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EQUITY ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Mike DillonUniversity of PhoenixCMP 521 Integrating Education Technology into Teaching (Using Computers in Education)Mary Sorensen, FacilitatorMay 11, 2006
Defining EquityAccording to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2006), equity is:What does equity mean?justice according to natural law or right; freedom from bias or favoritism
Defining EquityThe Iowa State Board of Education (2004) follows five basic principles when making educational decisions. Two of those are:Then, what does equity mean in the classroom and in education in general?1) All students can learn2) All students respond best to high expectations.
In a sense, equity in the classroom means showing favoritism to every student.Defining EquityThe catch is that each student has individual strengths and weaknesses that need to be accommodated in unique ways.
Defining EquityThe Iowa Special Education Advisory Board established the following educational outcomes for special education students and students with disabilities:1) Students receiving special education will meet high education standards 2) Students with disabilities will be integrated with non-disabled peers throughout their education experience
Defining EquityThe Iowa Special Education Advisory Board established the following educational outcomes for special education students and students with disabilities:3) Students with disabilities will transition to post secondary education or meaningful employment
In addition to students with disabilities and special needs, the idea of equity must also address minorities and cultural issues, students with language barriers, low socioeconomic status, etc.Defining EquitySohow does technology fit with the concept of equity in education?
Status of Technology EquityThe literature on computer equity reveals that many studentsnot only minority, disadvantaged and inner city, but also female, disabled and ruralhave been hampered by inequitable access to computers, and by widespread patterns of inequitable distribution and use of computers within and across schools (Nueman, 1993, 3).
Status of Technology EquityStudents technological savvy has challenged schools to make greater use of computer and the Internet in their curricula. Unfortunately, not every student has the same access to it, and the inability to keep pace has created a digital divide that continues to widen (Mason & Dodds, 2005, 1).
Status of Technology EquityThe digital divide particularly affects students who are black, Hispanic, Native American, and poor (2). According to Mason and Dodds (2005): 67% of white children are online. 45% of black children are online. 37% of Hispanic children are online.
Status of Technology EquityAccess to Technology According to the Technology Counts 2006 report, the state of Iowa earned the following grades for technology in education:B Use of Technology B Capacity to use Technology B OVERALL GRADE B
Status of Technology EquityAccess to Technology The statistical breakdown in Iowa for each of the these categories includes:B 3.3 students per instructional computer7.0 students per instructional computer in the classroom3.3 students per computer with high-speed Internet7.8 students per Internet computer in the classroomAll of these stats were below the national average.
Status of Technology EquityUse of Technology The statistical breakdown in Iowa for each of the these categories includes:B Iowa DOES have student standards that include technology.Iowa HAS established a virtual school.Iowa DOES NOT assess students regarding technology.Iowa DOES NOT offer computer-based assessments.
Status of Technology EquityCapacity to Use Technology The statistical breakdown in Iowa for each of the these categories includes:B Iowa DOES include technology in its teacher standards, administrator standards, and initial teacher licensure requirements.Iowa DOES NOT include technology in its initial administrator license or its teacher and administrator recertification requirements.
How can technology help all students?Technology can enhance teaching and learning in the following areas:Technology can help diverse students with diverse needs learn in the classroom.InstructionLearning and RetentionAssessmentOrganizationSpecial Needs
How can technology help all students?Some of the capabilities of technology in the classroom include:1) Text to speech2) Speech to text3) Computer-based graphic organizers4) Vast E-resources
How can technology help all students?Some of the capabilities of technology in the classroom include:5) Presentation Media6) Online Curricula7) Interactive Projects and Worksheets8) Communication
How can technology help all students?Some of the capabilities of technology in the classroom include:9) Accommodations for Visual and Hearing Impairments10) ELL Accommodations11) Etc.
How can technology help all students?Some of the equipment that can enhance learning in the classroom include:1) Computers2) Projectors and LCD equipment3) Interactive Whiteboards4) Calculators and CBL equipment5) Webcams and Video Conferencing6) Digital Cameras7) Etc.
How can technology help all students?Different types of software and online resources that can enhance learning include:1) Tutorials and Online Curricula2) Drill and Practice 3) Software geared toward ELL students4) Online classes and distance learning5) Java Applets and Demonstrations6) Digital Media and Online Libraries7) Etc.
How can technology help all students?According to Mason and Dodds (2005), many different types of technology are on the verge of entering into the educational setting:1) Wireless Networks2) Electronic Portfolios 3) Portable Technologies4) Universal Design for Learning (UDL)5) Virtual Schools
What are the lessons for learning and the classroom?Technology can provide teachers with multiple avenues for presenting information and improving students attention and retention (Silver-Pacuilla & Fleischman, 2006).Technology can provide students with multiple avenues for demonstrating their knowledge and skills.
Technology can allow teachers to easily adapt lessons to students with different skill levels, abilities, and interests (Bowerman & Duncan, 2005).Research is showing the benefits of giving all students access technology-based, sensory-related accommodations (Silver-Pacuilla & Fleischman, 2006)What are the lessons for learning and the classroom?
Accessibility features in common technology applications can help struggling students make important connectionsto the content, among ideas, among their own sensory modes of learning, and between their digital competencies and the curriculum (Silver-Pacuilla & Fleischman, 2006, 11).What are the lessons for learning and the classroom?
Technology can support learning by building literacy and language skills and independence (Silver-Pacuilla & Fleischman, 2006, 13).Technology can be used to adapt learning to a variety of different learning styles and help teachers create differentiated instruction for a diverse classroom.What are the lessons for learning and the classroom?
Technology can help students with special needs, disabilities, and other barriers to learning receive a quality education in the least restrictive environment.When integrated effectively into the classroom, technology can create a school setting that provides a fair and equitable education for all students.What are the lessons for learning and the classroom?
What needs to be done?Technology equity is a complex issue that encompasses disparities in access to and use of powerful learning tools because of differences in socioeconomic status, gender, ability level, racial and ethnic identification, geographic location, and handicapping conditionOnly when all students are routinely granted access to hardware to appropriate software, and only when technology is used to help each student achieve his or her own personal best, can we speak of technology and equity as partners (Mason & Dodds, 2005, 1).
ReferencesMerriam-Webster Online Dictionary. (2006). Retrieved fromhttp://www.m-w.com/Iowa Department of Education. (2004). Special Education in Iowa:State of the State IDEA 2004. Retrieved from http://www.state.ia.us/educate/ecese/cfcs/idea/doc/idea04_spec_ed_iowa_v20040321_files/frame.htmMason, C. Y., & Dodds, R. (2005, May). Bridge the digital dividefor educational equity. Education Digest, 70(9), 25.Retrieved May 10, 2006, from EBSCOHost database.Bowerman, M., & Duncan, S. (2005, May). Technology for all. THE Journal, 32(10), 20. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from EBSCOHost database.
ReferencesSilver-Pacuilla, H., & Fleischman, S. (2006, February). Technologyto help struggling students. Educational Leadership, 63(5),84. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from EBSCOHost database.Nueman, D. (1993, May/June). Technology and equity. EmergencyLibrarian, 20(5), 34. Retrieved May 10, 2006, fromEBSCOHost database.