eso alma, evla, and the origin of galaxies (dense gas history of the universe) chris carilli (nrao)...

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  • ESOALMA, EVLA, and the Origin of Galaxies(Dense Gas History of the Universe)Chris Carilli (NRAO)Bonn, Germany, September 2010 The power of radio astronomy: dust, cool gas, and star formation

    Current State-of-Art z ~ 6: Quasar host galaxies = early formation of massive galaxies and SMBH z ~ 1 to 3: Normal galaxy formation during the epoch of galaxy assembly = probing the Gas Rich Universe

    Bright (near!) future: The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (and CCAT!) and Expanded Very Large Array recent example!

    Thanks: Wang, Riechers, Walter, Fan, Bertoldi, Menten, Cox, Daddi, Schinnerer, Pannella, Aravena, Smolcic, Neri, Dannerbauer

  • Star formation history of the Universe (mostly optical view) epoch of galaxy assembly~50% of present day stellar mass produced between z~1 to 3Bouwens + First light + cosmic reionization

  • Star formation as function of stellar masstH-1active star formationred and deadZheng ea Downsizing: Massive galaxies form most of stars quickly, at high z(see also: stellar pop. synthesis at low z; evolved galaxies at z ~1 to 2)specific SFR = SFR/M* ~ e-folding time-1

  • Optical Limitation 1: DustBouwens +

  • Optical Limitation 2: Cold gas = fuel for star formation (The missing half of galaxy formation)Low z spiralsIntegrated Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law: relate SFR and gas content of galaxiesPower-law index = 1.5SFRMgas

  • Millimeter through centimeter astronomy: unveiling the cold, obscured universe cm/mm reveal the dust-obscured, earliest, most active phases of star formation in galaxies cm/mm reveal the cool gas that fuels star formationHST/CO/SUBMMCOWilson et al.CO image of Antennae merging galaxiesGN20 z=4 submm galaxy

  • Radio FIR: obscuration-free estimate of massive star formation Radio: SFR = 1x10-21 L1.4 W/Hz FIR: SFR = 3x10-10 LFIR (Lo)

  • Spectral linesMolecular rotational linesAtomic fine structure linesz=0.2z=4cmsubmmMolecular gas CO = total gas mass tracer M(H2) = L(CO(1-0)) Velocities => dyn. mass Gas excitation => ISM physics (densities, temperatures) Astrochemistry/biology, eg. dense gas tracers (HCN) directly associated with star formation (Smail, van Dishoeck) Gas supply: smooth accretion or major gas rich mergers?

  • Fine Structure lines[CII] 158um (2P3/2 - 2P1/2) Principal ISM gas coolant: photo-electric heating by dust Traces star forming regions and the CNM [CII] most luminous line from meter to FIR, up to 1% Lgal Herschel: revolutionary look at FSL in nearby Universe AGN/star formation diagnostics (Hailey-Dunsheath)[CII] CO[OI] 63um [CII][OIII] 88um [CII][OIII]/[CII]Cormier et al.Fixsen et al.

  • Plateau de Bure InterferometerHigh res imaging at 90 to 230 GHz rms < 0.1mJy, res < 0.530 field at 250 GHz rms < 0.3 mJyVery Large Array 30 field at 1.4 GHzrms< 10uJy, 1 res

    High res imaging at 20 to 50 GHzrms < 0.1 mJy, res < 0.2Powerful suite of existing cm/mm facilitesFirst glimpses into early galaxy formation

  • Theme I: Massive galaxy and SMBH formation at z~6 Quasar hosts at tuniv4: > 1000 known z>5: > 100 z>6: 20 Spectroscopic redshifts Extreme (massive) systems: Lbol ~1014 Lo=> MBH~ 109 Mo => Mbulge ~ 1012 Mo Downsizing: study of very early massive galaxy formation intrinsically interesting1148+5251 z=6.42SDSSApache Point NM

  • LFIR ~ 0.3 to 1.3 x1013 Lo (~ 1000xMilky Way) Mdust ~ 1.5 to 5.5 x108 Mo Dust formation at tuniv2 quasars have S250 > 2mJy Wang sample 33 z>5.7 quasarsMAMBO 30m 250GHz surveys

  • Dust heating? Radio to near-IR SEDTD = 47 K FIR excess = 47K dust SED consistent with star forming galaxy:SFR ~ 400 to 2000 Mo yr-1 Radio-FIR correlationlow z SEDTD ~ 1000KStar formation?AGN

  • Fuel for star formation? Molecular gas: 8 CO detections at z ~ 6 with PdBI, VLA M(H2) ~ 0.7 to 3 x1010 (/0.8) Mo v = 200 to 800 km/s Accurate host galaxy redshifts1mJy

  • CO excitation: Dense, warm gas, thermally excited to 6-5 LVG model => Tk > 50K, nH2 = 2x104 cm-3 Galactic Molecular Clouds (50pc): nH2~ 102 to 103 cm-3 GMC star forming cores (1pc): nH2~ 104 cm-3Milky Waystarburst nucleus230GHz691GHz(Papadopoulos, Smail)

  • LFIR vs L(CO): Star Formation LawIndex=1.51e11 Mo1e3 Mo/yr

    Further circumstantial evidence for star formation

    Gas consumption time (Mgas/SFR) decreases with SFRFIR ~ 1010 Lo/yr => tc > 108yrFIR ~ 1013 Lo/yr => tc < 107yrSFRMgasMW

  • Size ~ 6 kpc, with two peaks ~ 2kpc separation Dynamical mass (r < 3kpc) ~ 6 x1010 Mo M(H2)/Mdyn ~ 0.3Imaging => dynamics => weighing the first galaxiesz=6.42-150 km/s+150 km/s7kpc1 ~ 5.5kpcCO3-2 VLA+0.15 TB ~ 25KPdBI

  • Break-down of MBH Mbulge relation at very high zz>4 QSO COz4 => Black holes form first? (Maiolino)Causal connection between galaxy and SMBH formation

    At high z, CO only method to derive Mbulge

  • For z>6 => redshifts to 250GHz => Bure! (Knudsen)Fine Structure Lines: [CII]158um search in z > 6.2 quasars L[CII] = 4x109 Lo (L[NII] < 0.1L[CII] )S250GHz = 5.5mJyS[CII] = 12mJy S[CII] = 3mJy S250GHz < 1mJy=> dont pre-select on dust

  • 1148+5251 z=6.42:Maximal star forming disk [CII] size ~ 1.5 kpc => SFR/area ~ 1000 Mo yr-1 kpc-2 Maximal starburst (Thompson, Quataert, Murray 2005) Self-gravitating gas and dust disk Vertical disk support by radiation pressure on dust grains Eddington limited SFR/area ~ 1000 Mo yr-1 kpc-2 eg. Arp 220 on 100pc scale, Orion SF cloud cores < 1pc PdBI 250GHz 0.25res

  • 11 in mm continuum => Mdust ~ 108 Mo: Dust formation in SNe? 10 at 1.4 GHz continuum: Radio to FIR SED => SFR ~ 1000 Mo/yr 8 in CO => Mgas ~ 1010 Mo = Fuel for star formation in galaxies High excitation ~ starburst nuclei, but on kpc-scales Follow star formation law (LFIR vs LCO): tc ~ 107 yr Departure from MBH Mbulge at z~6: BH form first? 3 in [CII] => maximal star forming disk: 1000 Mo yr-1 kpc-2J1425+3254 CO at z = 5.9Theme I summary: cm/mm observations of 33 quasars at z~6 only direct probe of the host galaxiesEVLA160uJy

  • Building a giant elliptical galaxy + SMBH at tuniv< 1Gyr (extreme downsizing) Multi-scale simulation isolating most massive halo in 3 Gpc3 Stellar mass ~ 1e12 Mo forms in series (7) of major, gas rich mergers from z~14, with SFR 1e3 Mo/yr SMBH of ~ 2e9 Mo forms via Eddington-limited accretion + mergers Evolves into giant elliptical galaxy in massive cluster (3e15 Mo) by z=06.510 Rapid enrichment of metals, dust in ISM Rare, extreme mass objects: ~ 100 SDSS z~6 QSOs on entire sky Goal: push to normal galaxies at high redshiftLi, Hernquist et al. Li, Hernquist+

  • HSTTheme II: Normal star forming galaxies during epoch of galaxy assembly (sBzK at z ~ 2) color-color diagrams identify thousands of z~ 2 star forming galaxies near-IR selected => stellar mass limited sample: M* ~ 1010 to 1011Mo Common ~ few x10-4 Mpc-3 (5 arcmin-2) HST imaging => disk sizes ~ 1 ~ 8kpc, punctuated by massive star forming regions

  • = 96 Mo yr-1 [FIR ~ 3e11 Lo] VLA size ~ 1 ~ HSTUnbiased star formation rates in z~2 sBzKVLA 1.4GHz stacking: 30,000 in COSMOSCOSMOS 2 deg2 Deep Field (Scoville ea) Approaching SDSS volume at z > 1 2e6 galaxies from z~ 0 to 7 (Decarli)

  • SFR ~ independent of blue magnitude SFR increases with B-z => dust extinction increases with SFR (or M*) SFR increases with stellar massStacking in bins of 30001010 Mo3x1011 Mo

  • Dawn of Downsizing: SFR/M* vs. M* (Karim)5xtH-1 (z=1.8)z=0.31.4GHz SSFRz=1.5z=2.1UV SSFR SSFR constant with M*, unlike z pre-downsizing ~ constant efolding time z>1.5 sBzK well above the red and dead galaxy line => even large growing exponentially UV dust correction = f(SFR, M*) [factor 5 at 2e10 Mo ~ LBG (Shapely+ 01)]

  • CO observations with Bure: Massive gas reservoirs without extreme starbursts (Daddi ea 2009) 6 of 6 sBzK detected in CO Gas mass ~ 1011 Mo ~ gas masses in high z HyLIRGbut SFR < 10% HyLIRG Gas masses stellar masses => pushed back to epoch when galaxies are gas dominated!

  • Lower CO excitation: low J observations are key! FIR/LCO: Gas consumption timescales >= few x108 yrsHyLIRGCloser to Milky Way-type gas conditions (Dannerbauer)11.5

  • Summary Theme II: Probing the Gas Rich Universe = Gas dominated, normal galaxy formation at z ~2 SSFR constant with M*: pre-downsizing Well above red + dead curve up to 1011 M* Gas masses ~ 1011 Mo stellar masses Gas consumption time > few x108 yrs

    Secular (spiral) galaxy formation during epoch of galaxy assemblyGreat promise for ALMA + EVLA!Genzel + 08

  • What is the EVLA? similar ten-fold improvement in most areas of cm astronomyfrequencies = 1 to 50 GHz8 GHz BW => 80x oldres = 40mas res at 43GHzrms = 6uJy in 1hr at 30GHzWhat is ALMA? Tenfold improvement (or more), in all areas of (sub)mm astronomy, including resolution, sensitivity, and frequency coverage. antennas: 54x12m, 12x7m antennasfrequencies: 80 GHz to 720 GHzres = 20mas res at 700 GHzrms = 13uJy in 1hr at 230GHzALMA+EVLA ~ Order magnitude improvement from 1GHz to 1 THz!(Testi)

  • (sub)mm: dust, high order molecular lines, fine structure lines -- ISM physics, dynamicscm telescopes: star formation, low order molecular transitions -- total gas mass, dense gas tracers100 Mo yr-1 at z=5Pushing to normal galaxiesEVLA 1.4 GHz continuum: thousands of sBzK galaxies

  • ALMA and first galaxies: [CII] 100Mo/yr10Mo/yrALMA redshift machine: [CII] in z>7 dropouts

  • Wide bandwidth spectroscopy ALMA: Detect multiple lines, molecules per 8GHz band = real astrochemistry EVLA 30 to 38 GHz (CO2-1 a


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