environmental certificate for the e 300 bluetec hybrid

of 30 /30
Life cycle Environmental Certificate for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

Author: doannhu

Post on 23-Dec-2016




3 download

Embed Size (px)


  • 1

    Life cycleEnvironmental Certificate for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

  • 2 3

    As at: March 2012

    Life Cycle the Mercedes-Benz environmental documentation 4

    Interview with Professor Dr. Herbert Kohler 6

    Product description 8

    Declaration of validity 14

    1 Productdocumentation 15

    1.1 Technical data 16

    1.2 Material composition 18

    2 Environmentalprofile 19

    2.1 General environmental issues 20

    2.2 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 24

    2.2.1 Data basis 26

    2.2.2 LCA results for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID 28

    2.2.3 Comparison with the E 300 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY 32

    2.3 Design for recovery 38

    2.3.1 Recycling concept for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID 40

    2.3.2 Dismantling information 42

    2.3.3 Avoidance of potentially hazardous materials 43

    2.4 Use of secondary raw materials 44

    2.5 Use of renewable raw materials 46

    3 Processdocumentation 48

    4 Certificate 52

    5 Conclusion 53

    6 Glossary 54

    Imprint 56



  • 4 5

    Since the beginning of 2009, Life Cycle has been presenting the Environmental Certificates for Mercedes-Benz vehicles.

    Above all the principal aim of this documentation series is to provide the best possible service to as many interested parties as possible: on the one hand, the wide-ranging and complex subject of the car and the environment needs to be communicated to the general public in a manner which is easy to understand. On the other hand, however, specialists also need to have access to detailed informa-tion. Life Cycle fulfils this requirement with a variable concept.

    Those wanting a quick overview can concentrate on the short summaries at the beginning of the respective chapters. These summaries highlight the most important information in note form, while standardised graphics also help to simplify orientation. If more detailed information on the environmental commitment of Daimler AG is re-quired, clearly arranged tables, graphics and informative text passages have also been provided. These elements describe the individual environmental aspects in a great deal of detail.

    With its service-oriented and striking Life Cycle docu-mentation series, Mercedes-Benz is once again demon-strating its pioneering role in this important area just as in the past, when in 2005 the S-Class became the very first vehicle to receive the Environmental Certificate from TV Sd (South German Technical Inspection Authority). At the beginning of 2009, this certificate was also awarded to the GLK, the first SUV to receive it. Now, with the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, the first diesel hybrid model is following in these same footsteps.

    Life cycle

    4 5

  • 6 7


    On-demand hybridisation

    The E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID features modular hybrid technology. What benefits does this offer?

    Modular hybrid technology opens up the way for us to rapidly add hybrid models to other model series. With a clear focus on the varying needs of the worldwide mar-kets, we are able to offer precisely the models that our customers want. When it comes to business vehicles in Europe, the demand is primarily for diesel models. This is why we are the first premium manufacturer to launch a diesel hybrid onto the market.

    Can the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID therefore be viewed as spearheading the Mercedes-Benz hybrid initiative?

    Yes, at the same time that this model is being launched in Europe in June 2012, the E 400 HYBRID is also being launched on the American market, and will subsequently be available in other countries such as Japan and China. Its electric motor is combined with V6 petrol engine.

    Will customers of such hybrid vehicles have to make compromises in some areas?

    No, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID does not require its passengers to make any compromises whatsoever in

    terms of spaciousness, either in the interior or in the lug-gage compartment. The modular hybrid concept which is a comprehensive enhancement of the concept used in the market segment leader, the S 400 HYBRID does not require any changes to be made to the body. Furthermore: the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID is also available both as a Saloon and an Estate.

    And what about safety?

    Integration of the hybrid systems without the need for changes to the body has the practical benefit of not re-stricting spaciousness in any way. At the same time, it also ensures that all hybrid models boast exactly the same high level of safety as their counterparts with an internal combustion engine a very important aspect for Mercedes-Benz. Accident behaviour has been appropriate-ly safeguarded by means of crash simulations and tests.

    Similar to Real Life Safety, more recently Mercedes-Benz has talked about Real Life Efficiency, emphasising that what counts is not standard consumption but rather the consumption figures achieved in daily use. What sort of influence can a driver have on daily use?

    A very big influence. Comprehensive road tests using different test subjects have shown that with the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, it only takes a relatively short time for

    additional savings to be achieved as drivers learn to make increasingly deliberate and effective use of hybrid func-tions such as sailing or recuperation. They are support-ed here by the display concept used in the hybrid models. The central display provides information on the current energy flow and the charge status of the battery. A top view of the vehicle is provided, depicting the drivetrain and coloured energy flow. The driver is able to monitor fuel consumption via energy/time graphs.

    Will Mercedes-Benz continue to provide vehicles with classic combustions engines?

    Yes. This is because in addition to on-demand hybridisa-tion in its various stages of development - from the ECO start/stop function through to the purely electric driven hybrid on the road to sustainable mobility Mercedes-Benz is just as committed to optimising vehicles with the latest combustion engines - for example through measures such as downsizing, turbocharging, direct injection, low-friction technology and BlueTEC.

    Besides all of this, have targeted optimisation measures also been applied to the vehicle?

    Yes, in the areas of aerodynamics, lightweight construc-tion and energy management (BlueEFFICIENCY), for example. Here we are able to make use of the energy-

    Interview with Professor Dr. Herbert Kohler, Chief Environmental Officer of Daimler AG

    transparent vehicle, a new development tool devised in-house which enables us to implement optimisation measures down to the finest detail. As such we are able to offer powerful and at the same time economical petrol and diesel models across all model series.

    Efficiency champions such as the SLK 250 CDI, S 250 CDI, ML 250 BlueTEC 4MATIC and SL 350 BlueEFFICIENCY are able to achieve the best figures in their respective segments in terms of efficiency.

  • 8 9

    Product description

    Efficiency without compromises

    Mercedes-Benz is continuing its hybrid initiative with the new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, the worlds most economical luxury-class model (4.2 l of diesel/100 km, 109 g CO2/km).

    The E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID combines the excellent fuel economy of the four cylinder diesel engine over long dis-tances (motorway, inter-urban) with the advantages of an efficient hybrid in city and stop & go traffic.

    It therefore exhibits impressive efficiency with no compro-mises: thanks to the compact hybrid concept there are no restrictions in terms of spaciousness, comfort and safety.

    In the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, Mercedes-Benz has combined the 2.2-litre four-cylinder diesel engine devel-oping 150 kW (204 hp) with a powerful hybrid module. Its 20 kW electric motor, positioned between the internal combustion engine and the 7-speed automatic transmis-sion, assists the diesel engine when the car is accelerating (boost effect) and, in alternator mode, is used for the re-cuperation of braking energy (recuperation), although it is also suitable for driving under electric power alone. Based on the modular hybrid principle developed by Mercedes-Benz, this diesel hybrid marks the start of a new era in hybrid drive systems.

    Highlights of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID at a glance:

    Compact,intelligentandmodularhybridconcept: no modifications to the body of the base vehicle are necessary. AlsoavailableasanEstate. Spaciousness,safetyandcomfortremainunchanged. Significantincreaseincomfortduringstart/stopoperation; silentstart,completeclimaticcomfort. Class-leadingfuelconsumptioninluxury-classbusiness vehiclesegment:4.2litres/100km,109gCO2/km. Partoftheintelligentdownsizingstrategyof Mercedes-Benz:increaseintheengineoutputofthe E300BlueTECHYBRIDwith150kW+20kWelectric motor/500Nm+250,NmcomparedwiththeE250CDI (150kW/500Nm).Thisplacesitonaparwiththe E300CDI(170kW/540Nm). Fuelsavingofaround15percentcomparedwiththe E250CDIeveninreal-lifetrafficconditions. Uniquehybriddrivingexperience(start/stop,recupera- tion,boosteffect,purelyelectricmotoringandsailing function).


  • 10 11

    Boost function: the electric motor supports the combustion engine during acceleration, e.g. when overtaking, by providing additional drive torque. Cruising: when the car is being driven at a constant speed, the engine control unit shifts the operating points towards exceptionally low specific fuel con sumption levels. Sailing: sailing, as it has come to be known, is possible at speeds below 160 km/h. The combustion engine shuts down and the desired speed is main- tained by the electric motor alone until the battery needs recharging. Kinetic energy recuperation (regenerative braking) when coasting or braking: when the car is coasting (decelerating on the overrun), the electric motor acts as a generator and feeds the kinetic energy back to the high-voltage battery. When the brake pedal is depressed, the generator output is initially increased proportionally for greater deceleration. Only when increased brake pressure is applied are the wheel brakes also operated. To make this function possible, the new hybrid models have brakes specially adapted for energy recuperation.

    Fuel consumption: benefits in real-life traffic, not just on paper

    In urban traffic, with its frequent stationary, deceleration and short acceleration phases, the hybrid drive is able to play to its strengths in particular. This is thanks, on the one hand, to the frequent regenerative braking phases when decelerating and, on the other, to the capability to offer purely electric motoring when approaching traffic lights. The purely electric driving mode can also be used in stop-and-go traffic up to a speed of around 35 km/h and on journeys of up to a kilometre. When stationary, the combustion engine is basically switched off.

    When it comes to inter-urban motoring, the boost, sail-ing and regenerative braking phases alternate in con-junction with an intelligent displacement of the combus-tion engines load point. The actual effect depends on both the route profile as well as the behaviour of the driver.

    The driving experience:sailing along the motorway

    Mercedes-Benz hybrid technology offers a wealth of addi-tional functions that enhance both comfort and efficiency as well as helping to deliver a special driving experience underpinned by refined sportiness:

    When the car is stationary/ECO start/stop function: the internal combustion engine can be switched off when coasting on the overrun at speeds up to 160 km/h, since ancillary equipment such as the power steering, brakes and air conditioning compres sor operate electrically It is restarted extremely quickly, smoothly and almost silently. One feature unique to Mercedes is the interaction between the useful HOLD function and the start/stop system: when the HOLD function is activated (by fully de- pressing the brake pedal when the car is stationary), the internal combustion engine remains switched off even when the drivers foot comes off the brake pedal. Alternatively, if the car remains stationary for a longer period, the driver can move the transmission selector lever to the P position or apply the parking brake instead of keeping a foot on the brake pedal. Manoeuvring: in most cases, the car uses electric power alone for manoeuvring and parking. Accelerating: electrical power alone is used for moving off and driving under low load Acceleration from a standstill is particularly powerful, since the electric motors full torque of up to 250 Nm is immediately available.

    The display concept of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID supports an economical

    driving style The central display provides information on the current energy

    flow and the charge status of the battery A top view of the vehicle is provided,

    depicting the drivetrain and coloured energy flow Here we see the energy flow

    when sailing and also gained from recuperation, for example when approaching

    traffic lights (from left).

    Additional displays of the energy flow:1 Inter-urban motoring, 2 Acceleration, 3 Inter-urban motoring with battery charging as well as 4 Recuperation, for example when driving downhill

    On the motorway, the boost function takes a back seat in the higher engine speed range. Savings are achieved by the sailing function at speeds up to 160 km/h, for exam-ple on slight downhill gradients, by displacement of the combustion engines operating point, electric operation of accessories, and regenerative braking when decelerating.


    2 3


  • 12 13

    The hybrid module: a compact and intelligently integrated powerhouse

    The hybrid drive unit is an enhancement of the module from the S 400 HYBRID and is based on the 7G-TRONIC PLUS automatic transmission. A new element is the lack of hydraulic torque converter. Instead a wet clutch has been added, as also found in a number of powerful AMG models. As a result, the electric motor can be integrated into the transmission unit in such a way that it only re-quires marginally more installation space than the 7G-TRONIC. The lack of converter allows for a purely electric driving mode as well as the sailing function, and also therefore significantly increases the potential for reducing consumption.

    The compact electric motor, which is installed in the clutch housing between the engine and the transmission to save space, is a 3-phase AC internal rotor magneto motor, which develops a peak output of 20 kW and a peak torque of 250 Nm at an operating voltage of 120 Volts.

    The components: perfectly integrated into the vehicle

    The electric energy of the hybrid drive comes courtesy of the high-voltage lithium-ion battery which has been specially developed for automotive use. Its characteristics include an output of 19 kW and an energy content of 0.8 kWh, enabling the E-Class to achieve a speed of up to 35 km/h and a range of up to one kilometre in purely electric mode.

    Major advantages over conventional nickel/metal hydride batteries include a higher energy density and better elec-trical efficiency, together with more compact dimensions and a lower weight. Thanks to space-saving installation in the engine compartment, where it replaces the convention-al starter battery, the generous interior space and boot ca-pacity remain unchanged. The lithium-ion battery not only stores energy for the electric motor, but is also connected to the 12-volt vehicle electrical system via the DC trans-former to supply power to other standard consumers such as the headlamps and comfort features. The battery system consists of the cell block with its lithium-ion cells and the cell monitoring system, the battery management function, the high-strength housing, the cooling gel, the cooling plate, the coolant feed and the high-voltage connector.

    To support cold starting and act as a buffer store for the on-board electrical system, a regular 12 Volt battery is located beneath the luggage compartment, and an addi-tional small backup battery prevents unpleasant flickering of the vehicle lighting and dropouts in the infotainment system in start/stop mode.

    Sophisticated packaging means that numerous hybrid- specific components such as the high-performance elec-tronics in the engine compartment can be directly incor-porated with the internal combustion engine, thus neatly rounding off the modularity concept: the hybrid models can be produced on the same assembly line as their conventional counterparts without needing to be diverted elsewhere. Another plus point of the overall concept is the scalability and compatibility with other vehicles and engines.

    Safety: on a par with previous models

    When it came to the hybrid-specific aspects relevant to safety, the development engineers were able to call upon their vast experience with the S 400 HYBRID model introduced back in 2009. The challenge lay in ensuring the greatest possible safety for the electrical components. This safety system already applies in production, includes workshop personnel during servicing and maintenance, and also takes the emergency services into account when passengers need to be rescued following an accident.

    Accordingly the hybrid technology of Mercedes-Benz is equipped with an extensive 7-stage safety concept.

    1. In the first stage, all of the high-voltage wiring is colour-coded to eliminate confusion, and marked with appropriate safety instructions. This prevents assembly errors in production, and makes the regular quality checks easier to carry out.

    2. The second stage comprises comprehensive contact protection for the entire system by means of generous insulation and newly-developed, dedicated connectors.

    3. As part of the third stage, the lithium-ion battery has been given a whole package of carefully coordinated safety measures. This innovative battery is accommodated in a high-strength steel housing, and also secured in place. Bedding the battery cells in a special gel effectively dampens any jolts and knocks. There is also a blow-off vent with a rupture

    disc and a separate cooling circuit. An internal electronic controller continuously monitors the safety requirements and immediately signals any mal- functions.

    4. The fourth stage of the safety concept includes separation of the battery terminals, individual safety wiring for all high-voltage components and continu- ous monitoring by multiple interlock switches. This means that all high-voltage components are connected by an electric loop. In the event of a mal function, the high-voltage system is automatically switched off.

    5. Active discharging of the high-voltage system as soon as the ignition is switched to Off, or in the event of a malfunction, is part of the fifth stage.

    6. During an accident, the high-voltage system is com- pletely switched off within fractions of a second.

    7. As the seventh and last stage, the system is continu- ously monitored for short circuits.

  • 14 15

    1 ProductdocumentationThis section documents significant environmentally relevant specifications of the different variants of the current E-Class referred to in the statements on general environmental topics (Chapter 2.1).

    The detailed analyses of materials (Chapter 1.2), life cycle assessment (Chapter 2.2), and the recycling concept (Chapter 2.3.1) refer to the new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID with standard equipment.

    14 15

  • 16 17


    The table below shows essential technical data for the variants of the current E-Class. The relevant environmental aspects are explained in detail in the environmental profile in Chapter 2.


    Engine type Petrol engine Petrol engine Petrol engine Petrol engine Petrol engine Petrol engine

    Number of cylinders 4 4 4 6 6 8

    Displacement (effective) [cc] 1796 1796 1796 3498 3498 4663

    Power output [kW] 135 120 150 185 225 300

    Transmission manual x automatic Optional x x x x x

    Emissions standard (fulfilled) EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 5

    Weight (w/o driver and luggage) [kg] 1540*/1540 1660 1575 1740 1750 1865

    Exhaust emissions [g/km]

    CO2: 172165* 155149*** 160152 198190 162154 164159 164159 209

    NOX: 0.025*/0.019 0.039***/0.01 0.019 0.005 0.005 0.028

    CO: 0.254*/0.255 0272***/0.357 0.255 0.082 0.082 0.600

    THC: (petrol engine) 0.03*/0.048 0.05***/0.003 0.048 0.059 0.059 0.065

    NMHC:(petrol engine) 0.022*/0.04 0.028***/0.002 0.040 0.043 0.043 0.046

    THC+NOX: (diesel engine)

    PM (diesel and direct petrol injection) 0.002*/0.003 0.0026 0.0012 0.0012 0.0005

    Fuel consumption 7.47.1*/ 8.78.3***/ NEDC combined [l/100 km] 6.96.5 8.58.1 7.06.6 7.06.8 7.06.8 8.9

    Driving noise [dB(A)] 74*/70 74 70 73 73 72

    * Figures for manual transmission ** NEDC consumption for the base variant of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID with standard tyres: 4.2 l/100 km *** Figures for natural gas operation (consumption in m3/100 km)**** Output of electric motor


    Engine type Diesel engine Diesel engine Diesel engine Diesel engine Diesel engine Diesel engine Diesel engine

    Number of cylinders 4 4 4 6 4 6 6

    Displacement (effective) [cc] 2143 2143 2143 2987 2143 2987 2987

    Output [kW] 100 125 150 170 150+20**** 155 195

    Transmission manual x x x automatic Optional Optional Optional x x x x

    Emissions standard (fulfilled) EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 5 EU 6 EU 5

    Weight (w/o driver and luggage) [kg] 1645*/1660 1660*/1660 1660*/1660 1760 1770 1770 1770

    Exhaust emissions [g/km]

    CO2: 141134*/ 139130*/ 139130*/ 141134 138129 138129 159153 112109 188180 159153

    NOX: 0.154*/0.157 0.17*/0.146 0.017*/0.146 0.147 0.158 0.054 0.147

    CO: 0.268*/0.068 021*/0.054 0.21*/0.054 0.303 0.248 0.178 0.303

    THC: (petrol engine)

    NMHC: (petrol engine)

    THC+NOX: (diesel engine) 0.172*/0.168 0.183*/0.156 0.183*/0.156 0.190 0.181 0.073 0.190

    PM:(diesel and 0.0003*/ 0.0003*/ 0.0003*/ direct petrol injection) 0.0001 0.0002 0.0002 0.0016 0.0002 0.0007 0.0016

    Fuel consumption 5.45.1*/ 5.35.0*/ 5.35.0*/ NEDC combined [l/100 km] 5.45.1 5.34.9 5.34.9 5.86.1 4.34.2** 7.26.8 6.15.8

    Driving noise [dB(A)] 74*/70 74*/71 73*/71 71 71 72 71

    * Figures for manual transmission ** NEDC consumption for the base variant of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID with standard tyres: 4.2 l/100 km *** Figures for natural gas operation (consumption in m3/100 km)**** Output of electric motor

  • 18 19

    Steel/ferrous materials 58.1 %

    Light alloys 12.2 %Non-ferrous metals 3.3 %Precious metals 0.01 %Process polymers 0.8 %Other 2.5 %Electronics 0.4 %Service fluids 4.2 %Polymer materials 18.5 %

    Thermoplastics 12.3 %Elastomers 3.9 %Duromers 0.1 %Other plastics 2.2 %


    2 EnvironmentalprofileThe environmental profile documents the general environmental features of the current E-Class with respect to fuel consumption, emissions, the use of secondary and renewable raw materials or environmental management systems.

    It also provides specific analyses of the environmental performance, such as life cycle assessment and the recycling concept for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID.

    The weight and material data for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID were determined on the basis of internal documentation of the components used in the vehicle (parts list, drawings).The kerb weight according to DIN (without driver and luggage, fuel tank 90 percent full) served as a basis for the recycling rate and life cycle assessment. Figure 1-1 shows the material composition of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID in accordance with VDA 231-106.


    In the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, more than half of the vehicle weight (58.1 percent) is accounted for by steel/ ferrous materials, followed by polymer materials with around 18.5 percent and light alloys (12.2 percent) as the third largest group. Service fluids comprise about 4.2 per-cent. The proportions of non-ferrous metals and of other materials (predominantly glass) are somewhat lower, at around 3 percent in each case. The remaining materials process polymers, electronics, and special metals con-tribute about 1.5 percent to the weight of the vehicle. In this study, the material class of process polymers largely comprises materials for the paint finish.

    The polymers are divided into thermoplastics, elastomers, duromers and non-specific plastics, with the thermoplas-tics accounting for the largest proportion at 12 percent. Elastomers (predominantly tyres) are the second-largest group of polymers with 4 percent.

    The service fluids include oils, fuel, coolant, refrigerant, brake fluid and washer fluid. Only circuit boards with components are included in the electronics group. Cables and batteries are categorised according to their mate-rial composition. The main components of the hybrid drive system are the combustion engine, electric motor, 7G-TRONIC transmission, the power electronics, voltage transformer and the high-voltage battery (using lithium-ion technology). In addition, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID is fitted with an electrically-powered air conditioning compressor for the automatic climate control, an electric vacuum pump, electric power steering and a braking sys-tem which has been specifically developed for the hybrid model which enables effective regenerative braking. This has resulted in differences in terms of the proportions of materials (primarily metals) when contrasted with the comparable E 300 CDI with diesel engine. The percentage of steel has decreased by approximately 4 percent, while the proportion of non-ferrous metals and light alloys, poly-mers and electronics in particular has increased.

    Figure 1-1: Material composition of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

  • 20 21


    Figure 2-1: The main components of the hybrid drive system in the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    With the new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, Mercedes-Benz is bringing its first diesel passenger car model with hybrid drive onto the market. When contrasted with the compa-rable E 300 CDI with diesel engine, the fuel consumption of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID has been reduced from between 6.1 and 5.8 l/100 km to between 4.3 and 4.2 l/ 100 km, depending on the tyres. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of up to 28 percent. The E-Class BlueTEC HYBRID is categorised in energy efficiency class A+.

    The E-Class with hybrid technology also achieves top marks in terms of CO2 emissions too: They have been reduced to between 112 and 109 g/km.

    The new Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID com-bines the benefits of an economical diesel engine with those of a compact electric motor. It is fitted with a comprehensively enhanced drive system, comprising the four-cylinder diesel engine, additional permanent magnet electric motor, the seven-speed 7G-TRONIC PLUS auto-matic transmission designed to accommodate the hybrid module, the necessary power and control electronics, voltage transformer and also the lithium-ion high-voltage battery. The following illustration provides more details on the main components of the hybrid drive system.


    Compactelectricmotor (peaktorque:250Nm)

    Lithium-ionhigh-voltagebattery (19kW, 0,8kWh)

    Comprehensive 7-stagesafetyconcept

  • 22 23

    1 Standard in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands,

    optional in all other countries with a fuel sulphur content of below 50 ppm.

    In addition to the improvements to the vehicle, the driver also has a decisive influence on fuel consumption. For this reason, a display in the middle of the speedometer of the E-Class shows the current fuel consumption level. This easy-to-read bar indicator reacts spontaneously as soon as the driver takes his foot off the accelerator and uses the engines overrun cut-off, for example. The owners manual of the current E-Class also includes tips on an economical and environmentally friendly driving style.

    Furthermore, Mercedes-Benz offers its customers Eco Driver Training. The results of this training course show that adopting an efficient and energy-conscious style of driving can help to reduce the fuel consumption of a car by up to 15 percent.

    The current E-Class is also fit for the future when it comes to its fuels. The EUs plans make provision for an increasing proportion of biofuels to be used. The E-Class is of course able to meet such requirements since a bioethanol content of 10% (E10) is permissible for petrol engines. A 10% biofuel proportion is also permissible for diesel engines, in the form of 7% biodiesel (B7 FAME) and 3% high-quality, hydrated vegetable oil. A considerable

    High environmental standards are also firmly established in the environmental management systems in the sales and after-sales sectors at Mercedes-Benz. At dealer level, Mercedes-Benz meets its product responsibility with the MeRSy recycling system for workshop waste, used parts and warranty parts and packaging materials. The take-back system introduced in 1993 also means that Mercedes-Benz is a model for the automotive industry where workshop waste disposal and recycling are con-cerned. This exemplary service by an automotive manu-facturer is implemented right down to customer level. The waste materials produced in our outlets during servicing and repairs are collected, reprocessed and recycled via a network operating throughout Germany. Classic com-ponents include bumpers, side panels, electronic scrap, glass and tyres. The reuse of used parts also has a long tradition at Mercedes-Benz.

    The Mercedes-Benz Used Parts Center (GTC) was estab-lished back in 1996. With its quality-tested used parts, the GTC is an integral part of the service and parts operations for the Mercedes-Benz brand.

    Although the recovery of Mercedes passenger cars lies in the distant future in view of their long service life, Mercedes-Benz offers a new, innovative procedure for the rapid disposal of vehicles in an environmentally friendly manner and free of charge. For convenient disposal, a comprehensive network of collection points and disman-tling facilities is available to Mercedes customers. Own-ers of used cars can dial the freephone number 00800 1 777 7777 for information and prompt advice on all of the important details relating to the return of their vehicle.

    improvement has been achieved in terms of exhaust gas emissions, too. Mercedes-Benz is the worlds first automo-tive manufacturer to install maintenance and additive-free diesel particulate filters into all diesel passenger cars, from the A to the S-Class. This of course also applies to the diesel variants of the current E-Class.

    Through the technical integration of the main hybrid components in the front end and the transmission tun-nel, it is possible for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID to be produced together with other E-Class models on a produc-tion line at the Mercedes-Benz Sindelfingen plant. The Sindelfingen plant has implemented an environmental management system certified in accordance with the EU eco-audit regulations and ISO standard 14001 since 1996.The painting technology used at the Sindelfingen plant, for example, boasts a high standard not only in technologi-cal terms but also with regard to environmental protection and workplace safety. Service life and value retention are further increased through the use of a clear coat, whose state-of-the-art nanotechnology ensures much greater scratch-resistance than conventional paint. Through the use of water-based paints and fillers, solvent emissions have been drastically reduced.

    Mercedes-Benz offers its customers

    Eco Driver Training which teaches an

    energy-conscious style of driving which

    can help to reduce fuel consumption by

    up to 15 percent.

    The display concept of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID supports an economical

    driving style The central display provides information on the current energy

    flow and the charge status of the battery A top view of the vehicle is provided,

    depicting the drivetrain and coloured energy flow The driver is able to monitor

    fuel consumption via energy/time graphs.

  • 24 25

    A decisive factor for the environmental compatibility of a vehicle is the environmental impact of its emissions and consumption of resources throughout its life cycle (see Figure 2-2).

    The standardised tool for evaluating a vehicles environmental compatibility is the Life Cycle Assessment. It comprises the total environmental impact of a vehicle from the cradle to the grave, in other words from raw material extraction through production and use up to recycling.


    Figure 2-2: Overview of the Life Cycle Assessment

    In the development of Mercedes-Benz passenger cars, life cycle assessments are used in the evaluation and comparison of different vehicles, components, and technologies. The DIN EN ISO 14040 and DIN EN ISO 14044 standards prescribe the procedure and the required elements.


    WiththeLCA,Mercedes-Benzregistersalloftheeffects ofavehicleontheenvironment,fromdevelopmentvia productionandoperationthroughtodisposal. Foracomprehensiveassessment,allenvironmentalinputs are accounted for within each phase of the life cycle. Manyemissionsarisenotsomuchduringdriving,butin thecourseoffuelproduction-forexamplenon-methane hydrocarbon(NMVOC)*andsulphurdioxideemissions. Thedetailedanalysesalsoincludetheconsumptionand processingofbauxite(aluminiumproduction),ironand copper ore.



    The elements of a life cycle assessment are:

    1. Goal and scope definition


    2. Inventory analysis Encompassesthematerialandenergyflows throughoutallstagesofavehicleslife: howmanykilogramsofrawmaterialareused, howmuchenergyisconsumed,whatwastes andemissionsareproduced,etc.

    3. Impact assessment

    Gaugesthepotentialeffects oftheproductonhumansandtheenvironment, suchasglobalwarmingpotential, summersmogpotential,acidificationpotential, andeutrophicationpotential.

    4. Interpretation


  • 26 27

    Projectscope (Continued)

    Cut-off criteria For material production, energy supply, manufacturing processes, and transport, reference is made to GaBi databases and

    the cut-off criteria which they employ.

    No explicit cut-off criteria. All available weight information is processed.

    Noise and land use are currently not available as LCA data and are therefore not taken into account.

    Particulate matter and emissions are not taken into account. Major sources of particulate matter (mainly tyre and brake

    abrasion) are not dependent on vehicle type and consequently of no relevance to the result of the vehicle comparison.

    Vehicle maintenance and care are not relevant to the comparison.

    Assessment Life cycle, in conformity with ISO 14040 and 14044 (LCA).

    Assessment parameters Material composition according to VDA 231-106.

    Life cycle inventory: consumption of resources as primary energy, emissions, e.g. CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CH4, etc.

    Impact assessment: abiotic depletion potential (ADP), global warming potential (GWP),

    photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP).

    These impact assessment parameters are based on internationally accepted methods. They are modelled on categories

    selected by the European automotive industry, with the participation of numerous stakeholders, in an EU project, LIRECAR.

    The mapping of impact potentials for human toxicity and ecotoxicity does not yet have sufficient scientific backing today and

    therefore will not deliver useful results.

    Interpretation: sensitivity analyses of car module structure; dominance analysis over life cycle.

    Software support MB DfE tool. This tool models a car with its typical structure and typical components, including their manufacture, and is

    adapted with vehicle-specific data on materials and weights. It is based on the LCA software GaBi 4.4


    Evaluation Analysis of lifecycle results according to phases (dominance). The manufacturing phase is evaluated based on the underlying

    car module structure. Contributions of relevance to the results will be discussed.

    Documentation Final report with all parameters.

    To be able to ensure the comparability of the examined vehicles, as a rule the ECE base variant was investigated. The E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID (with a combustion engine producing 150 kW and 500 Nm, and an additional electric motor producing 20 kW and 250 Nm), is contrasted with the comparable E 300 CDI with diesel engine (producing 170 kW and 540 Nm). The main parameters on which the LCA was based are shown in the table below.



    Project objective LCA for the E-Class E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, ECE base variant compared with the E 300 CDI with diesel engine.

    Verification of attainment of the objective environmental compatibility and communication.


    Functional equivalent E-Class passenger car (base variant; weight in accordance with DIN 70020).

    Technology/ As two variants of the same vehicle type, the vehicles examined are comparable. The E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    product comparability can cover a limited distance in purely electric mode. Overall, the torque of the combustion engine and electric motor is

    higher than that of the comparable diesel variant, the E 300 CDI.

    System boundaries Life Cycle Assessment for car manufacturing, use and recycling. The scope of assessment is only to be extended in the

    case of elementary flows (resources, emissions, non-recyclable materials).

    Data basis Weight data of car: MB parts list (date of revision 02/2012).

    Materials information for model-relevant, vehicle-specific parts: MB parts list, MB internal documentation systems,

    technical literature.

    Vehicle-specific model parameters (bodyshell, paintwork, catalytic converter, etc.): MB specialist departments.

    Location-specific energy supply: MB database.

    Materials information for standard components: MB database.

    Use (fuel consumption, emissions): type approval/certification data.

    Use (mileage): determined by MB.

    Recycling model: state of the art (see also Chapter 2.3.1).

    Material production, energy supply, manufacturing processes and transport: GaBi database rev. SP18

    (http://documentation.gabi-software.com); MB database.

    Allocations For material production, energy supply, manufacturing processes, and transport, reference is made to GaBi databases

    and the allocation methods which they employ.

    No further specific allocations.

    The fuel has a sulphur content taken to be 10 ppm. Combustion of one kilogram of fuel thus yields 0.02 grams of sulphur dioxide emissions. The use phase is calculated on the basis of a mileage of 250,000 kilometres.

    The LCA includes the environmental impact of the re-cycling phase on the basis of the standard processes of removal of service fluids, shredding, and energy recovery from the shredder light fraction (SLF). Environmental credits are not granted.Table 2-1: LCA parameters for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

  • 28 29














    s [t





    Production Use Recycling

    POCP [kg ethene equiv.]]

    ADP [GJ]

    EP [kg phosphate equiv.]

    AP [kg SO2 equiv.]]

    GWP100 [t CO2 equiv.]]

    CH4 [kg]

    SO2 [kg]

    NMVOC [kg]

    NOX [kg]

    CO [kg]

    Primary energy demand [GJ]


    0 % 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 %













    Car production Fuel production Operation Recycling

    Over the entire life cycle of the new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, the life cycle inventory analyses yield for exam-ple a primary energy demand of 621 gigajoules (corres-ponding to the energy content of around 17,000 litres of diesel fuel), an input into the environment of around 41 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2), around 16 kilograms of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), around 62 kilograms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and almost 40 kilograms of sulphur dioxide (SO2). In addition to the analysis of the overall results, the distri-bution of individual environmental impacts on the various phases of the life cycle is investigated. The relevance of the respective life cycle phases depends on the particular environmental impact under consideration. For CO2 and also primary energy demand, the use phase dominates with a share of around 74 and 71 percent respectively (see Figure 2-3).

    However, it is not the use of the vehicle alone which determines its environmental compatibility. Some environ-mentally relevant emissions are caused principally by its manufacture, for example SO2 emissions (see Figure 2-4). Other emissions, on the other hand, are also strongly in-fluenced by fuel production, for example NMVOC and CH4 emissions. For this reason, both car and fuel production are included in the analysis of ecological compatibility .

    Furthermore, for comprehensive and thus sustained improvement of the environmental impact associated with a vehicle, it is also necessary to consider the end-of-life phase. In terms of energy, the use or initiation of recycling cycles is worthwhile.


    Figure 2-3: Overall carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in tonnes

    Figure 2-4: Share of life cycle phases for selected parameters

    For a comprehensive assessment, all environmental inputs are taken into consideration within each phase of the life cycle. In addition to the results shown above, it was de-termined for example that municipal waste and stockpile goods (especially ore processing residues and overburden) largely arise in the manufacturing phase, while special waste is created mainly through the production of petrol in the usage phase.

    Environmental burden in the form of emissions into water is a result of vehicle manufacturing; this especially ap-plies to heavy metals, NO3- and SO42- -ions, and the factors AOX, BOD and COD.

    In addition to the analysis of overall results, the distribu-tion of selected environmental impacts on the production of individual modules is investigated. Figure 2-5 shows by way of example the percentage distribution of carbon diox-ide and sulphur dioxide emissions for different modules.

    While bodyshell manufacturing features predominantly in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, when it comes to sul-phur dioxide it is modules with precious and non-ferrous metals and glass that are of greater relevance, since these give rise to high emissions of sulphur dioxide in material production.

  • 30 31

    0 % 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 %

    Emissions for car production [%]

    Total vehicle (paintwork)

    Passenger cell/bodyshell




    Mounted external parts

    Mounted internal parts




    Vehicle controls

    Fuel system


    Engine/transmission periphery




    Front axle

    Rear axle

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID Production overallCO2 9.9 tSO2 24.9 kg



    Figure 2-5: Distribution of selected parameters (CO2 and SO2) to modules


  • 32 33




















    9.9 9.6



    Car Production

    Fuelproduction Operation Recycling






    E 300 CDI

    In parallel with the analysis of the new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, an assessment of the ECE base version of the E 300 CDI (1760 kg DIN weight) was made.

    The underlying conditions were identical to those for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID. The production process was represented on the basis of an excerpt from the current list of parts. Use was calculated on the basis of applicable certification values. The same state-of-the-art model was used for recovery and recycling.

    As Figure 2-6 shows, the production processes for both vehicle models results in similar levels of carbon dioxide emissions. But clear advantages emerge for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID over the entire life cycle.

    At the beginning of the life cycle, production of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID gives rise to a quantity of CO2-emissions which is somewhat higher than that of the reference vehicle (9.9 tonnes of CO2 overall). This is attrib-utable to the additional components for the drive system, which in some cases are more complex to manufacture (primarily the battery). In the subsequent use phase, comprising fuel production and vehicle operation, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID emits around 30 tonnes of CO2; the total emissions during production, use and recycling thus amount to 40.7 tonnes of CO2.



    ThefollowingsavingshavebeenachievedovertheE300CDI: ReductionofCO2emissionsby23percent(12tonnes)over the entire life cycle. Reductionoftheprimaryenergydemandof22percent overtheentirelifecycle,correspondingtotheenergy contentofapprox.4800litresofdiesel. Overtheentirelifecycle,theE300BlueTECHYBRIDshows clearadvantagesintermsofglobalwarmingpotential.

    Figure 2-6: Carbon dioxide emissions of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID compared with the E 300 CDI [t/car]

    E 300 CDI BlueTEC HYBRID: 4.2 l/100 km, 109 g CO2/kmE 300 CDI: 5.8 l/100 km, 153 g CO2/km

  • 34 35

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

    Car Production Fuel production Operation Recycling

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID














    Materialresources[kg/car] Energyresources[GJ/car]

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 CDI

    E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID

    E 300 CDI

    Bauxite [kg]

    Lignite [GJ]

    Hard coal[GJ]

    Crude oil [GJ]

    Natural gas [GJ]

    Uranium [GJ]



    Iron ore [kg]**

    Mixed ores [kg]*/**

    * Primarily for the extraction of the elements lead, copper and zinc

    ** In the form of ore concentrate

    Figure 2-7 shows further emissions into the atmosphere and the corresponding impact categories in comparison over the various phases. In terms of production, the results for the E 300 CDI are for the most part slightly more favourable, however the HYBRID displays clear advantages over the entire life cycle. In terms of nitrogen oxide emis-sions, both cars are on a comparable level.

    Figure 2-8 shows selected material and energy resources. The shifts in the material mix and the slightly higher vehicle weight also lead to changes in demand for mate-rial resources in the production of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID.

    The requirement for mixed ores, for example, has in-creased due to the increased quantity of electrics and electronics (copper ore). In terms of energy resources, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID shows a significantly lower crude oil requirement. This can be attributed to the significantly reduced fuel consumption during use. Compared with the reference model, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID achieves

    Production of the comparable E 300 CDI diesel model gives rise to 9.6 tonnes of CO2 Due to the higher fuel consumption, the E 300 CDI models emit approx. 42 tonnes of CO2 during use. Overall, CO2-emissions total 52.5 tonnes.

    Over its entire life cycle, comprising production, use over 250,000 kilometres and recycling, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID gives rise to 23 percent (approx. 12 tonnes) less CO2-emissions than the E 300 CDI. This reduction in CO2-emissions is certainly substantial in size. The saving of around 12 tonnes per vehicle is somewhat higher than the annual per capita emissions of an average European2.

    primary energy savings of 22 percent over the entire life cycle, corresponding to the energy content of around 4800 litres diesel fuel.

    Tables 2-2 and 2-3 present an overview of the main LCA parameters. The lines with grey shading indicate superor-dinate impact categories; they group together emissions with the same effects and quantify their contribution to the respective impacts over a characterisation factor, e.g. contribution to global warming potential in kilograms of CO2 equivalent.

    Figure 2-7: Selected parameters of the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID compared with the E 300 CDI [units/car]

    2 European Environment Agency: EAA Report 09/2009, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2009

    Figure 2-8: Selected material and energy resources for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID compared with the E 300 CDI [units/car]

    CO2 [t]

    NOX [kg]

    SO2 [kg]

    GWP100 [t CO2 equiv.]

    EP [kg phosphate equiv.]

    CO [kg]

    NMVOC [kg]

    CH4 [kg]

    AP [kg SO2 equiv.]

    POCP [kg ethene equiv.]

  • 36 37


    Emissionsinair E300BlueTEC E300CDI Deltavs. Comments Hybrid Hybriddiesel

    GWP* [t CO2 equiv.] 43 55 22 % Global warming potential. Primarily due to CO2 emissions, significant reduction due to lower fuel consumption.

    AP* [kg SO2 equiv.] 80 83 4 % Acidification potential. Primarily due to SO2 and NOX emissions.

    EP* [kg phosphate equiv.] 9 9 1 % Eutrophication potential. Primarily due to NOX emissions.

    POCP* [kg ethylene equiv.] 12 14 15 % Summer smog. Primarily due to NMVOC, CO, SO2 and NOX emissions.

    CO2 [t] 41 52 23 % Primarily from driving operation. CO2 reduction is a direct result of lower fuel consumption.

    CO [kg] 105 118 12 % Approx. 62 % from car use (primarily driving operation), as a result reduction due to lower fuel consumption.

    NMVOC [kg] 16 22 25 % Approx. 62 % from car use, approx. equal amounts due to driving operation and fuel production.

    CH4 [kg] 54 67 19 % Approx. 60 % from car use, primarily due to fuel production. Driving operation accounts for only 4 %.

    NOX [kg] 62 60 2 % Approx. 74 % from car use, driving operation accounts for 64 % of nitrogen dioxide emissions.

    SO2 [kg] 40 43 7 % Approx. 64 % from car manufacturing, remainder from fuel production.

    Emissionsinwater E300BlueTEC E300CDI Deltavs. Comments Hybrid Hybriddiesel

    BSB [kg] 0.4 0.4 3 % Approx. 87 % from car manufacturing.

    Hydrocarbons [kg] 0.3 0.4 20 % Approx. 75 % from car manufacturing.

    NO3- [g] 496 464 7 % Approx. 96 % from car manufacturing.

    PO4 3- [g] 19 17 12 % Approx. 76 % from car manufacturing.

    SO4 2- [kg] 17 19 6 % Approx. 77 % from car manufacturing.

    Table 2-3: Overview of LCA parameters (II) * CML 2001, date of revision: November 2009


    Resources,ores E300BlueTEC E300CDI Deltavs. Comments Hybrid Hybriddiesel

    Bauxite [kg] 727 718 1 % Increased use of primary aluminium.

    Dolomite [kg] 128 110 16 % Increased use of magnesium.

    Iron ore [kg] 995 977 2 % Primarily car manufacturing.

    Mixed ores (esp. Cu,Pb,Zn) [kg]** 146 120 21 % Primarily power electronics, electric motor.

    Rare earth ore/ precious metal ores [kg]** 0.7 0.3 95 % Primarily electric motor.

    **In the form of ore concentrate

    Energysources E300BlueTEC E300CDI Deltavs. Comments Hybrid Hybriddiesel

    Fossil ADP* [GJ] 560 721 22% Abiotic depletion potential. Dominated mainly by fuel consumption.

    Primary energy [GJ] 614 785 22 % Consumption of energy resources. Significantly lower than for the E 300 CDI, due to the increased fuel efficiency of the E-Class Hybrid.

    Proportionately Lignite [GJ] 14 17 22 % Approx. 90 % from car manufacturing.

    Natural gas [GJ] 65 77 17 % Approx. 34 % from use in the case of the hybrid variant. Reduction due to lower fuel consumption.

    Crude oil [GJ] 441 597 26 % Significant reduction due to lower fuel consumption.

    Hard coal [GJ] 48 47 4 % Approx. 96 % from car manufacturing.

    Uranium [GJ] 32 32 0 % Approx. 91 % from car manufacturing.

    Renewable energy resources [GJ] 14.0 14.5 4 % Primarily from car manufacturing.

    * CML 2001, date of revision: December 2009Table 2-2: Overview of LCA parameters (I)

    In Table 2-3 the superordinate impact categories are also indicated first. The E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID shows signifi-cant advantages over the reference model, particularly in terms of the global warming potential. In the impact categories acidification, summer smog and eutrophication, it is better than and/or on par with the E 300 CDI.

    The goal of bringing about improved environmental performance in the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID over the reference model was therefore achieved overall.

  • 38 39


    The objective of this directive is the prevention of vehicle waste and the promotion of the return, reuse, and recy-cling of vehicles and their components. This results in the following requirements on the automotive industry:

    Establishment of systems for collection of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and used parts from repairs. Achievement of an overall recovery rate of 95 percent by weight by 1 January 2015 at the latest. Evidence of compliance with the recycling rate as part of type approval for new passenger cars as of December 2008. Take-back of all ELVs free of charge from January 2007. Provision of dismantling information from the manufacturer to the ELV recyclers within six months of market launch. Prohibition of the heavy metals lead, hexavalent chromium, mercury, and cadmium, taking into account the exceptions in Annex II.

    With the adoption of the European ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) on 18 September 2000, the conditions for recovery of end-of-life vehicles were revised.

    TheE-Classmeetstherecoverabilityrateof95percent byweight,effective01.01.2015

    End-of-lifevehicleshavebeentakenbackbyMercedes-Benz freeofchargesinceJanuary2007. Heavymetalssuchaslead,hexavalentchromium,mercury or cadmium have been eliminated in accordance with the requirementsoftheELVDirective. Mercedes-Benzalreadycurrentlyhasahighly efficienttake-backandrecyclingnetwork. Byresellingcertifiedusedparts,theMercedesUsedParts Centermakesanimportantcontributiontotherecycling concept. EvenduringdevelopmentoftheE-Class,attentionwaspaid toseparationandeaseofdismantlingofrelevantthermo- plastic components. Detailedinformationisprovidedinelectronicformforall ELVrecyclers:theInternationalDismantling InformationSystem(IDIS).


  • 40 41

    The calculation model reflects the real ELV recycling process and is divided into four stages:

    1. Pre-treatment (extraction of all service fluids, removal of tyres, battery, and catalytic converter, triggering of airbags).2. Dismantling (removal of replacement parts and/or components for material recycling.)3. Segregation of metals in the shredder process.4. Treatment of non-metallic residue fraction (shredder light fraction, SLF).

    The recycling concept for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID was devised in parallel with the development of the vehicle; the individual components and materials were analysed for each stage of the process. The volume flow rates established for each stage together yield the recycling and recovery rates for the entire vehicle.

    The deployment of a lithium-ion battery in a hybrid series model also presents new challenges in the area of disposal and recycling. For the recycling process for the high-voltage batteries, four stages were therefore defined and corresponding processes developed:

    1. ReUse: reuse of the battery, whereby reconditioning is limited to cleaning and exchanging parts limited to the service life of the battery, e.g. fuses.2. RePair: this more extensive repair stage includes additional repair work on the HV storage system. In this way, the battery systems individual modules (connected cells) can be exchanged.3. ReManufacturing: this repair stage comprises the complete disassembly of the battery down to individual cell level and subsequent reassembly of the battery system following sorting, testing and exchange of components.4. ReMat: this process comprises recycling and recovery of valuable content materials.


    The calculation procedure is regulated in ISO standard 22628, Road vehicles Recyclability and recoverability calculation method.

    Figure 2-9: Material flows in the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID recycling concept

    At the pretreatment stage, the ELV recycler removes the fluids, battery, oil filter, tyres and catalytic converters. The airbags are activated using equipment standardised for all European vehicle manufacturers. During dismantling, the prescribed parts are first removed according to the European ELV Directive. To improve recycling, numerous components and assemblies are then removed and are sold directly as used spare parts or serve as a basis for the manufacturing of replacement parts.

    The reuse of used parts has a long tradition at Mercedes-Benz. The Mercedes-Benz Used Parts Center (GTC) was established back in 1996. With its quality-tested used parts, the GTC is an integral part of the service and parts operations for the Mercedes-Benz brand and makes an im-portant contribution to the appropriately priced repair of Mercedes-Benz vehicles. In addition to used parts, materi-als that can be recycled using economically appropriate procedures are selectively removed in the vehicle disman-tling process. These include components of aluminium

    and copper as well as selected large plastic components. During the development of the E-Class, these components were specifically prepared for subsequent recycling. Along with the segregated separation of materials, attention was also paid to ease of dismantling of relevant thermoplastic components such as bumpers, wheel arch linings, outer sills, underfloor panelling and engine compartment cover-ings. In addition, all plastic parts are marked in accord-ance with international nomenclature.

    In the subsequent shredding of the residual body, the met-als are first separated for reuse in the raw material produc-tion processes. The largely organic remaining portion is separated into different fractions for environment-friendly reuse in raw material or energy recovery processes. With the described process chain, overall a material recyclability rate of 85 percent and a recoverability rate of 95 percent were verified on the basis of the ISO 22628 calculation model for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID as part of the vehicle type approval process (see Figure 2-9).

    ELV recycler Shredder operators


    1) in acc. with 2000/53/EC2) SLF = shredder light fraction

    Vehicle mass: mV Pre-treatment: mPFluidsBatteryTiresAirbagsCatalytic convertersOil filter

    Dismantling: mDPrescribed parts1), Components for recovery and recycling

    Segregation of metals: mM Residual metal

    SLF2) treatmentmTr = recyclingmTe = energy recovery

  • 42 43

    For the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID too, all necessary information is provided in electronic form via the International Dismantling Information System (IDIS).

    This IDIS software provides vehicle information for ELV recyclers, on the basis of which vehicles can be subjected to environmentally friendly pretreatment and recycling techniques at the end of their operating lives.

    The system presents model-specific data both graphically and in text form. In pre-treatment, specific information is pro-vided on service fluids and pyrotechnic components. In the other areas, material-specific information is provided for the identification of non-metallic components.

    The current version of IDIS (5.31) contains information in 30 languages on 1684 different vehicles from 68 car brands. The IDIS data are made available to ELV recyclers and incorporated into the software half a year after the respective market launch.


    Figure 2-10: Screenshot of the IDIS software

    Dismantling information for ELV recyclers plays an important role in the implementation of the recycling concept.

    The avoidance of hazardous substances is a matter of top priority in the development, manufacturing, use, and recycling of Mercedes-Benz vehicles. For the protection of humans and the environment, substances and substance classes that may be present in materials or components of Mercedes-Benz passenger cars have been listed in an internal standard (DBL 8585) since 1996. This standard is already made available to the designers and materials experts at the advanced development stage for both the selection of materials and the definition of manufacturing processes.

    The heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury, and hexava-lent chromium, which are prohibited by the ELV Directive of the EU, are also taken into consideration. To ensure compliance with the ban on heavy metals in accordance with the legal requirements, Mercedes-Benz has modified and adapted numerous processes and requirements both internally and with suppliers.

    The new E-Class complies with the applicable regulations. For example, lead-free elastomers are used in the drive system, along with lead-free pyrotechnic initiators, cadmi-um-free thick film pastes, and surfaces free of hexavalent chromium in the interior, exterior, and assemblies.

    Materials used for components in the passenger compart-ment and boot are also subject to emission limits that are likewise laid down in the DBL 8585 standard as well as in delivery conditions for the various components. The con-tinual reduction of interior emissions is a major aspect of component and material development for Mercedes-Benz vehicles.


  • 44 45

    In addition to the requirements for the attainment of recycling rates, the manufacturers are obliged by Article 4, Paragraph 1 (c) of the European ELV Directive 2000/53/EC to make increased use of recycled materials in vehicle production and thereby to establish or extend the markets for recycled materials. To meet these re-quirements, the technical specifications for new Mercedes models prescribe a constant increase in the recycled content of passenger cars.

    The studies relating to the use of recycled material, which accompany the development process, focus on thermo-plastics. Unlike steel and ferrous materials, which already include a proportion of secondary materials from the outset, the use of plastics requires a separate procedure for the testing and release of the recycled material for each component.

    For this reason, the data on the use of recycled material in passenger cars are documented only for thermoplastic components, as this is the only factor that can be influ-enced in the course of development.

    The quality and functionality requirements placed on a component must be met both with secondary raw materi-als and with comparable new materials. To ensure pas-senger car production is maintained even when shortages are encountered on the recycled materials market, new materials may also be used as an option.

    In the current E-Class, a total of 43 components with an overall weight of 41.5 kg can be manufactured partly from high-quality recycled plastics. Typical applications include wheel arch linings, cable ducts, and the boot liner, which are largely made from polypropylene. It has also been possible to close additional material loops in the case of the E-Class, however: the use of recycled polyamide is approved for the blower shroud in the engine compartment of this vehicle, while recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is approved for the basic carrier of the centre console. Recycling polyol is partly used in the rear seat cushions. Figure 2-11 shows the components approved for the use of recycled materi-als.

    A further objective is to derive the recycled materials as far as possible from automotive waste streams, thereby closing process loops. In the case of the wheel arch linings of the new E-Class, for example, a secondary raw material comprising reprocessed vehicle components is used (see Figure 2-12): starter battery housings, bumper coverings from the Mercedes-Benz Recycling System, and produc-tion waste from cockpit units.


    Figure 2-12: Use of secondary raw materials, taking the wheel arch lining as an

    example (in the current B-Class)

    Figure 2-11: Use of secondary raw materials in the current E-Class

    IntheE-Class,43componentswithanoverall weightof41.5kilogramscanbemanufactured partlyfromhigh-qualityrecycledplastics.

    Theseincludewheelarchlinings,cableducts and the boot liner. Themassofsecondaryrawmaterialcomponents hasincreasedby80percentcomparedwiththe predecessor model. Whereverpossible,secondaryrawmaterialsare derivedfromvehicle-relatedwastestreams:the frontwheelarchliningsaremadefromrecovered vehicle components.

  • 46 47

    2.5 Useofrenewablerawmaterials

    In automotive production, the use of renewable raw mate-rials is concentrated primarily in the vehicle interior. The natural fibres predominantly used in series production of the new E-Class include cellulose, cotton and wool fibres in combination with various polymers. The use of natural materials in automotive manufacturing has a number of advantages:

    Compared with glass fibre, natural fibres normally result in a reduced component weight. Renewable raw materials help to reduce the con- sumption of fossil resources such as coal, natural gas and crude oil. They can be processed by means of conventional technologies. The resulting products are generally readily recyclable. In terms of energy recovery, they exhibit an almost neutral CO2 balance, since only the same amount of CO2 is released as was absorbed by the plant during growth.

    The types of renewable raw materials and their applica-tions are listed in Table 2-4.

    In the current E-Class, a total of 44 components with a combined weight of around 21 kg are produced using natural materials. Figure 2-13 shows the components in the current E-Class which are produced using renewable raw materials.

    The luggage compartment floor consists of a cardboard honeycomb structure, and for the tank ventilation the Mercedes engineers have also drawn on a raw material from nature: olive coke serves as an activated charcoal filter. This open-pored material absorbs hydrocarbon emissions, and the filter regenerates itself automatically during vehicle operation.

    Natural materials also play an important part in the production of the fabric seat upholstery for the current E-Class, which contains approx. 25 percent pure sheeps wool. This natural material has significant comfort ad- vantages over synthetic fibres: wool not only has very good electrostatic properties, but is also better at absorb-ing moisture and has a positive effect on climatic seating comfort in high temperatures.

    Raw material Application

    Wool Seat covers

    Cotton Various damping and trim

    Cellulose fibres Various damping and linings

    Wood veneer Trim elements and mouldings

    Olive stones Activated charcoal filter

    Paper Luggage compartment floor, filter elements

    Table 2-4: Application of renewable raw materials in the current E-Class

    Figure 2-13: Components produced using renewable raw materials in the current E-Class

    Atotalof44componentswithatotalweightofaround 21kgareproducedusingnaturalmaterials. Theflooroftheluggagecompartmentconsistsofacard board honeycomb structure. Olivecokeservesasanactivatedcharcoalfilterfor fueltankventilation. Thetextileseatcoversarecomprisedon25percent pure sheeps wool.

  • 48 49

    Reducing the environmental impact of a vehicles emis-sions and resource consumption throughout its life cycle is crucial to improving its environmental performance. The environmental burden of a product is already largely determined in the early development phase; subsequent corrections to product design can only be implemented at great expense. The earlier sustainable product develop-ment (Design for Environment) is integrated into the development process, the greater the benefits in terms of minimised environmental impact and cost. Process and product-integrated environmental protection must be realised in the development phase of a product. Environ-mental burden can often only be reduced at a later date by means of downstream end-of-pipe measures.

    We strive to develop products which are highly responsi-ble to the environment in their respective market seg-ments this is the second Environmental Guideline of the Daimler Group. Its realisation requires incorporating environmental protection into products from the very start. Ensuring that this happens is the task of environ-mentally friendly product development. Comprehensive vehicle concepts are devised in accordance with the Design for Environment (DfE) principle. The aim is to improve environmental performance in objectively measurable terms, while at the same time meeting the demands of the growing number of customers with an eye for environmental issues such as fuel economy and reduced emissions or the use of environmentally friendly materials.

    3 Process documentation

    In organisational terms, responsibility toward improving environmental performance was an integral part of the de-velopment project for the E-Class. Under the overall level of project management, employees are appointed with re- sponsibility for development, production, purchasing, sales, and further fields of activity. Development teams (e.g. body, drive system, interior, etc.) and cross-functional teams (e.g. quality management, project management, etc.) are appointed in accordance with the most important automotive components and functions.

    One such cross-functional group is known as the DfE team, consisting of experts from the fields of life cycle assessment, dismantling and recycling planning, materi-als and process engineering, and design and production. Members of the DfE team are also incorporated in a devel- opment team, in which they are responsible for all envir-onmental issues and tasks; this ensures complete inte-gration of the DfE process into the vehicle development project.

    Mercedes-Benz devises comprehensive vehicle concepts in line with the

    Design for Environment principle, with the aim of improving environmental

    compatibility in objectively measurable terms.


  • 50 51

    The members have the task of defining and monitoring the environmental objectives in the technical specifica-tions for the various vehicle modules at an early stage, and deriving improvement measures where necessary.

    Integration of Design for Environment into the operational structure of the development project for the E-Class en-sured that environmental aspects were not sought only at the time of launch, but were included in the earliest stages of development.

    The targets were coordinated in good time and reviewed in the development process in accordance with the quality gates. Requirements for further action up to the next qual-ity gate are determined by the interim results, and the measures are implemented in the development team.

    The process carried out for the E-Class meets all the criteria for the integration of environmental aspects into product development which are described in ISO standard TR 14062.

    Over and above this, in order to implement Design for Environment activities in a systematic and controllable manner, integration into the higher-level ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 environmental and quality management systems is also necessary. The international ISO 14006 standard published in 2011 describes the prerequisite processes and correlations.

    Mercedes-Benz already meets the requirements of the new ISO 14006 in full. This was confirmed for the first time by the independent appraisers from TV SD Management GmbH in 2012.

    Figure 3-1: Design for Environment activities at Mercedes-Benz


    Sustainableproductdevelopment (DesignforEnvironment,DfE),wasintegratedintothe development process for the E-Class from the outset. This minimises environ mental impact and costs. Indevelopment,aDfEteamensurescompliancewith the secured environmental objectives. TheDfEteamcomprisesspecialistsfromawiderange offields,e.g.lifecycleassessment,dismantlingandre- cyclingplanning,materialsandprocessengineering, anddesignandproduction. IntegrationofDfEintothedevelopmentprocesshas ensured that environmental aspects were included in all stagesofdevelopment.

  • 52 53

    CERTIFICATE The Certification Body

    of TV SD Management Service GmbH certifies that

    Daimler AG Group Research & Mercedes-Benz Cars Development

    D-71059 Sindelfingen

    for the scope

    Development of Passenger Vehicles

    has implemented and applies an Environmental Management System with particular focus on ecodesign.

    Evidence of compliance to

    ISO 14001:2004 with ISO 14006:2011 and ISO/TR 14062:2002

    was provided in an audit, report No. 70097150/70014947, demonstrating that the entire product life cycle is considered in a multidisciplinary approach when

    integrating environmental aspects in product design and development.

    Results are verified by means of Life Cycle Assessments.

    The Certificate is valid until 2012-12-03 Certificate Registration-No. 12 770 13407 TMS

    Munich, 2012-01-30

    5 Conclusion4The new Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID not only meets the highest demands in terms of safety, comfort, agility, and design, but also fulfils all current requirements regarding environmental compatibility.

    Mercedes-Benz is the worlds first automotive manu- facturer to have held the Environmental Certificate in accordance with the ISO TR 14062 standard since 2005. Over and above this, since 2012 the requirements of the new ISO 14006 standard on the integration of Design for Environment activities into the higher level environmental and quality management systems have been confirmed by TV SD Management GmbH.

    The Environmental Certificate for the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID documents the significant improvements that have been achieved compared with the reference model.

    Both the process of environmentally compatible product development and the product information contained herein have been certified by independent experts in accordance with internationally recognised standards.

    In the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID, Mercedes customers benefit for example from significantly enhanced fuel economy, lower emissions and a comprehensive recycling concept. The new E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID is thus char- acterised by environmental performance that has been significantly improved compared with the reference model.

    52 53

  • 54 55

    Term Explanation ADP Abiotic depletion potential (abiotic = non-living); impact category describing the reduction of the global stock of raw materials resulting from the extraction of non-renewable resources.

    Allocation Distribution of material and energy flows in processes with several inputs and outputs, and assignment of the input and output flows of a process to the investigated product system.

    AOX Adsorbable organically bound halogens; sum parameter used in chemical analysis mainly to assess water and sewage sludge. The sum of the organic halogens which can be adsorbed by activated charcoal is determined; these include chlorine, bromine and iodine compounds.

    AP Acidification potential; impact category expressing the potential for milieu changes in eco systems due to the input of acids.

    Base variant Base vehicle model without optional extras, usually Classic line and with a small engine.

    BOD Biological oxygen demand; taken as a measure of the pollution of waste water, waters with organic substances (to assess water quality).

    COD Chemical oxygen demand; taken as a measure of the pollution of waste water, waters with organic substances (to assess water quality). DIN German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut fr Normung e. V.)

    ECE Economic Commission for Europe; the UN organisation in which standardised technical regulations are developed.

    EP Eutrophication potential (overfertilisation potential); impact category expressing the potential for oversaturation of a biological system with essential nutrients.

    6 GlossaryGWP100 Global warming potential, time horizon 100 years; impact category that describes potential contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect.

    HC Hydrocarbons

    IDIS International Dismantling Information System

    IMDS International Material Data System

    Impact categories Classes of effects on the environment in which resource consumptions and various emissions with the same environmental effect (such as global warming, acidification, etc.) are grouped together.

    ISO International Organisation for Standardisation

    KBA Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrtbundesamt)

    Life Cycle Assessment Compilation and evaluation of input and output flows and the potential (LCA) environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life.

    MB Mercedes-Benz

    NEDC New European Driving Cycle; cycle prescribed by law, in use in Europe since 1996 to establish the emissions and consumption of motor vehicles.

    Non-ferrous metal (aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, magnesium, etc.)

    POCP Photochemical ozone creation potential; impact category that describes the formation of photo-oxidants (summer smog).

    Primary energy Energy not yet subjected to anthropogenic conversion.

    Process polymers Term from the VDA materials data sheet 231-106; the material group process polymers comprises paints, adhesives, sealants, protective undercoats.

    SLF Shredder Light Fraction; non-metallic substances remaining after shredding as part of a process of separation and cleaning.

  • 56 57


    Publisher: Daimler AG, Mercedes-Benz Cars, D-70546 Stuttgart

    Mercedes-Benz Technology Center, D-71059 SindelfingenDepartment: Design for Environment (GR/PZU) in collaboration with Global Communications Mercedes-Benz Cars (COM/MBC)

    Tel. no.: +49 711 17-76422


    Descriptions and details quoted in this publication apply to the Mercedes-Benz international model range. Differences relating to basic and optional equipment, engine options, technical specifications and performance data are possible in other countries.

    56 57

  • 58Daimler AG, Global Communications Mercedes-Benz Cars, Stuttgart (Germany), www.mercedes-benz.com