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  • Slide 1
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:1 Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing Class 2: Industrial Ecology & Manufacturing Prof. S. M. Pandit
  • Slide 2
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:2 Industrial Ecology and Manufacturing Case Study: The Automobile - A Discrete Manufactured Product Agenda l Environmental Impact The Master Equation l Automobile sub-systems & Environmental Impact l Environmental interactions during manufacturing l Energy consumption & Motive energy options l Infrastructure: Embedded energy in roads l Environmental interactions during product use References: Graedel & Allenby Industrial Ecology and the automobile EPA Web
  • Slide 3
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:3 The Master Equation Quantitative estimates of the environmental impact in a particular locality (or eco - system) Population Gross Domestic Product Env. impact per unit of GDP
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  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:4 The Master Equation E = [P] [i p E = Environmental Impact P = Population (temporal) i p = Gross Domestic Product(GDP) / person = Environmental Impact / GDP P o = Initial population t = Time R = Net rate of growth = (R b - R d ) + (R i - R e ) P = P 0 exp {Rt}
  • Slide 5
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:5 The Master Equation Pi p E Time
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  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:6 The Master Equation As we move towards sustainable manufacturing, The environmental impact surface should become flatter. d/dt [Pollutant generation] < d/dt [Pollutant processing] Short / Long term implications
  • Slide 7
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:7 Automobile Sub-systems & Environmental Impact Environmental impact Constituents Design Societal & Cultural Factors Sub-systems ? Questions Addressed Impact of design and materials - Technology focus
  • Slide 8
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:8 Automobile Sub-systems & Environmental Impact Chassis Frame Engine Brakes Cooling systems Lubrication Tires Fuel Paint Emission Control Electrical power Electronics Mechanics, Thermofluids Tribology Chemical processing, Thermofluids Machines, Signal processing Overview of Sub-Systems
  • Slide 9
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:9 Automobile Sub-systems & Environmental Impact Materials selected (how do we look at properties?) : Ferrous Cast Irons Steel Alloy steels Aluminum alloys Ceramics Composites Polymers Fluids Engine / Transmission / Brake / Battery Time - Temperature dependent diffusion of C in Fe Ref: http://ate.cc.vt.edu/eng/materials/classes
  • Slide 10
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:10 Environmental Impact Raw Material depletion Combustion by-products Manufacturing Process Waste Streams Automobile Sub-systems & Environmental Impact
  • Slide 11
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:11 Design factors and Environmental Impact Combustion Efficiency Weight Corrosion resistance Ease of Manufacturing Functionality Cost Recyclability Automobile Sub-systems & Environmental Impact
  • Slide 12
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:12 Environmental Interactions during Manufacturing Upstream Input(s) Raw Materials & Energy Waste Streams Downstream Output(s) Manufacturing process
  • Slide 13
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:13 Environmental Interactions during Manufacturing Typical Manufacturing Processes, inputs and outputs What can we do with these? Develop analytical I/O models - Based on experimental data (Regression,DDS) - Based on a physical understanding of the process (still using models developed to describe basic interactions; e.g. rate phenomenon in chemical metallurgy to describe chemistry change and effluents in welding processes)
  • Slide 14
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:14 Environmental Interactions during Manufacturing Casting & Forming: Aromatic hydrocarbons released from binder. & Heat released - Sand discarded after use Other Processes: Die Casting, Injection molding, Welding and Brazing, Metal Plating, Painting
  • Slide 15
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:15 Environmental interactions during manufacturing Greening the manufacturing processes (How) - Energy management - Better mold utilization - Reuse of contaminated water - Waste water treatment options - TRANSITION TO NEW PROCESSES?
  • Slide 16
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:16 Energy Consumption (urban use) Engine Standby (3.6%)Accessories (1.5%) Engine Losses (69.2%) Driveline losses (5.4%) Other losses Aero: 10.9% Rolling: 7.1% Braking: 2.2%
  • Slide 17
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:17 Energy Consumption (options) C - Based Fuels CH 3 OHHigh Cost, Smog, Global Warm Nat. GasHigh Cost, Smog, Global Warm C 2 H 5 OHHigh Cost, Smog, Bio. Corn-based: 5% of needs
  • Slide 18
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:18 Energy Consumption (options) Electric Vehicles:- Electro-Chemical Batteries - Electromechanical Batteries Hybrid power Fuel Cells
  • Slide 19
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:19 Hybrid: Fuel economy of 66 mpg and emission reductions of 50% for carbon dioxide and 90% for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide Energy Consumption (options)
  • Slide 20
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:20 Energy Consumption (options ) About Fuel Cells Ref: http://www.benwiens.com/energy1.html
  • Slide 21
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:21 Infrastructure: Embedded Energy in Roads MaterialEmbedded Energy(J/kg) Bitumen0.63 Cement6.70 Aggregate0.07 Reinforcing steel23 Steel Beams18
  • Slide 22
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:22 Infrastructure: Embedded Energy in Roads Energy / km of urban roads 8.4 x 10 12 J Total Embedded Energy: (x10 18 J) Roads:190 Bridges:1.5 Estimated worldwide embedded energy in roads
  • Slide 23
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:23 Environmental Interactions during Product Use Auto use residues or potential waste streams {Principal Environmental Impact occurs during use, and this is therefore the most significant life cycle stage} Solids Liquids Gaseous
  • Slide 24
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:24 Environmental Interactions during Product Use Solids: Batteries (10% lead loss) Tires (freeze and grind?) Scrap - How do you quantify? Liquids: Oil Antifreeze Battery Acids
  • Slide 25
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:25 Environmental Interactions during Product Use Gaseous Emissions: In many urban areas, motor vehicles are the single largest contributor to ground-level ozone, a major component of smog. Ground-level ozone is the most serious air pollution problem in the northeast and mid-Atlantic states. - EPA http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/cycles
  • Slide 26
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:26 Cars also emit several pollutants classified as toxics, which cause as many as 1,500 cases of cancer in the country each year. Auto emissions also contribute to the environmental problems of acid rain and global warning. - EPA Ref: http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/mse_fs.htm Environmental Interactions during Product Use
  • Slide 27
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:27 CxHy: Hydrocarbons react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight and elevated temperatures to form ground-level ozone. It can cause eye irritation, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath and can lead to permanent lung damage. Environmental Interactions during Product Use
  • Slide 28
  • Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592) Date: March 8, 2000 Slide:28 Environmental Interactions during Product Use NOx Nitrogen oxides also contribute to the formation of ozone and contribute to the formation of acid rain and to waterquality problems. CO Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, deadly gas. It reduces the flow of oxygen in the bloodstream and can impair mental functions and visual perception. In urban areas

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