erik simpanen september 27 th, 2011 bme 281. heart disease  a generic term for referring to...

Click here to load reader

Post on 30-Dec-2015

214 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Erik SimpanenSeptember 27th , 2011BME 281

  • Heart DiseaseA generic term for referring to numerous different forms of sicknesses that effect the heartCauses more than one million deaths a year (4)Transplants were originally thought the only solutionA heart replacement has been a scientology goal on everybodys mind for some time.

  • Then and Now:First: Transplants were originally thought to be the only answer Then: Pumps were only meant to replace the heart for a small period of time before a donor heart was foundNow: Implant an artificial heart into patients for extended periods of time before a donor is found Goal: To eventually engineer a heart that can be permanently left inside the body

  • The first successful heart-lung machineDr. John Gibbon during an open heart surgery in 1953, The first artificial heart First developed by a team of physicians, engineers and students who improved on an original design by Dr. Kolff, This artificial heart, called the Jarvik-7, was named after one of the project managers, Robert Jarvik. First put into a human in 1982Survived 112 days connected to the 400 pound machine attached to the heart.History:

  • Disadvantages:Many disadvantages to the first continuous blood flow pumps including:Damage to the blood cells because of the stress the pump was putting on the bloodEnergy required to keep pumping. (2)

  • Versions of Artificial Hearts:Jarvik-7One of the first designs with the two ventricles attached to anatomical connections (5)Rotary Artificial Heart (1)a miniaturized rotary artificial heart that was implanted into the natural heart

  • Types Continued:Vibrating Flow PumpThought to be less destructive to the blood cellsCardioWest TAH-t (or temporary total artificial heart) approved by the FDA in 2004 more than 888 patients have been treated with this artificial heart Much smaller than previous models160 grams and 400ml able to increase and decrease beats per minute based on the activities the patient is performing at the time (6)

  • Artificial Heart DesignAir is pumped through the diaphragms to create the blood flowMade of polyurethaneTwo round ventricles Anatomical connections to the major blood vessels and the atria Hard outer housing to protect the interior, which contains a number of different diaphragms. 1 holds the blood 2 intermediate diaphragms1 air diaphragm.

  • Tubes leading out of the heart made from polyurethane Velour skin buttonsinternal tubes connected to the heart driver system.

    Drivers:a source of compressed air, a vacuum, and electricity that powers and controls the artificial heartplugged in or powered by rechargeable batteriesfrequency and pressure is different in each ventricle

  • Artificial Heart Drivers: (Cont.)a primary pneumatic driver a backup pneumatic driver an alarm and computer system for controlling the artificial heart batteriesair tanksanatomical connection to the artificial heart inside the body.

  • PortabilityDrastic change in the size of the driversBefore: more than 400 poundspatients not allowed to leaveNowadays:PortableLeave the hospitalOriginally developed in Europe

  • 2001 AbioCore powered by a hydraulic pump a wireless charging system and an external battery pack all worn in a belt around the waist.

    Most Recently:

  • Complications Originally, many complicationsNow, Strokes 10% of patients received a stroke during the surgeryOnly 2% of patients suffered a stroke during device support

  • Questions

  • Citations:1.) Inventor: Robert Jarvik, Artificial Hearts With Permanent Magnet Bearings, U.S. Patent, 19962.) Don B. Olsen, The History of Continuous-Blood Flow Pumps, Artificial Organs, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp. 4013.) Joyce, Response of the Human Body to the First Permanent Implant of the Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart, Transactions-American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, Volume 29, pp.81, 19834.) Devries, Clinical Use of the Total Artificial Heart, The New England Journal of Medicine, (Articial) 19845.) Wang, Component Engineering for an Implantable System, Artificial Organs, Volume 28, pp. 869-873, 20046.) Copeland, Out-Of-Hospital Total Artificial Heart Patients, Texas Heart Institute Journal, Volume 37, pp. 654-655, December, 15 2010

  • Citations:DeVries, The New England Journal of Medicine, Clinical Use of the Total Artificial Heart, February 2, 1984, (http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM198402023100501)DeVries, The Permenant Artificial Heart, The Journal of American Medical Association, 2000 (http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/259/6/849.short)El-Banayosy, CardioWest Total Artificial Heart, The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, July 21, 2005 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T11-4GP19JK-17&_user=657938&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2005&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1726932657&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000035679&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=657938&md5=45c46c94c67cecaf539efe125365b55f&searchtype=a)Copeland, The New England Journal of Medicine, Cardiac Replacement, Volume 351, No. 9, August 26th, 2004 (http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa040186)Noman, Artificial Heart, January 4, 2011

    AbioCore

    *Heart Disease causes more than one million deaths a year in the United States. (4) With all the different types of heart traumas entering hospitals in the past a heart replacement has been a scientology goal on everybodys mind for some time. Transplants were originally thought to be the only answer, and pumps were only meant to replace the heart for a small period of time before a donor heart was found, but nowadays many companies have found ways to implant an artificial heart into patients for extended periods of time before a donor is found. The goal is to eventually engineer a heart that can be permanently left inside the body and let the patient live a long and happy life.

    *Transplants were originally thought to be the only answer, and pumps were only meant to replace the heart for a small period of time before a donor heart was found, but nowadays many companies have found ways to implant an artificial heart into patients for extended periods of time before a donor is found. The goal is to eventually engineer a heart that can be permanently left inside the body and let the patient live a long and happy life. *The first successful heart-lung machine was used by Dr. John Gibbon during an open heart surgery in 1953, but the artificial heart was actually first developed by a team of physicians, engineers and students who improved on an original design by Dr. Kolff, a doctor who was known for inventing artificial organs. This artificial heart called the Jarvik-7 was named after one of the project managers, Robert Jarvik. The heart was first put into a human in 1982, who survived 112 days attached to the 400 pound machine attached to the heart. There were many disadvantages to the first continuous blood flow pumps including damage to the blood cells because of the stress the pump was putting on the blood and also the energy required to keep pumping. (2)

    *artificial heart was actually first developed by a team of physicians, engineers and students who improved on an original design by Dr. Kolff, a doctor who was known for inventing artificial organs. This artificial heart called the Jarvik-7 was named after one of the project managers, Robert Jarvik. The heart was first put into a human in 1982, who survived 112 days attached to the 400 pound machine attached to the heart. There were many disadvantages to the first continuous blood flow pumps including damage to the blood cells because of the stress the pump was putting on the blood and also the energy required to keep pumping. (2)There have been many different versions of the artificial heart. In 1996 a patent was filed by Jarvik for a miniaturized rotary artificial heart that was implanted into the natural heart and provided a pumping system. *Also, a vibrating flow pump has been thought to perform the pumping job as well as in the Ja rvik-7, however the Jarvik-7 and other similar models are still the used more frequently today. (5)Another version of the artificial heart, designed by SynCardia Systems and called the CardioWest TAH-t (or temporary total artificial heart) was approved by the FDA in 2004 after a study was performed of the effectiveness. Many surgical teams were trained and since then more than 888 patients have been treated with this artificial heart after its development and admittance by the FDA. This heart is much smaller than previous models, weighing 160 grams and takes up 400ml of space in the body. Because of a pneumatic mechanism the heart is able to increase and decrease beats per minute based on the activities the patient is performing at the time. 69% of the patients who received the artificial heart were able to stay healthy long enough to find a donor and survive the transplant. (6)

    *The heart is made of two round ventricles with anatomical connections to the major blood vessels and the atria. The ventricles are completely separate from each other but are very similar. Each ventricle has a hard outer housing to protect the interior, which contains a number of different diaphragms. One is for carrying the blood, two intermediate diaphragms and an air diaphragm. Air is pumped through these diaphragms to create the blood flow. Each diaphragm is made from polyurethane.

    *The tubes leading out of the heart are also made from polyurethane tubing and are covered with Velour skin buttons to make the external tubes comfortable for the patient. These internal tubes are also connected to the tubes that leave the body and are connected to the heart driver system. The dr

View more