etruscan to early christian

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  • 1.Etruscan to Early Christian

2. Etruscan Art

  • Capitoline Wolf
  • Tense, watchful animal
  • Spare flanks, gaunt ribs
  • Alert eyes and ears, fierce and protective
  • May not have had children; current children made in the Renaissance
  • Expresses defiance, snarls
  • Not wolf-like: wolves have no manes nor locks shaped like hooks
  • Wolf-like in its long pointed nose, small head, short ears, and strong forelegs
  • Apollofrom Veii
  • Terracotta
  • Stood on the roof of a temple
  • Greek Archaic in inspiration, but having a warmer sense of personality
  • Meant to be seen from below
  • Strides forward
  • Tightly fitted drapery

http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/aplu.html 3. 4.

  • Sarcophagus from Cerveteri
  • Banquet scene
  • Made of separate terracotta pieces then joined together
  • Ashes buried inside
  • Symbiotic relationship emphasized: man protects woman with a gentle hand on shoulder; woman feeds man with her gesture
  • Familial union
  • Broad shoulders, large chests of men, legs seem neglected
  • Strange turn of the body
  • Greek Archaic smile
  • C. 520 BCE

5.

  • Apollofrom Veii
  • Terracotta
  • Stood on the roof of a temple
  • Greek Archaic in inspiration, but having a warmer sense of personality
  • Meant to be seen from below
  • Strides forward
  • Tightly fitted drapery

6. The inside of the lid of the tomb, a man diving into the water from a tall structure. What does it represent? The diving into the world of the dead (into the Okeanos)? Another interpretation is that the columns represent the Pillars of Hercules as a symbol of the end of the world maybe a symbol of the end of life 7.

  • Tomb of the Leopards and Tomb of the Reliefs
  • Underground tomb chambers reflect homes of the living
  • Buried in necropolises
  • Brightly painted walls, or high relief carving of walls
  • Everyday items on walls
  • Carved stone seats to sit on
  • Paintings of banquets and entertainment

8.

  • Circa 30 CE Jesus Crucified
  • 65 CE Peter and Paul executed
  • 312 Constantine Converts after the Battle of the Mulvian Bridge
  • 313 Edict of Milan (a legal religion)
  • 325 Council of Nicea
  • 381 The co-emperors Gratian and Theodosius publish their edict that the doctrine of the Trinity is to be the official state religion.
  • 410 Rome is Sacked
  • 430 -St. Augustine Dies
  • 476 Last Western Emperor Romulus Augustus

9. Rome, c. 80 B.C.

  • Head of a Roman Patrician
  • Bust
  • Severe, unwavering, resolute
  • Knowledgeable, respected
  • Romans felt the head was a good enough representation of a person
  • Traditional family values
  • Influenced by Hellenistic Greek art
  • Shows the virtues of old age
  • Was old age enhanced on the figure?

10.

  • Temple Virilis, Rome
  • Temple to the Roman god of harbors, Portunus
  • Etruscan influence in the elevation of the temple on a pedestal
  • One main entrance in the front
  • Wide flight of stairs
  • Ionic columns
  • Roman desire for big interiors pushes the walls out to meet the columns
  • Influence of the Greeks in overall design

11. 12. Forum at Pompeii c. 79 AD 13. Pompeii

  • Explosion by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried Pompeii
  • Forum
  • Large rectangular public square in center of town
  • Surrounded by a colonnade
  • Temple of Jupiter focus of forum
  • Surrounding the forum are the buildings that housed the business, government and religious activities of Pompeii

14. Pompeii

  • Roman Houses
  • Faced inward
  • Interiors lit from atrium, few windows on exterior
  • Atrium formed the opening for rainwater to fall in the impluvium
  • Columns surround impluvium
  • Interiors of rooms are painted; open up interior space
  • Shops are outside the house facing the street
  • Windows are small and limited in number

15.

  • Ixion Room
  • Fresco, linear perspective, atmospheric perspective
  • Foreshortening
  • Ixion murdered his father-in-law and planned to seduce Hera
  • Zeus struck him with a thunderbolt and ordered him to be tied to a wheel in hell
  • Scheme of red and white fields
  • On bottom painted to resemble marble slabs
  • On top, architectural vistas that do not align to a single viewpoint
  • Thin delicate motifs alternate with framed mythological scenes

16. Villa of the Mysteries

  • Dionysiac Mystery Frieze
  • Fresco, Foreshortening
  • 2 ndPompeian Style painting
  • Large figures in a frieze-like format
  • Initiation rites into the female cult of Dionysos
  • Figures act out mystery rites
  • Painted marble panels at bottom, from the First Pompeian style of painting
  • Bright Pompeian red background pushes figures forward
  • No linear perspective, but three dimensional illusionism
  • Figures interact with each other on adjacent wall spaces

4 thPompeian Style 17. Head of Emperor Augustus First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James S. Holden; 24.101This portrait of Rome's first emperor is an idealized, youthful image, which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. It follows the portrait well known from a marble statue of Augustus, discovered in the villa of Augustus's wife Livia outside of Rome. That handsome likeness was the source of inspiration for hundreds of portraits of the emperor all over the expanding Roman Empire. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor. 18. Roman Early Imperial Art

  • Augustus of Primaporta
  • Idealization, generalized face
  • No personal idiosyncrasies
  • Contrapposto
  • Suggests a god and a man
  • Bare feet gives him heroic stature
  • Sharp eyebrow edges
  • Oratorical pose
  • On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia
  • Back not carved, placed in a niche
  • Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus great ancestor
  • Sword in hand is modern
  • He was 76 when it was carved

19. 20. Rome, c.15 CE

  • Augustus of Primaporta
  • Idealization, generalized face
  • No personal idiosyncrasies
  • Contrapposto
  • Suggests a god and a man
  • Bare feet gives him heroic stature
  • Sharp eyebrow edges
  • Oratorical pose
  • On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia
  • Back not carved, placed in a niche
  • Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus great ancestor
  • Sword in hand is modern
  • He was 76 when it was carved

21.

  • Ara Pacis and Procession of the Imperial Family
  • Altar of Peace
  • Delicately carved acanthus leaf patterns on the exterior
  • Altar connected with Augustus homecoming after a long absence
  • Romans appear as a ruling class, not as gods
  • Actual identifiable Romans depicted
  • Children are depicted as children, not shown as small adults
  • Crowding of figures in processional, not classically dispersed
  • Augustus passed laws to promote family values
  • Tellus Relief
  • Mother Earth suckles her children
  • Personifications of earth, wind, fire and water rest at peace around her
  • Roman peace brings bounty to all

22. Roman Emperors

  • Ceasar Augustus
  • Tiberius
  • Nero
  • Vespasian
  • Titus
  • Trajan
  • Hadrian
  • Marcus Aurelius
  • Diocletian
  • Constantine
  • 27 BC 14AD
  • 14 37
  • 54-68
  • 69 79
  • 79 81
  • 98 117
  • 117 -138
  • 161 180