eucalyptus: an open-source infrastructure for cloud computing rich wolski chris grzegorczyk, dan...
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Eucalyptus: An Open-source Infrastructure for Cloud ComputingRich WolskiChris Grzegorczyk, Dan Nurmi, Graziano Obertelli, Woody Rollins, Sunil Soman, Lamia Youseff, Dmitrii ZagorodnovThe Eucalyptus Project
Exciting Weather Forecasts
Commercial Cloud Formation
What is a Cloud?SLAsWeb ServicesVirtualization
Public Clouds (Now)Large scale infrastructure available on a rental basisOperating System virtualization (e.g. Xen) provides CPU isolationRoll-your-own network provisioning provides network isolationLocally specific storage abstractionsFully customer self-serviceService Level Agreements (SLAs) are advertizedRequests are accepted and resources granted via web servicesCustomers access resources remotely via the InternetAccountability is e-commerce basedWeb-based transactionPay-as-you-go and flat-rate subscriptionCustomer service, refunds, etc.
How do they work?Public clouds are opaqueWhat applications will work well in a cloud?Many of the advantages offered by Public Clouds appear useful for on premise ITSelf-service provisioningLegacy supportFlexible resource allocationWhat extensions or modifications are required to support a wider variety of services and applications?Data assimilationMultiplayer gamingMobile devices
Open Source Cloud InfrastructureSimpleTransparent => need to see into the cloudScalable => complexity often limits scalabilityExtensibleNew application classes and service classes may require new featuresClouds are new => need to extend while retaining useful featuresCommodity-basedMust leverage extensive catalog of open source software offeringsNew, unstable, and unsupported infrastructure design is a barrier to uptake, experimentation, and adoptionEasyTo install => system administration time is expensiveTo maintain => system administration time is really expensive
On a Clear DayGlobus/NimbusClient-side cloud-computing interface to Globus-enabled TeraPort cluster at U of CBased on GT4 and the Globus Virtual Workspace ServiceShares upsides and downsides of Globus-based grid technologiesEnomalism (now called ECP)Start-up company distributing open source REST APIsReservoirEuropean open cloud projectMany layers of cloud services and toolsAmbitious and wide-reaching but not yet accessible as an implementation
Elastic Utility Computing Architecture Linking Your Programs To Useful SystemsWeb services based implementation of elastic/utility/cloud computing infrastructureLinux image hosting ala Amazon How do we know if it is a cloud?Try and emulate an existing cloud: Amazon AWSFunctions as a software overlayExisting installation should not be violated (too much)Focus on installation and maintenanceSystem Administrators are people too.
Goals for EucalyptusFoster greater understanding and uptake of cloud computing Provide a vehicle for extending what is known about the utility model of computingExperimentation vehicle prior to buying commercial servicesProvide development, debugging, and tech preview platform for Public CloudsHomogenize local IT environment with Public CloudsAWS functionality locally makes moving using Amazon AWS easier, cheaper, and more sustainableProvide a basic software development platform for the open source communityE.g. the Linux ExperienceNot a designed as a replacement technology for AWS or any other Public Cloud service
Open Source Cloud Anatomy
ExtensibilitySimple architecture and open internal APIsClient-side interfaceAmazons AWS interface and functionality (familiar and testable)NetworkingVirtual private network per cloudMust function as an overlay => cannot supplant local networkingSecurityMust be compatible with local security policiesPackaging, installation, maintenancesystem administration staff is an important constituency for uptake
Notes from the Open Source CloudPrivate clouds are really hybrid cloudsUsers want private clouds to export the same APIs as the public cloudsIn the Enterprise, the storage model is keyScalable blob storage doesnt quite fit the notion of data file.Cloud Federation is a policy mediation problemNo good way to translate SLAs in a cloud allocation chainCloud Bursting will only work if SLAs are congruentCustomer SLAs allow applications to consider cost as first-class principleBuy the computational, network, and storage capabilities that are required
Cloud MythologiesCloud computing infrastructure is just a web service interface to operating system virtualization.Im running Xen in my data center Im running a private cloud.Cloud computing imposes a significant performance penalty over bare metal provisioning.I wont be able to run a private cloud because my users will not tolerate the performance hit.Clouds and Grids are equivalentIn the mid 1990s, the term grid was coined to describe technologies that would allow consumers to obtain computing power on demand.
Clouds and VirtualizationOperating System virtualization (Xen, KVM, VMWare, HyperV) is only apparent for IaaSAppEngine = BigTableHypervisors virtualize CPU, Memory, and local device access as a single virtual machine (VM)IaaS Cloud allocation isSet of VMsSet of storage resourcesPrivate networkAllocation is atomicRequires more thanA set of Hypervisors
Cloud SpeedExtensive performance study using HPC applications and benchmarksTwo questions:What is the performance impact of virtualization?What is the performance impact of cloud infrastructure?Tested Xen, Eucalyptus, and AWS (small SLA)Many answers:Random access disk is slower with XenCPU bound can be faster with Xen -> depends on configurationKernel version is far more importantEucalyptus imposes no statistically detectable overheadAWS small appears to throttle network bandwidth and (maybe) disk bandwidth -> $0.10 / CPU hour
Gratuitous Performance Slide
Clouds Versus GridsRichs assertion: Clouds and Grids are distinctCloudFull private cluster is provisionedIndividual user can only get a tiny fraction of the total resource poolNo support for cloud federation except through the client interfaceOpaque with respect to resourcesGridBuilt so that individual users can get most, if not all of the resources in a single requestMiddleware approach takes federation as a first principleResources are exposed, often as bare metalThese differences mandate different architectures for each
Open Source Cloud EcosystemAppScaleGoogle App Engine inside EC2/EucalyptusMultiple scalable database back endshttp://appscale.cs.ucsb.eduRightScaleLocal enterprise focused on providing client tools as SaaS hosted in AWSTuring Test for EucalyptusCan RightScale tell that it isnt talking to EC2?Uses the REST interfaceAvailable for EPChttp://eucalyptus.rightscale.comNext release any Eucalyptus cloud will be able to register with a free RightScale image
Our Roadmap5/28/08 Release 1.0 shipped8/28/08 EC2 API and initial installation model in V1.3Completes overlay version12/16/08 Security groups, Elastic IPs, AMI, S3 in V1.4
4/09/09 EBS, Metadata service in V1.54/23/09 - Ubuntu release6/1/09 Final feature release as V1.6 Completes AWS specification as of 1/1/20097/15/09 Final bug-fix releasecore opens for community contributions
Thanks and More InformationNational Science FoundationVGrADS ProjectSDSC, CNSI, IU, Rice UniversityRightScale.com The Eucalyptus Development Team at UCSB isChris Grzegorczyk -- email@example.comDan Nurmi -- firstname.lastname@example.orgGraziano Obertelli -- email@example.comSunil Soman -- firstname.lastname@example.orgLamia Youseff -- email@example.comDmitrii Zagorodnov -- firstname.lastname@example.org@cs.ucsb.eduhttp://eucalyptus.cs.ucsb.edu
Overview of the solution-- summary of how it meets the requirements
In solving this problem, what do we hope to achieve?-- what good things will happen if we succeed?
What challenges do we need to meet to solve the problem?-- enumerate them