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Envirothon Soils Dennis Brezina USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service Resource Soil Scientist – Bryan Area Conservation…Our Purpose; Our Passion.

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Envirothon Soils. Dennis Brezina USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service Resource Soil Scientist – Bryan Area. Conservation…Our Purpose; Our Passion. What is Soil?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Envirothon Soils

    Dennis BrezinaUSDA-Natural Resources Conservation ServiceResource Soil Scientist Bryan AreaConservationOur Purpose; Our Passion.

  • What is Soil? Soil is the combination of air, water, organic and mineral matter on the earths surface that is distinguishable from its parent material and can support rooted vegetation. It is a product of the effects of CLIMATE, BIOTIC ACTIVITY, acting on PARENT MATERIAL as conditioned by TOPOGRAPHY over TIME.

  • Four Components of a Typical Soil

    Pore space: Remains about the same at all times.However, if the soil is wet, the pore space will contain more water.As the soil dries, the pore space will contain more air.1%49%25%25%AirWaterMineralOrganicSoil is half solid and half pore space

  • TOPOGRAPHY Soil-forming FactorSlope or configuration of the landNearly level vs. sloping- Water shedding vs. water receiving- Flat areas are generally wetter than steeper, sloping areasDifferent soils will occur on different landscape positions- Soils on back and shoulder slopes are generally thinner than those on summits, footslopes and toeslopesSummitShoulderBackslopeFootslopeToeslope

  • Slope PercentageRise over Run

  • Slope PercentageRise over Run

  • Simplified Soil Profile

    A= Surface Horizon(Most biologically active)

    B = Subsoil Horizon(Typically has higher clay content and blocky structure)

    C = Parent Material(Residual, Colluvium, Alluvium, Marine or Eolian)ABC

  • The relative proportion of SAND, SILT and CLAY The MOST IMPORTANT PHYSICAL PROPERTY of the soil because it determines the capacity of a soil to retain moisture and air.

    Essentially impossible to change unless you remove it, or add large amounts to it.

    SOIL TEXTURE

  • The Three SOIL Particle SizesSand size particles are:Largest of the soil particlesFeels grittyCompare it to a baseball

    Silt size particles are:Intermediate in sizeSmooth, talcum powder feelCompare it to a marble

    Clay size particles are:The smallest in sizeSticky and plastic when wetCompare it to a BB

  • Clayey SoilsHigh Shrink-Swell Clay minerals expand when wet and shrink when dry.Cause cracks in building foundations, sidewalks, etc.MoreWaterHigh organic contentHigh water holding capacity Slower permeabilityHigher runoffAgriculturally productiveDifficult to work with

  • Sandy SoilsLarger pore spaceLow water holding capacityRapid infiltration and permeabilityHigher leachingLow organic matterLow fertilityGenerally better drainedEasy to work with

    This doesnt mean that sandy soils are not as good as clayey soils. Sandy soils are just good for different things (peanuts, timber production, etc.).

  • SOIL COLORSoil color name is on the left page, and the color notation is written as: Hue Value/Chroma (10YR 6/3)HUECHROMAVALUEMost visible soil propertyColor Name

  • Soil ColorMost visible soil propertyDark = high organic contentHumus and organic matter are generally black or brown.Light = low organic contentRed, yellow and brown are well drainedGenerally due to oxidation of iron compounds in the soil.Reds are highly oxidized. Compare it to rust on iron. When metal gets wet, as it dries (oxidizes) it turns a reddish-yellow color.Gray could mean excessive wetnessThe iron in soil is either removed or reduced when oxygen is removed.Soil color is written as: Hue Value/Chroma (10YR 6/3)HUECHROMAVALUE

  • Mottles/Redoximorphic FeaturesGrays are iron depletions (reduced iron).Mottles and redoximorphic features are caused by oxidized or reduced iron.

    Red, orange and yellow colors are iron accumulations (oxidized iron).

  • Gray could mean WetGray surfaceContains mottles (oxidized or reduced iron).Mottles indicate alternate wetting and drying.Concave or Flat landscape! The water cannot drain off the area.Wet soils could be associated with wetlands!

  • 3 Requirements for a Wetland

    Hydric SoilMore than 50 percent Hydrophytic Vegetation.Hydrology indicating seasonal inundation, ponding or saturation by water.

  • Hydric SoilSoils that formed under conditions of saturation.

    Soils developed under sufficiently wet conditions to support the growth and regeneration of hydrophytic vegetation.

    Essentially a gray soil.

  • More than 50 Percent Hydrophytic Vegetation

  • Water MarksHydrology

  • Soil pHIdeal pH range is 5.5 to 7.5Most U.S. soils have pH range of 4 to 8.5.In general, as rainfall increases, pH decreasespH >8.5 could mean high salt contentpH
  • Three Main Plant NutrientsN-P-KNitrogen (N) Most commonly deficient nutrientAbove ground vegetative growthPhosphorous (P)Seed germinationDisease resistanceRoot developmentPlant maturation (flowering, fruiting, seed formation)Potassium (K)Root developmentPhotosynthesis (especially root crops and for starch formation)ACMEFERTILIZER

    N-P-K

  • Can plants use just any form of Nitrogen?Atmospheric Nitrogen gas (N2) is the most common gas, but it cannot be used by plants.Nitrogen is converted into plant-usable forms through the Nitrogen CycleNitrate (NO3) and Ammonia (NH3) are plant-usable forms

  • How can the Nutrients be put back when used up? Organic Fertilizer - lawn clippings, manure, mulch, cottonseed meal, guano, poultry litter wood ash, peat Inorganic Fertilizer - chemically produced. Broad range of types. Easy to use, but easy to over-fertilize. With higher fuel costs, expensive $$$

    On lawns, Rule of Thumb is to put 1 pound of Nitrogen per 1000 square feet. More is NOT always better.

  • How much do you use?N-P-K is expressed as a percentage of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and PotassiumRule of thumb: 1 pound of nitrogen per 1000 square feet

    SoHow many pounds of this fertilizer (25-10-5) should you use on a 6000 square foot yard?ACMEFERTILIZER

    N-P-K25-10-5

  • How much Fertilizer for 6000 square feet?25-10-5 25% N 0.25 lb N per lb FertilizerRule of Thumb0.25 lbs N x ? lbs Fert = 1 lb N per 1000 sq ft0.25 lbs N x ? lbs Fert = 1 lb N per 1000 sq ft =0.25 lbs N 0.25 lbs N= 4 lbs Fert per 1000 sq ft

    4 lbs Fert X 6000 sq ft =1000 sq ft24 lbs Fertilizer

  • Erosion

    Wearing away or removal of the earths soil or land surface.Soil moved by wind, water, ice or gravity.Especially occurs on bare soil Areas with more than 3 percentslope are susceptible to water erosion.

  • Types of ErosionWind ErosionGully ErosionSheet and Rill ErosionRaindrop Splash

  • Planting Wind BreaksNo-TillStubble Mulch or Ridge-TillContour FarmingStrip Cropping & TerracingConservation Practices = Things that Prevent Erosion

  • Preventing Raindrop SplashVegetative cover Lawns, pasture or rangelandNo-TillStubble mulch or ridge tillCover crops

    No-Till intercepts raindrop splash almost like having grass cover. Soil structure improves with time, and more water infiltrates and percolates through the soil.

  • Comparison of No-Till to Conventional TillageThe clear water from the No-Till side of the field is transporting less topsoil, nutrients and pesticides.Milan Experiment Station-Milan, TennesseeNo-Till fieldConventional tilled field

  • Preventing Sheet, Rill & Gully ErosionSlow the speed of surface water flowVegetative CoverContour farmingDiversion TerracesStrip CroppingNo-Till, stubble mulch or ridge-tillGrassed waterwaysContour farming and terracing intercept and slow down the speed of surface water flow.Diversion Terraces are used on steeper land to intercept and slow down the downhill flow of water.Grassed waterways are used to prevent all four types of erosion.

  • Preventing Wind ErosionPlant Wind BreaksRotary hoes add surface roughnessStrip croppingThe perfect time to Break Wind

    http://www.ewrs.org/pwc/rotary.htm

  • http://images.search.yahoo.com/Increased runoffIncrease floodwater energy (trees and other vegetation help dissipate floodwater energy)Increase Streambank erosion

    Removal of vegetation along creeks can cause:

  • How can Soils affect our Bays & Estuaries?Over fertilization can lead to Eutrophication - algal blooms, depleted oxygenSoil erosion can lead to sedimentationReduce water clarityWater temperature changesPesticides can attach to sediments and cause toxicityCan impact the pH of the waterEuthrophication in the Sea of Azov (Source: NASA)

  • What is a Watershed?Watershed is the area of land draining into a river, river system or other body of water.Generally it is a tributary stream or a creek.Primary StreamTributary Streams

  • What is a River Basin?A River Basin is a large watershed.Area of land drained by a river and all of its tributaries.Whatever you put in the water affects those downstream.

  • Soil SurveysAn inventory of soils that includes maps, soil descriptions, photos and tables of soil properties and features.Used by farmers, real estate agents, land use planners, engineers and people wanting information on soil resources for land use planning.

  • The major parts of a soil survey publication...How to Use this Soil SurveyTable of ContentsIntroduction and General Nature of the CountyGeneral Soil Map & Block DiagramsDetailed soil map unitsUse and management and interpretive tablesClassification of soilsReferencesGlossaryIndex to map sheetsSoil maps

  • Using a Soil SurveyLocate your area of interest on the map index.Identify all of the soil map unit symbols at your area of interest, and find the soil map unit on the soil legend.

  • Detailed soil map unit descriptionMap unit symbol & nameWhere it is mappedThumbnail soil descriptionSoil Properties NarrativeInclusions Land usesSoil Suitabilities and Limitations

  • Compare a SOIL MAP UNIT to a red sorrel horseWhat is a soil mapping INCLUSION?

  • What is a soil mapping INCLUSION?Now compare a SOIL MAP UNITto a red sorrel horse with white points or inclusions. It is still Red, but it has other colors.Inclusions are areas of a different soil that are too small to delineate at the scale of mapping.MoundsLower wet spot as an inclusion in the landscapeSoil map unit (flats) with mound inclusions

  • What is a soil mapping INCLUSION?These dark spots in this area are inclusions.They are slightly lower than the surrounding landscape.

  • What is a soil mapping COMPLEX?Soil map unit that has a combination of flats and moundsCompare a soil mapping COMPLEX to this red paint horseWhat color is it?Is it white with red spots, or red with white spots?Complexes are two or more kinds of soil occurring in such an intricate pattern that they cannot be shown separately on a soil map.Example: Oz Ozias-Pophers complex, frequently flooded

  • What is a soil mapping COMPLEX?The white spots in these map units on this aerial photograph are mounds (often called pimple or mima mounds) associated with flats.

  • What is a soil mapping COMPLEX?Soil map unit that has a combination of flats and mounds.

  • How to use the Soil Survey TablesTable of Contents has a Summary of Tables

    The Tables contain information on soil properties, suitabilities and limitations, as well as management and production.Find the Table that has the information that you are needing.

  • How to use the Soil Survey Tables

    Go to the table that contains the information you seekFind your map unit symbol Find the land use practice or yield dataTable provides information on suitability for that soil for that particular land practice HoB Houston Black will produce about 45 bushels of wheat per acre.

  • Question?Given that a bushel of wheat will yield about 42 pounds of white flour, and that 1 pounds of white flour will yield about 1.7 loaves of bread; How many loaves of bread will 40 acres of HoB Houston Black yield?

    From the table, HoB Houston Black will produce about 45 bushels of wheat per acre. 45 bu X 42lbs X 1.7 loaves x 40 acres = Ac 1 bu 1 lb flour

    128,520 loaves of bread per 40 acres!

  • ReferencesEssentials of Physical Geography, by Gabler, Sager, Brazier and WiseThe Nature and Properties of Soils, by Nyle C. Bradyhttp://www.ewrs.org/pwc/rotary.htmhttp://soils.usda.gov/http://www.tx.nrcs.usda.gov/http://www.flickr.com/photos/http://milan.tennessee.edu/http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/Index.asphttp://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/http://soilcrop.tamu.edu/

  • USDA Nondiscriminatory Policy...Helping People Understand SoilsTo file a complaint of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).

    *What is soil? Soil is a product of the effects of CLIMATE, BIOTIC ACTIVITY, TOPOGRAPHY, acting on PARENT MATERIAL over TIME.*There are Four Components of a Typical Soil:49% Mineral Matter1% Organic Matter25% Air25% WaterSoil is about half solid and half pore space. The pore space remains about the same percentage, if the soil is wet, it contains more water; and as the soil dries, air takes its place. **SOIL TEXTURE is:The relative proportion of sand, silt, and clay THE MOST IMPORTANT PHYSICAL PROPERTY of the soil because it determines the capacity of a soil to retain moisture and air Essentially impossible to change unless you remove it, or add large amounts to itSand size particles are the largest of the soil particles - feels gritty - compare it to the size of a baseballSilt size particles are intermediate in size - has a smooth, talcum powder feel - compare it to the size of a marbleClay size particles the smallest - feels sticky and plastic when wet - compare it to the size of a BB*SOIL TEXTURE is:The relative proportion of sand, silt, and clay THE MOST IMPORTANT PHYSICAL PROPERTY of the soil because it determines the capacity of a soil to retain moisture and air Essentially impossible to change unless you remove it, or add large amounts to itSand size particles are the largest of the soil particles - feels gritty - compare it to the size of a baseballSilt size particles are intermediate in size - has a smooth, talcum powder feel - compare it to the size of a marbleClay size particles the smallest - feels sticky and plastic when wet - compare it to the size of a BB*Clayey Soils are:High Shrink-Swell clay minerals expand when wet and shrink when dry- Cause cracks in building foundations, sidewalks, etc.High Organic ContentHigh Water Holding Capacity (High clay=high water)Slower permeabilityAgriculturally productiveDifficult to work with*Sandy Soils have:Larger pore spacesLow organic matterLow fertilityLow water holding capacityRapid infiltration and permeabilityGenerally better drainedEasy to work withThis doesnt mean that sandy soils are not as good as clayey soils. Sandy soils are just good for different things (peanuts, timber production, etc.).

    *SOIL COLOR is:Most visible soil property Soil color is written as: Hue Value/Chroma (10YR 6/3)*Dark=high organic contentHumus/Organic Matter is generally black or brown; thus soils that are high in organic matter are generally darker in colorLight=low organic contentRed, yellow, brown is well drainedGenerally due to iron compounds. Reds are highly oxidized. Compare to rust on iron=metal gets wet, as it dries (oxidizes) it turns a reddish-yellow colorGray could mean excessive wetnessIron is either removed or reduced due to the removal of oxygen*Mottles or redoximorphic features are caused by oxidized or reduced ironRed, orange and yellow colors are iron accumulations (oxidized iron)Grays are iron depletions (reduced iron)

    *Gray Could mean Wet Gray surfaceContains mottles (oxidized or reduced iron) Mottles indicate alternate wetting and dryingConcave or Flat landscape! The water cannot drain off the areaWet soils could be associated with wetlands!*3 Requirements for a Wetland are:Hydric SoilMore than 50 percent Hydrophytic VegetationHydrology indicating seasonal inundation, ponding or saturation by water*Hydric Soil is:A Soil that formed under conditions of saturationSoils developed under sufficiently wet conditions to support the growth and regeneration of hydrophytic vegetationEssentially a gray soil*More than 50 Percent Hydrophytic VegetationEssentially water-loving plants or plants that generally grow in wet areas*HydrologyThings that indicate that the soil is wet, such as water marks, drift from flooding, a high water table in the soil, areas ponding water, etc.*Ideal pH range is 5.5 to 7.5Most U.S. soils have pH range of 4 to 8.5pH >8.5 could mean high salt contentpH