inevergottoknowmygrandfather.Hedied________battleduringthesecondworldwar.

8.Mypaternalgrandfatherdied________pneumonia.

9.9.Heissuspected________cheatingintheexam.

10.Thesedayseverybodyisaware______thedangersofsmoking.

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Grammartesttwentysix-answers

1.Manypeoplenowadaysareaddictedtotheinternet.

2.Mymotherisalwaysattentivetodetail.

3.Shegotthejobasthenannybecausesheisverygoodwithchildren.

4.He’sverygoodatmaths.Itwashisfavouritesubjectwhenhewasatschool.

5.Heiscapableofbeinganexcellentstudent.

6.Ifeelconfidentaboutthefutureofourcountry.

7.Sadly,Inevergottoknowmygrandfather.Hediedinbattleduringthesecondworldwar.

8.Mypaternalgrandfatherdiedofpneumonia.

9.Heissuspectedofcheatingintheexam.

10.Thesedayseverybodyisawareofthedangersofsmoking.

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Grammartesttwentyseven

Prepositionsthree

1.We’regoing________apicnictomorrow.Wouldyouliketocomewithus?

2.Myproblemsareverysimilar______yours.

3.ThesebootsIboughtwere________saletoday.Theycosthalfwhattheydidlastweek.

4.Wearguedallday________whattocookforourguests.

5.Wereallycare________howwetreatourcustomers.

6.Idisagree________whatwassaidattoday’smeeting.

7.Ipreferreadingbooks________magazines.

8.Healwayscomplains________everything.

9.Whodoesthisbookbelong_____?

10.Afteracyclistwaskilled,themayorwasblamed________nothavingdoneanythingtorepairtheroads.

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Grammartesttwentyseven-answers

1.We’regoingonapicnictomorrow.Wouldyouliketocomewithus?

2.Myproblemsareverysimilartoyours.

3.ThesebootsIboughtwereonsaletoday.Theycosthalfwhattheydidlastweek.

4.Wearguedalldayaboutwhattocookforourguests.

5.Wereallycareabouthowwetreatourcustomers.

6.Idisagreewithwhatwassaidattoday’smeeting.

7.Ipreferreadingbookstomagazines.

8.Healwayscomplainsabouteverything.

9.Whodoesthisbookbelongto?

10.Afteracyclistwaskilled,themayorwasblamedfornothavingdoneanythingtorepairtheroads.

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Grammartesttwentyeight

Prepositionsfour

1.Thecyclisthadhitaholeintheroadandcrashed________atree.

2.Thejudgepresentedthecasetothejury.Afterexaminingtheevidencesetbeforethem,twosuccessivejuriesarrived________thesameconclusion.

3.I’msosorryIdidn’tcometoyourpartylastnight.Icompletelyforgot________it.

4.Heinsisted________paying________themealwehadlastnight.

5.He’sbeentalking________changingjobsforovertenyearsbuthestillhasn’tstartedtolookforone.

6.Hewasthinking________youyesterday.HetoldmesowhenImethimthismorning.

7.Wesuspectedhim_____stealingthetaperecorder.

8.Shewasreallyworried________failingherEnglishexam.Itwasallfornothingbecauseshepassed.

9.Wewouldliketothankyou________everythingyouhavedonetohelpus.

10.Mymotherhasjustrecovered________abaddose

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oftheflu.

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Grammartesttwentyeight-answers

1.Thecyclisthadhitaholeintheroadandcrashedintoatree.

2.Thejudgepresentedthecasetothejury.Afterexaminingtheevidencesetbeforethem,twosuccessivejuriesarrivedtothesameconclusion.

3.I’msosorryIdidn’tcometoyourpartylastnight.Icompletelyforgotaboutit.

4.Heinsistedonpayingforthemealwehadlastnight.

5.He’sbeentalkingaboutchangingjobsforovertenyearsbuthestillhasn’tstartedtolookforone.

6.Hewasthinkingaboutyouyesterday.HetoldmesowhenImethimthismorning.

7.Wesuspectedhimofstealingthetaperecorder.

8.ShewasreallyworriedaboutfailingherEnglishexam.Itwasallfornothingbecauseshepassed.

9.Wewouldliketothankyouforeverythingyouhavedonetohelpus.

10.Mymotherhasjustrecoveredfromabaddoseoftheflu.

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Grammartesttwentynine

Prepositionsfive

1.Going________thesoundhervoiceonthephonetodaysheisnotveryhappy.

2.WewentfromEdinburghtoLondon________Newcastle.

3.Iwasnearlyrunover________acartoday.Itmissedme________ahair’sbreadth.

4.IcouldspeakEnglishfluently________theageoften.

5.Mymotherandfatherarebothlawyers________profession.

6.Where’sthecat?It’soverthere________thedoor.

7.Imissedthebusthismorning________asplitsecond.

8.Aplantpotflewoffmyneighbour’sbalconyandmissedme________afractionofaninch.

9.Howbigisyourlivingroom?It’stenmetres________six.

10.Itisalwaysadvisabletosendofficialdocuments________registeredpost.

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Grammartesttwentynine-answers

1.Goingbythesoundhervoiceonthephonetodaysheisnotveryhappy.

2.WewentfromEdinburghtoLondonbyNewcastle.

3.Iwasnearlyrunoverbyacartoday.Itmissedmebyahair’sbreadth.

4.IcouldspeakEnglishfluentlybytheageoften.

5.Mymotherandfatherarebothlawyersbyprofession.

6.Where’sthecat?It’sovertherebythedoor.

7.Imissedthebusthismorningbyasplitsecond.

8.Aplantpotflewoffmyneighbour’sbalconyandmissedmebyafractionofaninch.

9.Howbigisyourlivingroom?It’stenmetresbysix.

10.Itisalwaysadvisabletosendofficialdocumentsbyregisteredpost.

Page 187: English Grammar: Advanced grammar and vocabulary quiz …

Testthirty-phrasalverbs

Phrasalverbs

Replacethewordsinitalicswithaphrasalverb.

1.Anti-governmentprotestorsparticipatedinamassdemonstrationyesterdaymorning.

2.Theprotestorswanttheprimeministertoresign.

3.Heneverrecoveredfromthedeathofhiswifeandnotlongafterhealsodied.

4.Thebosscancelledthemeeting.

5.Wecannotcontinuelikethisanylonger.Weneedtofindasolution.

6.Mary’shousecaughtfirelastnight.Luckilythefiremenmanagedtoextinguishitbeforetoomuchdamagewasdonetoit.

7.Couldyoujustwaitamoment,saidthesalesmantothecustomer.I’llberightback.

8.Atthelastmomenthedecidedtowithdrawfromthecompetition.Hefelthehadn’ttrainedenoughtocompeteagainsthiscompetitors.

9.John’slateagain.Iwonderwhatkindofexcusehewill

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thinkofthistime.

10.Canyoucollectthechildrenfromschoolthisafternoon?

11.AfterhalfanhourofwaitingforJimmy,hesuddenlyappeared.

12.ImetmyoldteacherwhenIwasgoingintothelibraryyesterday.Ihadn’tseenherforyearssoitwasapleasantsurprise.

13.I’vebeentryingtostopsmokingbutI’mfindingitreallyhard.

14.Sheraisedherchildrentoberespectablehumanbeings.

15.Drugabusecausedhisdeath.

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Testthirty-answers

1.Anti-governmentprotestorstookpartinamassdemonstrationyesterdaymorning.(Thisisalsoathree-wordphrasalverbs,butwiththeverb‘participate’itwasnecessarytousethepreposition‘in’)

2.Theprotestorswanttheprimeministertostepdown.(‘Stepdown’isusedformembersofthegovernmentandotherofficials,suchasthedirectorofacompany.Itcannotbeusedforordinaryeverydaypeople)

3.Henevergotoverthedeathofhiswifeandnotlongafterhealsopassedaway.

4.Thebosscalledoffthemeeting.

5.Wecannotcarryonlikethisanylonger.Weneedtofindasolution.

6.Mary’shousewentonfirelastnight.Luckilythefiremenmanagedtoputitoutbeforetoomuchdamagewasdonetoit.

7.Couldyoujusthangonamoment,saidthesalesmantothecustomer.I’llberightback.

8.Atthelastmomenthepulloutofthecompetition.Hefelthehadn’ttrainedenoughtocompeteagainsthiscompetitors.

9.John’slateagain.Iwonderwhatkindofexcusehewillcomeupwiththistime.

10.Canyoupickupthechildrenfromschoolthisafternoon?

11.AfterhalfanhourofwaitingforJimmy,hesuddenlyshowedup.

12.IranintomyoldteacherwhenIwasgoingintothelibraryyesterday.Ihadn’tseenherforyearssoitwasapleasantsurprise.

13.I’vebeentryingtogiveupsmokingbutI’mfindingitreallyhard.

14.Shebroughtupherchildrentoberespectablehumanbeings.

15.Drugabusebroughtabouthisdeath.