Evolution of the World Map

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GEOGRAPHY 1001 INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY Joseph Naumann -- UMSL. Evolution of the World Map. A Antiquity B Middle Ages C Age of Discovery D Modern Era. Antiquity. Herodotus (circa 450 BC) Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry. Father of geography. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Evolution of the World MapA AntiquityB Middle AgesC Age of DiscoveryD Modern EraGEOGRAPHY 1001 INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHYJoseph Naumann -- UMSL</p></li><li><p>AntiquityHerodotus (circa 450 BC)Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry.Father of geography.Basic physical and human geography.Exploration and travel instead of geometry.Coined the terms Europe, Asia and Africa (Libya).</p></li><li><p>Herodotus (450 B.C.) (recreation)</p></li><li><p>AntiquityAristotle (circa 350 BC)Considered physical elements such as the temperature and winds as factors of the human habitat.Division of the world in 3 climatic zones.Relationships between the environment (temperature) and human habitat.One of the first physical geographer.EquatorTorridEkumeneFrigid</p></li><li><p>AntiquityEratosthenes (circa 250 BC)Formally assumed the earth was round.Calculated the circumference of the earth.40,572 km versus the exact figure of 40,091 km.Developed the concepts of parallel and meridian.Consequently introduced the concept of geographical location.Created modern cartography (cartographic plane).</p></li><li><p>Eratosthenes (194 B.C.) (reconstruction)</p></li><li><p>AntiquityPtolemy (circa 150 AD)Refined the coordinate system.Inventory of population and resources.Describing the world.8,000 entries.Relationships between the physical and human elements.Created map projections.</p></li><li><p>Ptolemy's (150 AD) Ulm edition world map, 1482</p></li><li><p>Middle AgesPeriod of declineThe cartographic and regional approach was lost in Europe.Representation of the world was Christianized.Orthodoxy replaced objective observation and analysis.T and O Maps.Greek and Roman knowledge kept by the Byzantine Empire and by the Arabs.</p></li><li><p>Macrobian World Map (5th Century)</p></li><li><p>Redrawing of Cosmas Indicopleustes' World (6th Century)</p></li><li><p>World Map of Guido of Pisa, 1119 A.D.</p></li><li><p>Jerusalem, the Center of the World</p></li><li><p>Age of DiscoveryExploration and innovationThe 15th and 16th centuries were characterized by numerous maritime explorations.A commercial expansion of European nations.Several technical innovations.The compass, more precise maps.Larger ships (they passed from 200 to 600 tons during the sixteenth century), better ship structures and the rudder.Insure a safe, fast and therefore profitable maritime navigation.Creation of the first accurate world maps.</p></li><li><p>Central America, 1514</p></li><li><p>Mappa Geographia Universalis (H Sherer 1703)</p></li><li><p>Modern EraA complete world mapEarly 20th century.Complete and accurate view of the world.Coordinate systems.National inventories of resources.Information technologiesUse of remote sensing (aerial photographs and remote sensing).G.I.S. &amp; Digital maps.</p></li><li><p>"The Living Earth" Satellite Composite, 1995</p></li><li><p>Problem of DistortionAll maps, by their very nature contain some type of distortion.Converting a 3-dimensional spherical surface to a 2-dimensional flat surface.</p></li><li><p>Essentials of a good mapTitle view knows what to expectGrid allows for easy, accurate locatingDirection arrow or compass rose to orient the map to realityScale to allow one to relate distances on the map to the actual distances on the earth.Key or Legend so the viewer can understand what the symbols and colors represent.</p><p>Source: adapted from the PowerPoint slides of deBlij &amp; Muller, 11th edition.Herodotus (circa 450 BC)Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry.Father of geography.Basic physical and human geography.Exploration and travel instead of geometry.Coined the terms Europe, Asia and Africa (Libya).Formally assumed the earth was round.Calculated the circumference of the earth.40,572 km versus the exact figure of 40,091 km.Developed the concepts of parallel and meridian.Consequently introduced the concept of geographical location.Created modern cartography (cartographic plane).Ptolemy (circa 150)Refined the coordinate system.Inventory of population and resources.Describing the world.8,000 entries.Relationships between the physical and human elements.Created map projections.Period of declineThe cartographic and regional approach was lost in Europe.Representation of the world was Christianized.Orthodoxy replaced objective observation and analysis.T and O Maps.Greek and Roman knowledge kept by the Byzantine Empire and by the Arabs.</p></li></ul>