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  • 1.Chapter 9 The Art of the Etruscans The Etruscans, as everyone knows, were the people who occupied the middle of Italy in early Roman days, and whom the Romans, in their usual neighborly fashion, wiped out entirely.- D. H. Lawrence

2. Figure 9-1 Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 650640 BCE. Gold, approx. 1 1/2 high. Vatican Museums, Rome.Tuscany-heartland of the Etruscans, territory between the Arno and Tiber Rivers, skilled seafarers, never united to form state Mined iron, tin, copper and silver = prosperous cities/ engaged in international commerce/ produced objects for homes and tombs Fibula (clasp or safety pin)/ lions influenced by Orient/ repousse/ granulation 3. Figure 9-2 Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the sixth century BCE, as described by Vitruvius. Rome Figure 9-3 Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy, ca. 510500 BCE. Painted terracotta, approx. 5 11 high. Rome Archaic Art and Architecture Early Etruscan Etruscan Temple:resembles contemporary Greek stone gabled-roofed temples, but had wooden columns and wooden roof and walls were sun-dried brick/ narrow staircase at center for entry/ high podium/ columns front only/ deep porch/ wide overhang of roof/ ornate home for statues of Etruscan gods = three cellas/ place of shelter Columns:resembles Doric/ wooden/ unfluted/ had bases/ widely spaced Statuary :narratives/ terracotta/ on peeks of temple roofs Bright paint/ rippling folds/ motion/ muscles/ animated face = Etruscan style 4. Figure 9-4 Sarcophagus with reclining couple, from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 520 BCE. Painted terracotta, approx. 6 7 X 3 9 1/2. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome. Women = higher status in Etruscan society/ high degree of female literacy Sarcophagi terracotta, monumental size, cast in 4 sections/ contains ashes only, cremation was popular/ image of husband and wife sharing same banqueting couch is uniquely Etruscan Transition from legs to torso at the waist is unnatural/ focus on upper part of body/ animated faces and gestures with arms and hands 5. Figure 9-5 Aerial view of Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy, seventh to second centuries BCE.Figure 9-7 Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy, third century BCE.Figure 9-6 Plan of the Tomb of the Shields and Chairs, Cerveteri, Italy, second half of the sixth century BCE. Tumuli a tomb in the form of a mound/ had subterranean multichambered tombs carved out of dark local limestone called tufa/ arranged in cemeteries along network of streets = necropolis/ located away from cities of living/ similar to rock-cut Egyptian tombs at Beni Hasan Carved out of tufa/ brightly painted stucco reliefs/ domestic contents/ connection between houses of dead and those of living 6. Figure 9-9 Diving and fishing, mural paintings in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, Italy, ca. 530520 BCE.Figure 9-8 Leopards, banqueters, and musicians, detail of mural paintings in the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, Italy, ca. 480470 BCE.Tomb Paintings at Tarquinia -For wealthiest Etruscan families -Leopards guard interior -No mythological figures, instead have banqueting couples, men = dark skin, women = light skin/ all figures make exaggerated gestures with unnaturally enlarged hands/ joyful, celebration of life -Interested in rendering nature -May have been familiar with Egyptian funerary tradition (Tombs of Ti and Nebamun) 7. Figure 9-10 Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500480 BCE. Bronze, approx. 2 7 1/2 high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.Figure 9-10 Detail Romulus and Remus suckling Later Etruscan Art -509 BCE Rome expelled last Etruscan king/ Etruscan dominance of seas ended along with their prosperity/ Etruscan artists continued to produce impressive works, but fewer in number Capitoline Wolf most memorable portrayals of an animal in history of world art Larger than life-size/ hollow-cast/ she-wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus after they were abandoned as infants/ as adults, Romulus killed his brother/ April 21, 753 BCE Romulus founded Rome and became citys king Became new governments totem/ produced by Etruscan artist/ suckling infants added later/ beast is fierce and protective = animal temper 8. Figure 9-11 Chimera of Arezzo, from Arezzo, Italy, first half of fourth century BCE. Bronze, approx. 2 7 1/2 high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.Figure 9-12 NOVIOS PLAUTIOS, Ficoroni Cista, from Palestrina, Italy, late fourth century BCE. Bronze, approx. 2 6 high. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome.Chimera of Arezzo Bronze-casted Chimera- monster of Greek invention with lions head and body and a serpents tail Injured and bleeding, but not defeated Muscles/ Rib cage/ prepared to attack/ cries out Cistae- cylindrical containers for a womans toilet articles Made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet/ elaborately engraved bodies Popular gifts for living and dead Narrative- Greek story of expedition of Argonauts in search of golden fleece 9. Figure 9-13 Porta Marzia (Gate of Mars), Perugia, Italy, second century BCE.Ancient Gates of Perugia Gate of Mars-Voussoirs= archway formed by series of trapezoidal stones held in place by being pressed against one another First under Etruscans and later Romans arcuated (arch-shaped) gateways and freestanding (triumphal) arches became major architectural type Hellenistic inspired pilasters to frame rounded opening/ arches bracketed by engaged columns or pilasters/ sculpted half-figures of Jupiter and sons = reflect new Roman practice of erecting triumphal arches crowned by bronze statues 10. Figure 9-14Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, from Tarquinia, Italy, early second century BCE. Tufa, approx. 6 6 long. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Tarquinia.Figure 9-15 Aule Metele (Arringatore), from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy, early first century BCE. Bronze, approx. 5 7 high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.In Hellenistic Etruria, sarcophagi made of local stone, not terracotta Not at banquet/ not with wife/ face is somber/ theme of lower part is not happy- deceased in underworld being attacked/generic head, not true portrait = indications of economic and political decline in Etruria Life-size bronze/ magistrate is self-confident/ shows expertise of Etruscans with casting/ looks very Roman- short toga, high laced boots, close-cropped hair/ Etruscan only in name

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