English Poetry Level III 17 th -Century Poetry 18 th -Century Poetry Romantic Poetry
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- English Poetry Level III 17 th -Century Poetry 18 th -Century Poetry Romantic Poetry
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- The Poets
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- England in the 17 th Century Elizabeth I died in 1603. King James VI of Scotland became James I of England. He began a new dynasty-the Stuarts. The Stuarts: James I (1603-1625). Charles I (1625-1649). Commonwealth (1649-1660) [England became a Republic]. Charles II (1660-1685) [England restored to Monarchy] RESTORATION. James II (1685-1688). William III & Mary II (1689-1694). William III (1694-1702). Anne (1702-1714).
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- James I (1603-1625) Because he was already the king of Scotland, he united Scotland with England & Wales. He ordered the translation of the Bible (the Authorized Version). Two major problems which started immediately after his accession: RELIGION & MONEY Religion: He tried to force Catholics to go to Protestant churches. Gunpowder Plot (5 th November 1605). Guy Fawkes burnt alive. Money: James wanted to ignore Parliament and raise money by claiming divine right. Divine Right: Kings were Viceroys of God.
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- James I s Picture
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- Charles I (1625-1649) Charles continued his fathers policies. He thought it beneath his dignity to consult the parliament. The Parliament was determined to maintain the Constitution according to which it alone had the power to grant money. The Eleven Years Tyranny (1629-1640) [Charles dispensed with Parliament]. The English Civil War (1642-1651) Many people in Parliament were puritans, who wanted a simpler style of worship without bishops & formal ceremonies. Charles decided that bishops should rule the Scottish Church, but its followers refused and created an army to attack England. There were more disagreements and fighting began.
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- Charles I s Picture
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- The English Civil War (continued) The Civil War was between the Royalists (known as Cavaliers) who supported the King, and Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) who supported the Parliament. The Roundheads were Puritans. Their leader was Oliver Cromwell The Cavaliers were defeated and Charles was executed. But his son escaped from Cromwells soldiers by hiding in an oak tree. The Commonwealth (1649-1653) After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. The Protectorate (1653-1658) A new constitution made Cromwell Lord Protector for life. He had power to call and dissolve parliaments.
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- Oliver Cromwell s Picture
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- Cromwell s Death & The Restoration Cromwell maintained peace and order at home and raised the prestige of England abroad. After his death (1658), he was followed by his son Richard. Richard was forced to resign in 1659. A year later in 1660 Parliament restored Charles II as King.
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- The Puritans The puritans made themselves odious by their bigotry, narrowness, austere living, and stern morality. They closed the theatres and frowned upon dance, music, the arts, and other innocent pleasures. Ironically, the freedom fighters became tyrants. Ultimately, they were hated by the people in general who were happy to get rid of them.
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- The Puritans
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- Cavalier Poetry Poets: Ben Jonson, Richard Lovelace, John Suckling, Thomas Carew & Edmund Waller. The Cavaliers were fervent admirers of Ben Jonson The Tribe of Ben They are Cavaliers in the sense, not only of being Royalists, but in the sense that they distrust the over-earnest, the too intense.
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- Characteristics of Cavalier Poetry 1.Regularity in form & simplicity & clarity in sense. 2.Paganistic in spirit and expresses the hedonistic philosophy of eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow you die. 3.Celebrates wine, women, and song. 4.Lyric is the dominant form. 5.Poets avoid the subject of religion.
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- Characteristics of Cavalier Poetry 6. Mirrors the moods and temper of the age. Indeed, it reflects the triviality & frivolity of the life of the times. 7. Poets of this school find the various beauties of nature united in the beauty of their respective beloveds. 8. Poets are great lovers of nature. They observe nature minutely and describe it with feeling. 9. Poets enjoy the casual, the amateur & the affectionate poem written by the way. 10. Uses direct colloquial language expressive of a highly individual personality.
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- Ben Jonson: Song to Celia Drink to me only with thine eyes, And I will pledge with mine; Or leave a kiss within the cup, And I'll not ask for wine The thirst that from the soul doth rise, Doth crave a drink divine; But might I of Jove's nectar sup, I would not change for thine I sent thee late a rosy wreath, Not so much honoring thee As giving it a hope that there It could not withered be; But thou thereon didst only breathe And sent'st back to me, Since when it grows and smells, I swear, Not of itself, but thee
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- Song to Celia: Meanings Pledge: promise. Doth: does. Divine: heavenly. Jove's nectar: a drink if someone takes he/she will gain immortality. Rosy wreath: bouquet of roses.
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- Song to Celia: Summary The first stanza (lines 1-8) is a metaphor comparing love to an ethereal elixir. The poet uses the words drink, cup, wine, thirst, and nectar to enhance his trope. Jonson bends the connotation of sup in Line 7. Ordinarily, the word means to eat the evening mealthat is, to have solid food for supper. The second stanza (lines 9-16 ) focuses on the hope that the love of Celia and the poet will thrive, like the wreath, which continues to grow and send forth fragrance.
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- Song to Celia: Theme Love
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- Song to Celia: Form & Structure This poem is made of two stanzas of eight lines each.It is made of three sentences: 1.Sentence 1: lines 1 to 4. 2.Sentence 2: lines 5 to 8. 3.Sentence 3: lines 9 to 16. Stanza 1 focuses on the elixir of love. Stanza 2 focuses on a wreath sent to Celia by the poet. Rhyme scheme: abcbabcb defedefe
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- Techniques Metaphor: The first stanza is a metaphor comparing love to an ethereal elixir. Personification: The thirst... doth ask Alliteration: kiss, cup; drink divine; rosy wreath; thou thereon; smell, swear
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- Andrew Marvell: To His Coy Mistress Had we but world enough, and time, This coyness, lady, were no crime. We would sit down and think which way To walk, and pass our long love's day; Thou by the Indian Ganges' side Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide Of Humber would complain. I would Love you ten years before the Flood; And you should, if you please, refuse Till the conversion of the Jews. My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow. An hundred years should go to praise Thine eyes, and on thy forehead gaze; Two hundred to adore each breast, But thirty thousand to the rest; An age at least to every part, And the last age should show your heart. For, lady, you deserve this state, Nor would I love at lower rate.
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- Andrew Marvell: To His Coy Mistress But at my back I always hear Time's winged chariot hurrying near; And yonder all before us lie Deserts of vast eternity. Thy beauty shall no more be found, Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound My echoing song; then worms shall try That long preserv'd virginity, And your quaint honour turn to dust, And into ashes all my lust. The grave's a fine and private place, But none I think do there embrace.
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- Andrew Marvell: To His Coy Mistress Now therefore, while the youthful hue Sits on thy skin like morning dew, And while thy willing soul transpires At every pore with instant fires, Now let us sport us while we may; And now, like am'rous birds of prey, Rather at once our time devour, Than languish in his slow-chapp'd power. Let us roll all our strength, and all Our sweetness, up into one ball; And tear our pleasures with rough strife Thorough the iron gates of life. Thus, though we cannot make our sun Stand still, yet we will make him run.
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- Meanings Mistress: lady, manager, caretaker, courtesan, sweetheart, lover. coyness: reluctance; playing hard to get. Ganges: River in Asia rubies: Gems Humber: River in northeastern England vegetable love: love cultivated and nurtured like a vegetable so that it flourishes prolifically this state: This lofty position; this dignity. Time's wingd chariot: In Greek mythology, the sun was personified as the god Apollo, who rode his golden chariot from east to west each day. Thus, Marvell here associates the sun god with the passage of time. marble vault: The young lady's tomb.
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- Meanings quaint: Preserved carefully or skillfully. dew: The 1681 manuscript of the poem uses glew (not dew), apparently as a coined past tense for glow. transpires: Erupts, breaks out, emits, gives off. transpires: Erupts, breaks out, emits, gives off. slow-chapt: Chewing or eating slowly. slow-chapt: Chewing or eating slowly. Thorough: Through.
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- Summary In response to a young mans declarations of love for a young lady, the lady is playfully hesitant. But dallying will not do, he says, for youth passes swiftly. He and the lady must
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