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  • 1. Etruscan Art &Architecture
  • 2. Etruscan Civilization Etruria was a region in central Italy, northwest of Rome.Etruria was comprised of several independent city-statesthat shared a common language and culture (it was not aunited country). It is unknown whether the Etruscans were native to theregion, immigrants from the north, or a mix of both. Although their language was written in a Greek-derivedalphabet, it has never been deciphered. The Etruscans were highly sea-faring, and traded withother civilizations throughout the Mediterranean. Although they were a culture unique from Greek culture,art historians divide the history of Etruscan art into periodsmirroring those of Greek art (Orientalizing, Archaic,Classical, and Hellenistic). Etruscan Region of Italy
  • 3. Orientalizing Period 700 600 BCE In the early first millennium BCE, the Etruscans emerged as a people distinct in language and culture from the other Italic peoples and Greeks. By the 600s BCE, the Etruscans traded metals (iron, tin, copper, silver) from their mines for foreign goods and began to produce jewelry and other luxury objects with motifs modeled on those found on imports from Mesopotamia. The golden fibula (or clasp) to the left is of Etruscan style, except for the motif of the marching lions. Over time, the increase in mining and metal-crafts changed Etruscan civilization from agrarian (farm-based) to metropolitan (city-based). Fibula with Orientalizing lionsfrom the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Sorbo necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy c. 650 BCE. Gold, 1
  • 4. Archaic Period 600 480 BCE The sixth century (500s) BCE was the apex of Etruscanpower (Etruscan kings ruled Rome until 509). The Etruscans admired Greek art and architecture but didnot copy Greek works. Instead, they adapted outsideinfluences into their own unique style. Although Etruscans were master metal smiths, their figuresculptures were typically of terra cotta. Etruscan Region of Italy
  • 5. Etruscan Temples Because Etruscan temples were made of wood and mud-brick, only the foundations of a few remain today.However, some ceramic models, as well as descriptions bythe Roman architect Vitruvius, give us some idea. Temple was built on a podium (platform) with a singlestaircase in front. The pronaos or portico took up half of the floorplan, withthe cellas (usually 3) taking up the back half. The cellas were usually for the 3 primary Etruscan gods:Tinia (Zeus), Uni (Hera), and Menrva (Athena). The columns and pediment were relatively plain (mostclosely resembling the Doric order, but without fluting andwith columnar bases), but the roofs were decorated withmany painted life-size terra cotta figures.
  • 6. Apollo (from Veii) This statue is the best preserved temple rooftop statue,from the roof of the Portonaccio temple in Veii, Italy. Apollo (from Veii) Called Apulu by the Etruscans From the roof of the Portonaccio temple, May have been sculpted by Vulca of Veii, the only Veii, Italy.identified Etruscan sculptor of the era. c. 500 BCE. 5 11 Reminiscent of a kouros statue, but with animated posing Painted terra cottaand (somewhat) more naturalistic musculature. Originally adorned the roof of a Roman shrine/temple,built by the last Roman king (who was of Etruscan heritage),Tarquinius Superbus (the Arrogant), who ordered a templemade dedicated to Jupiter (Zeus), Juno (Hera), and Minerva(Athena). The roof sculpture originally depicted Apollo chasing afterHerakles, who had one of Artemis (Apollos twin sisters)sacred hinds.
  • 7. Sarcophagus from Cerveteri A sarcophagus is a large, carved container for a corpse (usually made of stone, and designed to stay above ground). This one is made of four separately cast and fired terra cotta sections. This one contains only the ashes of the people, even though it is large enough to hold a full corpse. Cremation was the most common funerary treatment at the time. It depicts a husband and wife reclining together on a couch during a symposium (banquet). Although the features are stylized, the couple looks animated and personable, a far cry from the stiff Egyptian kouroi and Egyptian ka statues. Sarcophagus with a Reclining Couple Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, Italyc. 520 BCE. Painted terra cotta. 6 7 long.
  • 8. Etruscan Women Etruscan women had a number of freedoms and liberties that their Greek and Roman counterparts did not, including: -They could attend banquets (symposiums) and recline with their husband on a common couch (Greek women were confined to the house for most of the day). Only men, boys, slave girls, and prostitutes could attend Greek symposiums. -They could attend sporting events -The names of both the father and mother were recorded when a deceased person was commemorated (as on a tombstone) -Women could legally own property independently -Etruscan women retained their own names -They may have had a high level of literacy (based on theSarcophagus from Cerveteri inscriptions on Etruscan mirrors and other toiletry items)
  • 9. Tomb of the Leopards The women are depicted with lighter skin; the men aredepicted with darker skin. Leopards guard the scene fromabove. Scene depicts a banquet of Etruscan couples, completewith servers bearing food and musicians. The man on the far right holds an egg, the symbol forregeneration. The scene depicts a celebration of a life well-lived, rather than a sad scene of mourning. Etruscans carved their tombs out of living stone, but theirtemples were constructed of temporary materials such asmud-brick and wood. This is counter to the Greek traditionsof building permanent temples, but only burying their deadin simple graves. Tomb of the Leopards Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, Italy. c. 480 BCE
  • 10. Classical and Hellenistic Periods 480 89 BCE In 509, the Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquinius the Arrogant) was overthrown in a popular uprising, and was replaced by a new Republican form of government. Greek victory against the Etruscan fleet off the coast of Cumae in 474 BCE ended Etruscan domination of the sea, and marked the beginning of the decline of Etruria. Rome destroyed Veii in 396 and conquered Cerveteri in 2743. All of Italy became Romanized by 89 BCE. A very different, more somber mood pervades Etruscan art.Etruscan Region of Italy
  • 11. Tomb of the Reliefs The Banditaccia necropolis of Cerveteri, Italy, is composed of numerous enormous mound-shaped tombs called tumuli (singular: tumulus). The tumuli were carved out of the bedrock (a type of limestone called tufa) in a series of chambers in a way that