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  • Environmental Concerns With

    Reuse and Disposal of

    Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)

    Treated Wood

    William Hinkley Chief, Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste

    Florida Department of Environmental Protection

  • New CCA Research Sponsored by

    the Florida Center For Solid and

    Hazardous Waste Management

    Gainesville, Florida

    Lena Ma, PhD., University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

    Helena Solo-Gabriele, Ph.D., P.E., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

    Timothy Townsend, Ph.D., University of Florida,

  • The Center’s mission is to coordinate and engage in research relating to solid and hazardous waste management issues

  • Participating Institutions

    UWF FAMU

    FSU/ UF

    USF UCF FIT

    FAU FIU/U M

  • I. Overview of

    CCA Treated Wood In Florida:

    Types, Amounts and

    Disposal Forecast

  • Introduction for CCA Treated Wood

    Q Most Common Wood Preservative Used in the U.S. and Florida, Approx. 80% of the wood preservation market (including creosote and pentachlorophenol)

    Q Represents over 97% of the waterborne wood preservative market

  • Introduction

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600 V

    ol um

    e, m

    ill io

    n cu

    bi c

    fe et

    CCA

    All Products

    All Products

    CCA

    Production

    1970 1996 Year

  • World Production of Arsenic Trioxide: 1998

    Mexico

    Belgium

    Kazakhstan

    Russia Other

    France China

    Ghana

    Chile Source: USGS

  • 19 69

    19 71

    19 73

    19 75

    19 77

    19 79

    19 81

    19 83

    19 85

    19 87

    19 89

    19 91

    19 93

    19 95

    19 97

    U.S. Demand for Arsenic (1969 - 1998)

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    35000 M

    et ric

    T on

    s

    Source: USGS

    Treated Wood

    Agriculture Other

  • TX 28

    17

    M

    E

    W A

    1 3

    OR 10

    NV

    1CA 1 1

    ID 5

    2

    AZ 2

    N M 1

    S D

    3 N E

    2 KS 0

    O K

    3

    MN 9

    I A 2

    MO

    9 AR

    LA 15

    WI 1 1

    IL 9

    IN 7

    MI 11

    OH 11

    T N 7 S

    2 1 AL 3 9

    F

    L 25

    ME 1

    N Y

    6

    G A

    4 0

    SC 17 N C 28

    WV

    9 VA 20

    PA 19

    VT 0 NH 1

    RI 1 NJ 2

    DE

    0

    HI 5

    AK

    0

    MD

    6

    ND

    1

    K Y 8

    MT 2

    W A

    1 3 D

    C C

    B

    D

    E A = Low D = High B = Moderate E = Severe C = Intermediate

    Introduction

    WY

    2 A

    UT CO 5

    MA 3

    CT 1

  • Introduction

    The Amounts of CCA Used For Different Applications

    Application Retention Value (lb/ft3)

    Above ground: lumber, timbers, and plywood 0.25 Ground/Freshwater contact: lumber, timbers, plywood 0.40 Salt water splash, wood foundations: lumber, timbers, and plywood Structural poles

    0.60

    Foundation/Freshwater: pilings and columns 0.80 Salt water immersion: pilings and columns 2.50

    Table I-2: Retention Requirements for CCA-Treated Wood (AWPA, 1996)

  • Motivation

    Q CCA ---> Chromated Copper Arsenate

    Q CCA-Treated Wood contains high concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic (≈1000 mg/kg for each metal)

    Q When burned, metals accumulate in the ash

    (concentrations ≈ 10,000’s mg/kg for each)

  • Motivation

    Unburned Wood Burned Wood

    Metals Reg. Limit

    (mg/kg)

    Other Woods (mg/kg)

    CCA-Trt Wood

    (mg/kg)

    Other Woods (mg/kg)

    CCA-Trt Wood

    (mg/kg) Arsenic

    Chromium

    Copper

    41 DL-1.5 290-1200 7-74 8600- 64,000

    1,200 DL-21 1740-2400 12-140 1700- 41,000

    1,500 DL-8.5 1000-1100 41-190 2600- 39,000

  • Disposal Forecast Based Upon A Mass Balance Approach

    Production Use Disposal

    Extrapolated from Service Life Industry 25 to 40 years Statistics

  • Disposal Forecast

    Quantity of CCA-Treated Wood Sold in Florida (1996),

    Q 28 million ft3 of wood product ³(17 million treated in FL and 11 million imported)

    Q 6300 tons of chemical ³3000 tons as CrO3 (1600 tons as Cr) ³1100 tons as CuO (920 tons as Cu) ³2200 tons as As2O5 (1400 tons as As)

  • M ill

    io n

    ft3 , d

    is po

    se d

    Long-term Disposal Forecast

    35 Florida Statistics No Change in CCA Use

    Hypothetical Case If 100% Alt. Chem. Used by 2002

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Today Hypothetical Case Year

    19 64

    19 68

    19 72

    19 76

    19 80

    19 84

    19 88

    19 92

    19 96

    20 00

    20 04

    20 08

    20 12

    20 16

    20 20

    20 24

    20 28

    20 32

    20 36

    20 40

    20 44

  • II. Fate of CCA Treated Wood

    Waste in Florida

  • How is Discarded CCA-Treated Wood Managed in Florida?

    Q It is estimated that most discarded CCA- treated wood enters the construction and demolition (C&D) debris waste stream.

    Q A small amount is disposed via lined municipal waste landfills and waste-to- energy facilities.

    Q Reuse and recycling is minimal.

  • Wood is One of the Largest Components of

    C&D Debris

    2% 6%15% 6%

    2%

    27% 42%

    Wood

    Source: NAHB Research Center Average of 4 Sites

    Plastic

    Roofing

    Brick

    Wood

    Drywall

    Metal

    Misc.

  • How is Wood in the C&D Debris

    Stream Managed? Q C&D Landfills Q C&D Recycling Facilities ³ Major Market: Wood Fuel ³ Growing Market: Landscape Mulch

  • Wood from C&D Debris

  • Processed C&D Wood

  • How is CCA-Treated Wood Managed? Q C&D debris processing facilities that

    separate wood for reuse and recycling are required to remove CCA-treated wood.

    Q Very difficult to accomplish. Q Very difficult to enforce. Q Facility visits indicate that very little

    separation is occurring.

  • C&D LandfillMSW Landfill

    C&D DebrisCCA-Wood Removed from Service

    C&D Processing Facility

    Processed Wood

    Land Application

    ?

    Wood Fuel Facility

  • Separated CCA Utility Poles

  • CCA-Treated Wood is Visible at Times

  • Most of the time, the identification of CCA-treated wood is difficult, especially for wood from demolition.

  • Once wood is processed, separation of CCA- treated wood is not a realistic possibility.

  • How much CCA-treated wood is present

    in C&D debris wood in Florida?

    Q Samples of processed wood were collected

    from 12 facilities around the state.

    Q Samples were homogenized and analyzed

    for Cu and Cr Concentrations.

    Q A mass balance was performed to estimate

    the amount of CCA-treated wood present.

  • Sample Collection

  • 0

    1000

    2000

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    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000 C

    r i n

    A sh

    ed S

    am pl

    e (m

    g/ kg

    ) Type A

    Type B

    Type C Comparison of Copper and Chromium Concentrations

    0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

    Cu in Ashed Sampled (mg/kg)

  • Results

    Q The average amount of CCA-treated wood in recovered wood from C&D waste processing facilities was approximately 6% (based on 0.25 pcf, type C).

    Q This amount ranged from background levels to over 20%.

  • Florida Regulatory and

    Cleanup Criteria for Arsenic

    Q Drinking Water MCL: 50 ug/L

    Q TCLP: 5 mg/L

    Q Soil Clean Up Target Levels (SCTLs) ³ Residential: 0.8 mg/kg ³ Industrial: 3.7 mg/kg ³ Leachable: 27.5 mg/kg

  • Conclusions of the 1999 National Research Council report on the Drinking Water Standard for arsenic:

    “…it is the subcommittee’s consensus that the current EPA MCL for arsenic in drinking water of 50ug/l does not achieve EPA’s goal for public-health protection and, therefore, requires downward revision as promptly as possible.”

  • Ash from the Combustion of Wood

    Q Much of the recovered wood from C&D processing is combusted as fuel.

    Q Research indicates that 6% of this wo

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